Fetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in Cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomide
ABSTRACT: EXPERIMENT: The animal experiments were performed at Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories (SNBL), Ltd. (Kagoshima, Japan) in compliance with the Guideline for Animal Experimentation (1987), and in accordance with the Law Concerning the Protection and Control of Animals (1973) and the Standards Relating to the Care and Management of Experimental Animals (1980). This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of SNBL and performed in accordance with the ethics criteria contained in the bylaws of the SNBL committee. Each female monkey was paired with a male of proven fertility for one day between day 11 and day 15 of the menstrual cycle. Pregnant females, aged 5-8 years and weighing 2.84-3.76 kg on day 22 of gestation, were allocated randomly to two groups, each with three monkeys, and housed individually. The monkeys were orally dosed with (±)-thalidomide (Lot no. SDH7273/SDJ3347, Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan) at 0 or 20 mg/kg by oral intubation on day 26 of gestation, which was during the critical period for thalidomide-induced teratogenesis [Delahunt and Lassen, 1964; Hendrickx, 1973]. Dosage was adjusted to the body weight on day 22 of gestation and the drug was packed in a gelatin capsule. Control monkeys received the capsule only. ANIMAL MODEL: Macaca fascicularis INTERVAL: NON. PLATFORM: Proprietary Affymetrix NHP GeneChip® Array for Cynomolgus genome derived from Biogen Idec Keywords = Developmental Keywords = Monkeys Keywords = Thalidomide TFetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomidechannel oligonucleotide (Affymetrix) platform.
Project description:EXPERIMENT: The animal experiments were performed at Shin Nippon Biomedical Laboratories (SNBL), Ltd. (Kagoshima, Japan) in compliance with the Guideline for Animal Experimentation (1987), and in accordance with the Law Concerning the Protection and Control of Animals (1973) and the Standards Relating to the Care and Management of Experimental Animals (1980). This study was approved by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee of SNBL and performed in accordance with the ethics criteria contained in the bylaws of the SNBL committee. Each female monkey was paired with a male of proven fertility for one day between day 11 and day 15 of the menstrual cycle. Pregnant females, aged 5-8 years and weighing 2.84-3.76 kg on day 22 of gestation, were allocated randomly to two groups, each with three monkeys, and housed individually. The monkeys were orally dosed with (±)-thalidomide (Lot no. SDH7273/SDJ3347, Wako Pure Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka, Japan) at 0 or 20 mg/kg by oral intubation on day 26 of gestation, which was during the critical period for thalidomide-induced teratogenesis [Delahunt and Lassen, 1964; Hendrickx, 1973]. Dosage was adjusted to the body weight on day 22 of gestation and the drug was packed in a gelatin capsule. Control monkeys received the capsule only. ANIMAL MODEL: Macaca fascicularis INTERVAL: NON. PLATFORM: Proprietary Affymetrix NHP GeneChip® Array for Cynomolgus genome derived from Biogen Idec Keywords = Developmental Keywords = Monkeys Keywords = Thalidomide Overall design: TFetal malformations and early embryonic gene expression response in cynomolgus monkeys maternally exposed to thalidomidechannel oligonucleotide (Affymetrix) platform.
Project description:Vedolizumab, a humanized monoclonal antibody approved for the treatment of adults with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease, targets α4β7 integrin and selectively blocks gut-specific lymphocyte trafficking. The potential effects of vedolizumab on development were assessed by standard preclinical toxicity studies in rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys. A single infusion of vedolizumab (0, 10, 30, or 100 mg/kg) was administered intravenously to pregnant rabbits on gestational day 7; rabbits were monitored to gestational day 29. Vedolizumab (0, 10, or 100 mg/kg) was administered intravenously every 2 weeks to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys beginning on gestational day 20 with the last dose on gestational day 132 (9 doses total). In rabbits, vedolizumab did not affect maternal net body weight or net gains, gravid uterine weights, or mean maternal food consumption, nor did it affect intrauterine growth or fetal survival. There were also no vedolizumab effects on embryo-fetal development compared to controls. In cynomolgus monkeys, there was no increase in prenatal loss/death or stillbirth and no maternal toxicity associated with vedolizumab. On day 28 postpartum, low levels of vedolizumab were detected in the breast milk of 3 of 11 monkeys in the 100 mg/kg group. No vedolizumab-related effects on the number of infants born, infant development, or animal hematology or clinical chemistry were noted. Administration of vedolizumab to pregnant rabbits and cynomolgus monkeys did not show any potential for maternal or developmental effects.
