Transcription profiling of mouse natural and induced regulatory T cells
ABSTRACT: The gene expression profile of peripheral Foxp3+ natural regulatory T cells isolated from Foxp3/EGFP bicistronic mice was compared to that of in vitro-induced regulatory T cells and to CD4+ conventional (Foxp3-) T cells. The role of the regulatory T cell transcription factor Foxp3 in shaping the transcriptosomes of natural and induced regulatory T cells was analyzed using mice expressing a mutant FOXP3-EGFP fusion protein (Foxp3deltaEGFP). We used gene expression microarrays to examine the transcriptional programs of natural and induced regulatory T cells and the function of Foxp3 in organizing the transcriptosomes of the respective cell type Experiment Overall Design: Conventional T cells and natural and induced regulatory T cells were derived from Foxp3/EGFP bicistronic mice and analyzed for their gene expression profile. Conventional T cells, regulatory T cell precursors (CD4+Foxp3deltaEGFP+) and induced regulatory T cell precursors (CD4+Foxp3deltaEGFP+) cells were deriv ed from Foxp3deltaEGFP mice
Project description:Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg), playing a crucial role in the maintenance of immune tolerance and prevention of autoimmune diseases, consist of thymus-derived naturally-occurring CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells (nTreg) and another CD4+Foxp3+ Treg cells that can be induced ex vivo with TGF-β (iTreg). Although both Treg subsets share similar phenotypes and functional characteristics, they also have potential biologic differences on their biology. However, the role of iTreg in regulating B cells of lupus disease mice remains unclear so far. The lupus-prone New Zealand Mixed 2328 (NZM2328) mouse, a recombinant inbred strain that originated from the crosses among New Zealand Black and New Zealand White mice and their progenies also develops Lupus Glomerulonephritis. NZM2328 mice develop autoantibodies and glomerulonephritis with female predominance similarly to humans with systemic lupus erythematosus. The lupus disease onset is usually around 3-4 months age. In our experiments, iTreg induced from NZM2328 lupus-prone mice (10-12 weeks old) and nTreg sorted from the thymus of 10-12 weeks old NZM2328 lupus-prone mice were adoptively transferred into old NZM2328 mice (>4 months age) with established lupus for 32 days. Totally, there were three groups including NZM2328 mice as model (receive PBS), NZM2328 mice received iTreg, and NZM2328 received nTreg. The serum IgG and IgM autoantibody were detected by autoantibodies microarrays (UTSW Medical Center Autoantigen Array) at days 0, 14, 32 after cell transfer. Our results demonstrated that adoptive transfer of iTreg had a superior effect than nTreg subset on suppressing lupus B cell responses in vivo.
Project description:The relative contribution of induced and natural Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (iTreg and nTreg cells, respectively) to the maintenance of tolerance is unknown. We examined their respective roles by in vivo adoptive transfer immunotherapy of newborn Foxp3-deficient BALB/c mice. Survival, weight gain, tissue infiltration, T cell activation, and the concentration of proinflammatory cytokines were used as outcome measurements. Treatment with iTreg cells alone was not successful. While effective in preventing death, treatment with nTreg cells alone was associated with chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Outcomes markedly improved when conventional T (Tconv) cells were transferred together with the nTreg cells, where 10% of the peripheral Treg cell pool was derived by in-situ conversion. This enhancement depended upon the capacity of Tconv cells to express Foxp3. The gene expression profile of in vivo derived iTreg cells was similar to the established nTreg cell genetic signature. These results identify iTreg cells as an essential regulatory subset that supplements tolerance maintained by nTreg cells. Purified cells sorted by flow cytometry from 4-8 treated mice(pooled EGFP+ Thy1.1+ iTreg cells with that of EGFP+ Thy1.1+ nTreg cells sorted from the spleens and lymph nodes of treated mice) were used to generate total RNA for each iTreg and nTreg array set, which was labeled and hybridized to Affymetrix 430 2.0 GeneChips in accordance to the manufacturer’s protocol. Three sets of arrays were performed, and the results were averaged. Both iTreg and nTreg array sets were compared to a) naïve CD4+EGFP– Tconv cells from Foxp3EGFP mice and b) in vitro derived iTreg cells 72 hours after Foxp3 induction, generated earlier. The subset of probe sets whose expression increased or decreased by twofold or more relative to Tconv cells as a common standard was identified and used for further analysis. Naïve CD4+EGFP– Tconv cells from Foxp3EGFP mice and in vitro derived iTreg cells 72 hours after Foxp3 induction datasets obtained from GSE14415: Naïve CD4+EGFP– Tconv cells from Foxp3EGFP mice: GSM360171 - GSM360173 In vitro derived iTreg cells 72 hours after Foxp3 induction: GSM360147 - GSM360151
