Transcription profiling of rice indica after glycinebetaine-induced water-stress tolerance in codA-expressing transgenics
ABSTRACT: Glycinebetaine-induced water-stress tolerance in codA-expressing transgenic indica rice is associated with up-regulation of several stress responsive genes. Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a non-accumulator of glycinebetaine (GB), is highly susceptible to abiotic stress. Transgenic rice with chloroplast-targeted choline oxidase encoded by the codA gene from Arthrobacter globiformis has been evaluated for inheritance of transgene up to R5 generation and water-stress tolerance. During seedling, vegetative and reproductive stages, transgenic plants could maintain higher activity of photosystem II and they show better physiological performance, e.g. enhanced detoxification of reactive oxygen species compared to wild-type plants under water-stress. Survival rate and agronomic performance of transgenic plants is also better than wild-type following prolonged water-stress. Choline oxidase converts choline into glycinebetaine and H2O2 in a single step. It is possible that H2O2 /GB might activate stress response pathways and prepare transgenic plants to mitigate stress. To check this possibility, microarray-based transcriptome analysis of transgenic rice has been done. It unraveled altered expression of many genes involved in stress responses, signal transduction, gene regulation, hormone signaling and cellular metabolism. Overall, 165 genes show more than 2 folds up-regulation at P value <0.01 in transgenic rice. Out of these, at least 50 genes are known to be involved in plant stress response. Exogenous application of H2O2 or GB to wild-type plants also induces such genes. Our data show that metabolic engineering for GB is a promising strategy for introducing stress tolerance in crop plants and which could be imparted, in part, by H2O2- and/or GB-induced stress response genes. Experiment Overall Design: Rice (Oryza sativa L.), transgenic plants expressing codA gene from Arthrobacter globiformis were compared with untransformed plants at seedling level
Project description:Glycinebetaine-induced water-stress tolerance in codA-expressing transgenic indica rice is associated with up-regulation of several stress responsive genes. Rice (Oryza sativa L.), a non-accumulator of glycinebetaine (GB), is highly susceptible to abiotic stress. Transgenic rice with chloroplast-targeted choline oxidase encoded by the codA gene from Arthrobacter globiformis has been evaluated for inheritance of transgene up to R5 generation and water-stress tolerance. During seedling, vegetative and reproductive stages, transgenic plants could maintain higher activity of photosystem II and they show better physiological performance, e.g. enhanced detoxification of reactive oxygen species compared to wild-type plants under water-stress. Survival rate and agronomic performance of transgenic plants is also better than wild-type following prolonged water-stress. Choline oxidase converts choline into glycinebetaine and H2O2 in a single step. It is possible that H2O2 /GB might activate stress response pathways and prepare transgenic plants to mitigate stress. To check this possibility, microarray-based transcriptome analysis of transgenic rice has been done. It unraveled altered expression of many genes involved in stress responses, signal transduction, gene regulation, hormone signaling and cellular metabolism. Overall, 165 genes show more than 2 folds up-regulation at P value <0.01 in transgenic rice. Out of these, at least 50 genes are known to be involved in plant stress response. Exogenous application of H2O2 or GB to wild-type plants also induces such genes. Our data show that metabolic engineering for GB is a promising strategy for introducing stress tolerance in crop plants and which could be imparted, in part, by H2O2- and/or GB-induced stress response genes. Overall design: Rice (Oryza sativa L.), transgenic plants expressing codA gene from Arthrobacter globiformis were compared with untransformed plants at seedling level
Project description:Drought stress is a severe environmental factor that greatly restricts plant distribution and crop production. Recently, we have found that overexpressing AtWRKY57 enhanced drought tolerance in Arabidopsis thaliana. In this study, we further reported that the Arabidopsis WRKY57 transcription factor was able to confer drought tolerance to transgenic rice (Oryza sativa) plants. The enhanced drought tolerance of transgenic rice was resulted from the lower water loss rates, cell death, malondialdehyde contents and relative electrolyte leakage while a higher proline content and reactive oxygen species-scavenging enzyme activities was observed during stress conditions. Moreover, further investigation revealed that the expression levels of several stress-responsive genes were up-regulated in drought-tolerant transgenic rice plants, compared with those in wild-type plants. In addition to the drought tolerance, the AtWRKY57 over-expressing plants also had enhanced salt and PEG stress tolerances. Taken together, our study indicates that over-expressing AtWRKY57 in rice improved not only drought tolerance but also salt and PEG tolerance, demonstrating its potential role in crop improvement.