Project description:Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, characterized by progressive cognitive impairment and neurodegeneration as a result of abnormal neuronal loss. To elucidate the molecular systems associated with AD, we characterized the gene expression changes associated with multiple clinical and neuropathological traits in 1,053 postmortem brain samples across 19 brain regions from 125 persons dying with varying severities of dementia and variable AD-neuropathology severities. 125 human brains were accessed from the Mount Sinai/JJ Peters VA Medical Center Brain Bank (MSBB). This brain resource was assembled after applying stringent inclusion/exclusion criteria and represents the full spectrum of clinical and neuropathological disease severity in the absence of discernable non-AD neuropathology. RNA samples from 19 brain regions isolated from the 125 MSBB specimens were collected and profiled using Affymetrix Genechip microarrays. There were 50 to 60 subjects per brain region with varying degrees of AD pathological abnormalities.
Project description:SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) administered intranasally and intratracheally to rhesus, cynomolgus and African Green monkeys (AGM) replicated in the respiratory tract but did not induce illness. The titer of serum neutralizing antibodies correlated with the level of virus replication in the respiratory tract (AGM>cynomolgus>rhesus). Moderate to high titers of SARS-CoV with associated interstitial pneumonitis were detected in the lungs of AGMs on day 2 and were resolving by day 4 post-infection. Following challenge of AGMs 2 months later, virus replication was highly restricted and there was no evidence of enhanced disease. These species will be useful for the evaluation of the immunogenicity of candidate vaccines, but the lack of apparent clinical illness in all three species, variability from animal to animal in level of viral replication, and rapid clearance of virus and pneumonitis in AGMs must be taken into account by investigators considering the use of these species in efficacy and challenge studies.
Project description:Understanding the pharmacology of microbiome-based therapeutics is required to support the development of new medicines. Strains of E. coli Nissle (EcN) were genetically modified and administered to cynomolgus monkeys at doses of 1 × 109 and 1 × 1012 colony-forming units (CFU)/day for 28 days. A clinical study to evaluate the exposure and clearance of EcN in healthy volunteers was also performed. Healthy subjects received oral doses of EcN, 2.5 to 25 × 109 CFU 3 times daily for 28 days or a single day. In cynomolgus monkeys, replicating strains yielded higher fecal concentrations than nonreplicating strains and persisted for longer following cessation of dosing. In the clinical study, all subjects cleared EcN following cessation of dosing with median clearance of 1 week. Quantitative methodology can be applied to microbiome-based therapeutics, and similar kinetics and clearance were observed for EcN in cynomolgus monkeys and humans.
Project description:Nonhuman primates are commonly used in biomedical research as animal models of human disease and behavior. Compared to common rodent models, nonhuman primates are genetically, physiologically, behaviorally and neurologically more similar to humans owing to more recent shared ancestry and therefore provide the advantage of greater translational validity in preclinical studies. The cynomolgus macaque (Macaca fascicularis) is one of the most commonly used nonhuman primates in academic and industry settings, yet population genetic research has revealed significant substructure throughout the species distribution that may confound studies. Cynomolgus monkeys introduced to Mauritius specifically have previously been thought to maintain the least genetic heterogeneity of all cynomolgus monkeys, although recent work, including work from our lab, suggests macaques from Mauritius too may harbor cryptic substructure.To evaluate putative substructure in Mauritian cynomolgus macaques, we designed a panel of 96 single nucleotide polymorphisms based on preliminary findings from previous work to screen 246 of cynomolgus monkeys from two primary suppliers. Results from this study support substructure in Mauritian macaques and suggest a minimum of two populations and maybe three on Mauritius, with moderate admixture.These findings inform the natural history of these monkeys suggesting either a previously unrecognized physical or ecological barrier to gene flow on Mauritius and/or the breakdown of historic substructure resulting from the history of macaque introduction to the island. These findings are relevant to ongoing research using these models in part because of increased appreciation of segregating common variation with functional effects and may be used to better inform animal selection in preclinical research.