Project description:The tumor microenvironment contains high frequencies of inflammatory regulatory T (Treg) cells. These Treg exhibit superior regulatory function compared with those from other environments such as the spleen, partially due to expression of anti-inflammatory interleukin-10. In order to gain insight into the origins and functional roles of different Treg subsets, we used whole genome microarray analysis to characterize tumor IL-10+ and tumor IL-10- Treg subsets obtained from VERT-X reporter mice bearing transplantable tumors, along with total tumor Treg and spleen Treg from FoxP3-EGFP reporter mice. Few genes were found to differ between IL-10+ and IL-10- tumor Treg subsets (29 upregulated, 88 downregulated), suggesting a common origin of each Treg subset. The specific gene expression profile of IL-10+ tumor Treg was associated with the tumor microenvironment and absent from spleen Treg, suggesting it to be driven by components of the inflammatory tumor microenvironment. The IL-10+ tumor Treg gene expression profile displayed upregulation of genes associated with a higher activation state and greater effector function. Pooled MC38 tumor tissue from VERT-X or FoxP3-EGFP reporter mice were used to obtain IL10+ tumor Treg (VERT-X), IL10- tumor Treg (VERT-X) and total tumor Treg (FoxP3-EGFP). Spleens from tumor-free FoxP3-EGFP mice were used for spleen Treg. Three experiments for each population gave a total 12 RNA samples.
Project description:Understanding human regulatory T cells (Tregs) heterogeneity may identify markers of disease pathogenesis and facilitate the development of optimized cellular therapeutics. To better elucidate human Treg subsets, we conducted direct transcriptional profiling of CD4+FOXP3+Helios+ thymic-derived Treg (tTreg) and CD4+FOXP3+Helios- peripherally-induced Treg (pTreg), followed by comparison to CD4+FOXP3-Helios- T conventional (Tconv) cells. This analysis revealed that the coinhibitory receptor T-cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif domain (TIGIT) was highly expressed on tTreg. In this study CD4 T cells were stained for the Treg-associated transcription factors FOXP3 and Helios, and subsequently FACS sorted to yield three populations: tTreg (CD4+FOXP3+Helios+), pTreg (CD4+FOXP3+Helios–) and the reference population Tconv (CD4+FOXP3–Helios–). A direct transcriptional profile was obtained from the recovered RNA from the populations defined as tTreg, pTreg, and Tconv.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (Treg) have been shown to adopt a catabolic metabolic programme with increased capacity for fatty acid oxidation fuelled oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). The role of Foxp3 in this metabolic shift is poorly understood. Here we show that Foxp3 was sufficient to induce a significant increase in the spare respiratory capacity of the cell, the extra OXPHOS capacity available to a cell to meet increased demands on energy in response to work. Foxp3-expressing cells were enhanced in their ability to utilise palmitate for respiration and, in addition, the activity of electron transport complexes I, II and IV were enhanced following Foxp3 expression. Foxp3 also imparts a selective advantage in ATP generation capacity, one that might be exploited as a source of adenosine for functional immunomodulation. In order to explore possible mechanisms for these differences in metabolism we conducted a quantitative proteomics study to compare the contribution of TGFβ and the transcription factor Foxp3 to the Treg proteome. We used quantitative mass spectrometry to examine differences between proteomes of nuclear and cytoplasmic Foxp3-containing CD4+ T cells from various sources with Foxp3- activated CD4 T cells, as well as Treg from human peripheral blood. Gene set enrichment analysis of our proteomic datasets demonstrated that Foxp3 expression is associated with a significant up regulation of several members of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. Not only does Foxp3 influence genes directly concerned with immune function, but also with the energy generating functions of Treg.