Project description:Although abscisic acid (ABA) is an important hormone that regulates seed dormancy, stomatal closure, plant development, as well as responses to environmental stimuli, the physiological mechanisms of ABA response to multiple stress in rice remain poorly understood. In the ABA biosynthetic pathway, 9-cis-epoxycarotenoid dioxygenase (NCED) is the key rate-limiting enzyme. Here, we report important functions of OsNCED3 in multi-abiotic stress tolerance in rice. The OsNCED3 is constitutively expressed in various tissues under normal condition, Its expression is highly induced by NaCl, PEG, and H2O2 stress, suggesting the roles for OsNCED3 in response to the multi-abiotic stress tolerance in rice. Compared with wild-type plants, nced3 mutants had earlier seed germination, longer post-germination seedling growth, increased sensitivity to water stress and H2O2 stress and increased stomata aperture under water stress and delayed leaf senescence. Further analysis found that nced3 mutants contained lower ABA content compared with wild-type plants, overexpression of OsNCED3 in transgenic plants could enhance water stress tolerance, promote leaf senescence and increase ABA content. We conclude that OsNCED3 mediates seed dormancy, plant growth, abiotic stress tolerance, and leaf senescence by regulating ABA biosynthesis in rice; and may provide a new strategy for improving the quality of crop.
Project description:Drought is a major environmental factor that limits plant growth and crop productivity. Genetic engineering is an effective approach to improve drought tolerance in various crops, including rice (Oryza sativa). Functional characterization of relevant genes is a prerequisite when identifying candidates for such improvements. We investigated OsSGL (Oryza sativa Stress tolerance and Grain Length), a novel DUF1645 domain-containing protein from rice. OsSGL was up-regulated by multiple stresses and localized to the nucleus. Transgenic plants over-expressing or hetero-expressing OsSGL conferred significantly improved drought tolerance in transgenic rice and Arabidopsis thaliana, respectively. The overexpressing plants accumulated higher levels of proline and soluble sugars but lower malondialdehyde (MDA) contents under osmotic stress. Our RNA-sequencing data demonstrated that several stress-responsive genes were significantly altered in transgenic rice plants. We unexpectedly observed that those overexpressing rice plants also had extensive root systems, perhaps due to the altered transcript levels of auxin- and cytokinin-associated genes. These results suggest that the mechanism by which OsSGL confers enhanced drought tolerance is due to the modulated expression of stress-responsive genes, higher accumulations of osmolytes, and enlarged root systems.
Project description:The cultivation of rice (Oryza sativa L.), a major food crop, requires ample water (30 % of the fresh water available worldwide), and its productivity is greatly affected by drought, the most significant environmental factor. Much research has focussed on identifying quantitative trait loci, stress-regulated genes and transcription factors that will contribute towards the development of climate-resilient/tolerant crop plants in general and rice in particular. The transcription factor DREB1A, identified from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, has been reported to enhance stress tolerance against drought stress. We developed transgenic rice plants with AtDREB1A in the background of indica rice cultivar Samba Mahsuri through Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The AtDREB1A gene was stably inherited and expressed in T1 and T2 plants and in subsequent generations, as indicated by the results of PCR, Southern blot and RT-PCR analyses. Expression of AtDREB1A was induced by drought stress in transgenic rice lines, which were highly tolerant to severe water deficit stress in both the vegetative and reproductive stages without affecting their morphological or agronomic traits. The physiological studies revealed that the expression of AtDREB1A was associated with an increased accumulation of the osmotic substance proline, maintenance of chlorophyll, increased relative water content and decreased ion leakage under drought stress. Most of the homozygous lines were highly tolerant to drought stress and showed significantly a higher grain yield and spikelet fertility relative to the nontransgenic control plants under both stressed and unstressed conditions. The improvement in drought stress tolerance in combination with agronomic traits is very essential in high premium indica rice cultivars, such as Samba Mahsuri, so that farmers can benefit in times of seasonal droughts and water scarcity.
Project description:The Drought and Salt Tolerance gene (DST) encodes a C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor, which negatively regulates salt tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa). Phylogenetic analysis of six homologues of DST genes in different plant species revealed that DST genes were conserved evolutionarily. Here, the rice DST gene was linked to an SRDX domain for gene expression repression based on the Chimeric REpressor gene-Silencing Technology (CRES-T) to make a chimeric gene (OsDST-SRDX) construct and introduced into perennial ryegrass by Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. Integration and expression of the OsDST-SRDX in transgenic plants were tested by PCR and RT-PCR, respectively. Transgenic lines overexpressing the OsDST-SRDX fusion gene showed obvious phenotypic differences and clear resistance to salt-shock and to continuous salt stresses compared to non-transgenic plants. Physiological analyses including relative leaf water content, electrolyte leakage, proline content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, H2O2 content and sodium and potassium accumulation indicated that the OsDST-SRDX fusion gene enhanced salt tolerance in transgenic perennial ryegrass by altering a wide range of physiological responses. To our best knowledge this study is the first report of utilizing Chimeric Repressor gene-Silencing Technology (CRES-T) in turfgrass and forage species for salt-tolerance improvement.