Project description:Rozanolixizumab (UCB7665), a humanized high-affinity anti-human neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn) monoclonal antibody (IgG4P), has been developed to reduce pathogenic IgG in autoimmune and alloimmune diseases. We document the antibody isolation and compare rozanolixizumab with the same variable region expressed in various mono-, bi- and trivalent formats. We report activity data for rozanolixizumab and the different molecular formats in human cells, FcRn-transgenic mice, and cynomolgus monkeys. Rozanolixizumab, considered the most effective molecular format, dose-dependently and selectively reduced plasma IgG concentrations in an FcRn-transgenic mouse model (no effect on albumin). Intravenous (IV) rozanolixizumab dosing in cynomolgus monkeys demonstrated non-linear pharmacokinetics indicative of target-mediated drug disposition; single IV rozanolixizumab doses (30 mg/kg) in cynomolgus monkeys reduced plasma IgG concentration by 69% by Day 7 post-administration. Daily IV administration of rozanolixizumab (initial 30 mg/kg loading dose; 5 mg/kg daily thereafter) reduced plasma IgG concentrations in all cynomolgus monkeys, with low concentrations maintained throughout the treatment period (42 days). In a 13-week toxicology study in cynomolgus monkeys, supra-pharmacological subcutaneous and IV doses of rozanolixizumab (≤ 150 mg/kg every 3 days) were well tolerated, inducing sustained (but reversible) reductions in IgG concentrations by up to 85%, with no adverse events observed. We have demonstrated accelerated natural catabolism of IgG through inhibition of IgG:FcRn interactions in mice and cynomolgus monkeys. Inhibition of FcRn with rozanolixizumab may provide a novel therapeutic approach to reduce pathogenic IgG in human autoimmune disease. Rozanolixizumab is being investigated in patients with immune thrombocytopenia (NCT02718716) and myasthenia gravis (NCT03052751).
Project description:Canine distemper virus (CDV) has recently expanded its host range to nonhuman primates. A large CDV outbreak occurred in rhesus monkeys at a breeding farm in Guangxi Province, China, in 2006, followed by another outbreak in rhesus monkeys at an animal center in Beijing in 2008. In 2008 in Japan, a CDV outbreak also occurred in cynomolgus monkeys imported from China. In that outbreak, 46 monkeys died from severe pneumonia during a quarantine period. A CDV strain (CYN07-dV) was isolated in Vero cells expressing dog signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM). Phylogenic analysis showed that CYN07-dV was closely related to the recent CDV outbreaks in China, suggesting continuing chains of CDV infection in monkeys. In vitro, CYN07-dV uses macaca SLAM and macaca nectin4 as receptors as efficiently as dog SLAM and dog nectin4, respectively. CYN07-dV showed high virulence in experimentally infected cynomolgus monkeys and excreted progeny viruses in oral fluid and feces. These data revealed that some of the CDV strains, like CYN07-dV, have the potential to cause acute systemic infection in monkeys.
Project description:Recent advances in gene editing technology have introduced the potential for application of mutagenesis approaches in nonhuman primates to model human development and disease. Here we report successful TALEN-mediated mutagenesis of an X-linked, Rett syndrome (RTT) gene, methyl-CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2), in both rhesus and cynomolgus monkeys. Microinjection of MECP2-targeting TALEN plasmids into rhesus and cynomolgus zygotes leads to effective gene editing of MECP2 with no detected off-target mutagenesis. Male rhesus (2) and cynomolgous (1) fetuses carrying MECP2 mutations in various tissues including testes were miscarried during midgestation, consistent with RTT-linked male embryonic lethality in humans. One live delivery of a female cynomolgus monkey occurred after 162 days of gestation, with abundant MECP2 mutations in peripheral tissues. We conclude that TALEN-mediated mutagenesis can be an effective tool for genetic modeling of human disease in nonhuman primates.
Project description:We recently reported the occurrence of natural infection with H. pylori in a group of cynomolgus monkeys with chronic active gastritis and gastric erosions. The goal of the present study was to characterize and to compare strains isolated from animals originating from two different geographical areas. Gross and microscopic pathology determined at the time of necropsy was similar in all animals. H. pylori were isolated from specimens harvested in five monkeys (four from Vietnam and one from the Philippines) with gastritis. Isolates from monkeys bred in Vietnam had a similar DNA fingerprint pattern, which was distinct from that of isolates from a monkey bred in the Philippines. All strains were of the s1a vacA subtype, but all the 'Vietnamese' strains were cagA+ and all but one were iceA1 whereas the 'Philippino' strains were cagA- and iceA2. The sequences of the 16S rRNA of the Vietnamese and Philippino strains shared 98% homology and both clustered with H. pylori sequences present in the NCBI database. In conclusion, cynomolgus monkeys can be naturally colonized by H. pylori, and the strains isolated from these animals appear to vary according to the geographical origin, thus indicating probable infection prior to importation. Since some of the cynomolgus monkeys developed antral erosions during natural infection, we propose that this animal model may be used to investigate the role of H. pylori in ulcerogenesis.