Transcription profiling of mouse D44highCD62L-CD25- CD4+ T cells of murine (C57BL/6 mice) bone marrow were compared to those of the spleen
ABSTRACT: CD4+ T lymphocytes are key to immunological memory, but little is known about the lifestyle of memory CD4+ T lymphocytes. We showed that in the memory phase of specific immune responses to antigens, most of the memory CD4+ T lymphocytes relocated into the bone marrow (BM) within 3-8 weeks after their generation, a process involving integrin a2. Antigen-specific memory CD4+ T lymphocytes expressed Ly-6C to a high degree, unlike most splenic CD44hiCD62L- CD4+ T lymphocytes. In adult mice, more than 80% of Ly-6Chi CD44hiCD62L- memory CD4+ T lymphocytes were in the BM. In the BM, they are located next to IL-7-expressing VCAM-1+ stroma cells, and were in a resting state. Upon challenge with antigen, they rapidly expressed cytokines and CD154 and induced the production of high-affinity antibodies, indicating their functional activity in vivo and marking them as professional memory T helper cells Experiment Overall Design: FACSAria sorted CD44highCD62L-CD25- CD4+ T cells of murine (C57BL/6 mice) bone marrow were compared to those of the spleen using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 Array. After total RNA extraction, reverse transcription, cDNA extraction, the biotinylated cRNA was transcribed, fragmented, and 15 µg cRNA hybridized in triplicates for each of the two groups to the GeneChip arrays. Group of bone marrow chips: BMCD4T1, BMCD4T2, BMCD4T3, group of spleen chips: SCD4T1, SCD4T2, SCD4T3. Lists of differentially regulated genes were created using High Performance Chip Data Analysis (HPCDA) with Bioretis database (http://www.bioretis-analysis.de).
Project description:CD4+ T lymphocytes are key to immunological memory, but little is known about the lifestyle of memory CD4+ T lymphocytes. We showed that in the memory phase of specific immune responses to antigens, most of the memory CD4+ T lymphocytes relocated into the bone marrow (BM) within 3-8 weeks after their generation, a process involving integrin a2. Antigen-specific memory CD4+ T lymphocytes expressed Ly-6C to a high degree, unlike most splenic CD44hiCD62L- CD4+ T lymphocytes. In adult mice, more than 80% of Ly-6Chi CD44hiCD62L- memory CD4+ T lymphocytes were in the BM. In the BM, they are located next to IL-7-expressing VCAM-1+ stroma cells, and were in a resting state. Upon challenge with antigen, they rapidly expressed cytokines and CD154 and induced the production of high-affinity antibodies, indicating their functional activity in vivo and marking them as professional memory T helper cells Overall design: FACSAria sorted CD44highCD62L-CD25- CD4+ T cells of murine (C57BL/6 mice) bone marrow were compared to those of the spleen using Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Genome 430A 2.0 Array. After total RNA extraction, reverse transcription, cDNA extraction, the biotinylated cRNA was transcribed, fragmented, and 15 µg cRNA hybridized in triplicates for each of the two groups to the GeneChip arrays. Group of bone marrow chips: GSM393497, GSM393940, GSM393941, group of spleen chips: GSM393942, GSM393943, GSM393944. Lists of differentially regulated genes were created using High Performance Chip Data Analysis (HPCDA) with Bioretis database (http://www.bioretis-analysis.de). To see the list of significant genes, go to Bioretis database, register and with your username and password log into the database. Then check under Account, User Details the two boxes Public Chip Rights and Public Analyses. Then select under Comparison, View single results in the window Select an existing Analysis the analysis SPL_294. To find the list of significant genes, click an next, then on Choose an existing parameterset and select first a default increase parameterset (be shure that on row "t-Test EG vs. BG *" in the first 4 left columns <0.05 is included and check the box "* use Bonferroni correction"). Then click on Search only and you will get the list of differentially íncreased genes. Perform the same procedure with a default parameterset for decrease genes. You can get instruction/help about Bioretis database before Login on sheet introduction.