Project description:Arabidopsis PP2C belonging to group A have been extensively worked out and known to negatively regulate ABA signaling. However, rice (Oryza sativa) orthologs of Arabidopsis group A PP2C are scarcely characterized functionally. We have identified a group A PP2C from rice (OsPP108), which is highly inducible under ABA, salt and drought stresses and localized predominantly in the nucleus. Genetic analysis revealed that Arabidopsis plants overexpressing OsPP108 are highly insensitive to ABA and tolerant to high salt and mannitol stresses during seed germination, root growth and overall seedling growth. At adult stage, OsPP108 overexpression leads to high tolerance to salt, mannitol and drought stresses with far better physiological parameters such as water loss, fresh weight, chlorophyll content and photosynthetic potential (Fv/Fm) in transgenic Arabidopsis plants. Expression profile of various stress marker genes in OsPP108 overexpressing plants revealed interplay of ABA dependent and independent pathway for abiotic stress tolerance. Overall, this study has identified a potential rice group A PP2C, which regulates ABA signaling negatively and abiotic stress signaling positively. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing this gene might provide an answer to the problem of low crop yield and productivity during adverse environmental conditions.
Project description:Glutaredoxins (GRXs) modulate redox-dependent signaling pathways and have emerged as key mediators in plant responses to environmental stimuli. Here we report that RNAi-mediated suppression of Oryza sativa GRXS17 (OsGRXS17) improved drought tolerance in rice. Gene expression studies showed that OsGRXS17 was present throughout the plant and that transcript abundance increased in response to drought stress and abscisic acid (ABA) treatment. Localization studies, utilizing GFP-OsGRXS17 fusion proteins, indicated that OsGRXS17 resides in both the cytoplasm and the nuclear envelope. Under drought stress conditions, rice plants with reduced OsGRXS17 expression showed lower rates of water loss and stomatal conductance, higher relative water content, and enhanced survival compared to wild-type controls. Further characterization of the OsGRXS17 down-regulated plants revealed an elevation in H2O2 production within the guard cells, increased sensitivity to ABA, and a reduction in stomatal apertures. The findings demonstrate a critical link between OsGRXS17, the modulation of guard cell H2O2 concentrations, and stomatal closure, expanding our understanding of the mechanisms governing plant responses to drought.
Project description:Nitric oxide (NO) has been shown to play an important role in the plant response to biotic and abiotic stresses in Arabidopsis mutants with lower or higher levels of endogenous NO. The exogenous application of NO donors or scavengers has also suggested an important role for NO in plant defense against environmental stress. In this study, rice plants under drought and high salinity conditions showed increased nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and NO levels. Overexpression of rat neuronal NO synthase (nNOS) in rice increased both NOS activity and NO accumulation, resulting in improved tolerance of the transgenic plants to both drought and salt stresses. nNOS-overexpressing plants exhibited stronger water-holding capability, higher proline accumulation, less lipid peroxidation and reduced electrolyte leakage under drought and salt conditions than wild rice. Moreover, nNOS-overexpressing plants accumulated less H2O2, due to the observed up-regulation of OsCATA, OsCATB and OsPOX1. In agreement, the activities of CAT and POX were higher in transgenic rice than wild type. Additionally, the expression of six tested stress-responsive genes including OsDREB2A, OsDREB2B, OsSNAC1, OsSNAC2, OsLEA3 and OsRD29A, in nNOS-overexpressing plants was higher than that in the wild type under drought and high salinity conditions. Taken together, our results suggest that nNOS overexpression suppresses the stress-enhanced electrolyte leakage, lipid peroxidation and H2O2 accumulation, and promotes proline accumulation and the expression of stress-responsive genes under stress conditions, thereby promoting increased tolerance to drought and salt stresses.
Project description:Abscisic acid-, stress-, and ripening-induced (ASR) genes are involved in responding to abiotic stresses, but their precise roles in enhancing grain yield under stress conditions remain to be determined. We cloned a rice (Oryza sativa) ASR gene, OsASR1, and characterized its function in rice plants. OsASR1 expression was induced by abscisic acid (ABA), salt, and drought treatments. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing OsASR1 displayed improved water regulation under salt and drought stresses, which was associated with osmolyte accumulation, improved modulation of stomatal closure, and reduced transpiration rates. OsASR1-overexpressing plants were hypersensitive to exogenous ABA and accumulated higher endogenous ABA levels under salt and drought stresses, indicating that OsASR1 is a positive regulator of the ABA signaling pathway. The growth of OsASR1-overexpressing plants was superior to that of wild-type (WT) plants under paddy field conditions when irrigation was withheld, likely due to improved modulation of stomatal closure via modified ABA signaling. The transgenic plants had higher grain yields than WT plants for four consecutive generations. We conclude that OsASR1 has a crucial role in ABA-mediated regulation of stomatal closure to conserve water under salt- and drought-stress conditions, and OsASR1 overexpression can enhance salinity and drought tolerance, resulting in improved crop yields.