Project description:To clarify how Foxp3 regulates its target genes, we performed co-immunoprecipitation experiments and found that Foxp3 physically bound to AML1/Runx1 (Ono, M. et al, Nature, 2007). In this series of study, we compared gene regulations by AML1, wild type Foxp3, and a Foxp3 mutant with defective binding to AML1. Experiment Overall Design: CD4+ naive T cells were activated and retrovirally gene-transduced with either empty vector (pMCsIg), or AML1-, wild type Foxp3-, or an AML1-non binding mutant Foxp3-encoding vectors. Sixty hours after transfection, 5 x 10^6 GFP-expressing cells were sorted and total RNA was extracted. One cycle target labelling protocol was used for labelling RNA with biotin.
Project description:Regulatory T cells (Tregs) are responsible for limiting autoimmunity and chronic inflammation. Foxp3 is a transcription factor that acts as a master regulator of Treg development and function. A serendipitous observation led to the realization that a well-characterized Foxp3gfp reporter mouse, which expresses an N-terminal GFP-Foxp3 fusion protein, is a hypomorph that causes profoundly accelerated autoimmune diabetes on a NOD background. Although natural Treg development and in vitro function is not significantly altered in Foxp3gfp NOD and C57BL/6 mice, Treg fitness function in inflammatory environments is perturbed and TGFβ-induced Treg development reduced. Foxp3gfpis unable to interact with the histone acetyltransferase Tip60, the histone deacetylase HDAC7, and the Ikaros family zinc finger 4, Eos, which leads to reduced Foxp3 acetylation and enhanced K48-linked polyubiquitylation. Collectively this leads to an altered transcriptional landscape and reduced Foxp3-mediated gene repression, notably at the hallmark IL-2 promoter. Loss of controlled Foxp3-driven epigenetic modification leads to Treg insufficiency that causes autoimmunity in prone environments. 16 samples overall split between 2 genotypes (wild type and Foxp3 knock in) and two cell types (Tregs and Tconv)
Project description:The goal of this study was to compare the transcriptional changes evoked by Csnk2b-deficiency in Foxp3+ regulatory T cells Messenger RNA profiles of CD4+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells isolated from 8 week old wild type (WT) and Csnk2b-deficient mice were generated by deep sequencing in duplicate, using Illumina MiSeq
Project description:Project abstract: Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg) cells have important functions in suppressing immune cell activation and establishing normal immune homeostasis. How Treg cells maintain their identity is not completely understood. Here we show that Ndfip1, a co-activator of Nedd4-family E3 ubiquitin ligases, is required for Treg cell stability and function. Ndfip1 deletion in Treg cells disrupts immune homeostasis and results in autoinflammatory disease. Ndfip1-deficient Treg cells are highly proliferative and are more likely to lose Foxp3 expression to become IL-4-producing TH2 effector cells. Proteomic analyses indicate that Ndfip1 deficiency alters the metabolic signature of Treg cells. Metabolic profiling reveals elevated glycolysis and increased mTORC1 signalling. Additional data suggest that Ndfip1 restricts Treg cell metabolic capacity and IL-4 production via distinct mechanisms. Thus, Ndfip1 preserves Treg lineage stability by preventing the expansion of highly proliferative and metabolically active cells that can cause immunopathology via secretion of IL-4.
Project description:Natural CD4+FOXP3+ regulatory T (Treg) cells constitute a unique T-cell lineage that plays a pivotal role in maintaining immune homeostasis and immune tolerance. Recent studies provide evidence for the heterogeneity and plasticity of the Treg cell lineage. However, the fate of human Treg cells after loss of FOXP3 expression and the underlying epigenetic mechanisms remain to be fully elucidated. Here, we compared gene expression profiles and histone methylation status on two histone H3 lysine residues (H3K4me3 and H3K27me3) of expanded FOXP3+ and corresponding FOXP3-losing Treg cells. DGE assay showed that human Treg cells down-regulated Treg signature genes, whereas up-regulated a set of Th lineages-associated genes, especially for Th2, such as GATA3, GFI1 and IL13, after in vitro expansion. Furthermore, we found that reprogramming of Treg cells was associated with histone modifications, as shown by decreased abundance of permissive H3K4me3 within down-regulated Treg signature genes, such as FOXP3, CTLA4 and LRRC32 loci, although with no significant changes in H3K27me3 modification. Thus, our results indicate that human Treg cells could convert into a Th-like cells upon in vitro expansion, displaying a gene expression signature dominated by Th2 lineage associated genes, and the histone methylation might contribute to such conversion. mRNA profiles of in-vitro-expanded FOXP3+ Treg and FOXP3-losing Treg cells generated by deep sequencing.