Project description:It is current belief that numbers of CD8+ memory T lymphocytes in the memory phase of an immune response are maintained by homeostatic proliferation. Here, we compare the proliferation of CD8+ memory T lymphocytes, generated by natural infections and by intentional immunization, in spleen and bone marrow (BM). Fifty percent of CD8+ memory T lymphocytes in the spleen are eliminated by cyclophosphamide within 14 days, indicating that numbers of at least 50% of splenic CD8+ memory T lymphocytes are maintained by proliferation. The numbers of CD8+ memory T lymphocytes in the BM, however, were not affected by cyclophosphamide. This stability was independent of circulating CD8+ memory T cells, blocked by FTY720, showing that BM is a privileged site for the maintenance of memory T lymphocytes, as resident cells, resting in terms of proliferation.
Project description:During an immune reaction, some antigen-experienced CD4 T cells relocate from secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) to the bone marrow (BM) in a CD49b-dependent manner and reside and rest there as professional memory CD4 T cells. However, it remains unclear how the precursors of BM memory CD4 T cells are generated in the SLOs. While several studies have so far shown that B cell depletion reduces the persistence of memory CD4 T cells in the spleen, we here show that B cell depletion enhances the establishment of memory CD4 T cells in the BM and that B cell transfer conversely suppresses it. Interestingly, the number of antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the BM synchronizes the number of CD49b(+)T-bet(+) antigen-experienced CD4 T cells in the spleen. CD49b(+)T-bet(+) antigen-experienced CD4 T cells preferentially localize in the red pulp area of the spleen and the BM in a T-bet-independent manner. We suggest that B cells negatively control the generation of CD49b(+)T-bet(+) precursors of resting memory CD4 T cells in the spleen and may play a role in bifurcation of activated effector and resting memory CD4 T cell lineages.
Project description:Memory T-helper (Th) lymphocytes are crucial for the maintenance of acquired immunity to eliminate infectious pathogens. We have previously demonstrated that most memory Th lymphocytes reside and rest on stromal niches of the bone marrow (BM). Little is known, however, regarding the molecular basis for the generation and maintenance of BM memory Th lymphocytes. Here we show that CD69-deficient effector CD4 T lymphocytes fail to relocate into and persist in the BM and therefore to differentiate into memory cells. Consequently, CD69-deficient CD4 T cells fail to facilitate the production of high-affinity antibodies and the generation of BM long-lived plasma cells in the late phase of immune responses. Thus, CD69 is critical for the generation and maintenance of professional memory Th lymphocytes, which can efficiently help humoral immunity in the late phase. The deficit of immunological memory in CD69-deficient mice also highlights the essential role of BM for the establishment of Th memory.
Project description:The bone marrow (BM) harbors not only hematopoietic stem cells but also conventional memory T and B cells. Studies of BM-resident memory T cells have revealed the complex relationship between BM and immunologic memory. In the present study, we identified CD122 stem cells antigen-1 (Sca-1), B-cell lymphoma protein-2 (Bcl-2), CD8 stem cell-like memory T cells (TSCMs) as a distinct memory T-cell subset preferentially residing in the BM, where these cells respond vigorously to blood-borne antigens. We found that the most TSCMs favorably relocate to the BM by adhesion molecules such as vascular cell adhesion protein 1, P-selectin glycoprotein 1, and P-selectin or E-selectin. Moreover, the BM-resident TSCMs exhibited much higher levels of antitumor activity than the spleen-resident TSCMs. These results indicate that the BM provides an appropriate microenvironment for the survival of CD8 TSCMs, thereby broadening our knowledge of the memory maintenance of antigen-specific CD8 T lymphocytes. The present findings are expected to be instructive for the development of tumor immunotherapy.
Project description:It is a matter of current debate whether the bone marrow is a hub for circulating memory T lymphocytes and/or the home of resident memory T lymphocytes. Here we demonstrate for CD69+ murine CD8+ , and CD69+ murine and human CD4+ memory T lymphocytes of the bone marrow, making up between 30 and 60% of bone marrow memory T lymphocytes, that they express the gene expression signature of tissue-resident memory T lymphocytes. This suggests that a substantial proportion of bone marrow memory T lymphocytes are resident. It adds to previous evidence that bone marrow memory T cells are resting in terms of mobility and proliferation, and maintain exclusive long-term memory to distinct, systemic antigens.
Project description:CD4 T cell memory is fundamental for long-lasting immunity and effective secondary responses following infection or vaccination. We have previously found that memory CD4 T cells specific for systemic antigens preferentially reside in the bone marrow (BM) and arise from splenic CD49b+T-bet+ CD4 T cells. However, how BM-homing memory precursors are generated during an immune reaction is unknown. We show here that BM memory precursors are generated via augmented rates of cell division throughout a primary immune response. Treatment with the cytostatic drug cyclophosphamide or blockade of the CD28/B7 co-stimulatory pathway at the beginning of the contraction phase abrogates the generation of BM memory precursors. We determine that, following a critical number of cell divisions, memory precursors downregulate CCR7 and upregulate IL-2R?, indicating that loss of CCR7 and gain of IL-2 signal are required for the migration of memory precursors toward the BM.
Project description:The lack of consensus on bone marrow (BM) and splenic immune cell profiles in preclinical mouse strains complicates comparative analysis across different studies. Although studies have documented relative distribution of immune cells from peripheral blood in mice, similar studies for BM and spleen from naïve mice are lacking. In an effort to establish strain- and gender-specific benchmarks for distribution of various immune cell subtypes in these organs, we performed immunophenotypic analysis of BM cells and splenocytes from both genders of three commonly used murine strains (C57BL/6NCr, 129/SvHsd, and BALB/cAnNCr). Total neutrophils and splenic macrophages were significantly higher in C57BL/6NCr, whereas total B cells were lower. Within C57BL/6NCr female mice, BM B cells were elevated with respect to the males whereas splenic mDCs and splenic neutrophils were reduced. Within BALB/cAnNCr male mice, BM CD4+ Tregs were elevated with respect to the other strains. Furthermore, in male BALB/cAnNCr mice, NK cells were elevated with respect to the other strains in both BM and spleen. Splenic CD4+ Tregs and splenic CD8+ T cells were reduced in male BALB/c mice in comparison to female mice. Bone marrow CD4+ T cells and mDCs were significantly increased in 129/SvHsd whereas splenic CD8+ T cells were reduced. In general, males exhibited higher immature myeloid cells, macrophages, and NK cells. To our knowledge, this study provides a first attempt to systematically establish organ-specific benchmarks on immune cells in studies involving these mouse strains.
Project description:CD4(+) T cells play a key role in host defense against Pneumocystis infection. To define the role of naïve CD4(+) T cell production through the thymopoietic response in host defense against Pneumocystis infection, Pneumocystis murina infection in the lung was induced in adult male C57BL/6 mice with and without prior thymectomy. Pneumocystis infection caused a significant increase in the number of CCR9(+) multipotent progenitor (MPP) cells in the bone marrow and peripheral circulation, an increase in populations of earliest thymic progenitors (ETPs) and double negative (DN) thymocytes in the thymus, and recruitment of naïve and total CD4(+) T cells into the alveolar space. The level of murine signal joint T cell receptor excision circles (msjTRECs) in spleen CD4(+) cells was increased at 5 weeks post-Pneumocystis infection. In thymectomized mice, the numbers of naïve, central memory, and total CD4(+) T cells in all tissues examined were markedly reduced following Pneumocystis infection. This deficiency of naïve and central memory CD4(+) T cells was associated with delayed pulmonary clearance of Pneumocystis. Extracts of Pneumocystis resulted in an increase in the number of CCR9(+) MPPs in the cultured bone marrow cells. Stimulation of cultured bone marrow cells with ligands to Toll-like receptor 2 ([TLR-2] zymosan) and TLR-9 (ODN M362) each caused a similar increase in CCR9(+) MPP cells via activation of the Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK) pathway. These results demonstrate that enhanced production of naïve CD4(+) T lymphocytes through the thymopoietic response and enhanced delivery of lymphopoietic precursors from the bone marrow play an important role in host defense against Pneumocystis infection.
Project description:Conditions in space, such as microgravity, may affect the hematopoietic and bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) of astronauts. However, to date, few detailed phenotype change data about the different type of hematopoietic cells have reported. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into two groups: a control group (control) and a hindlimb suspension group (treated). After four weeks of hindlimb suspension, we found that this simulated microgravity (sµg) condition could increase the percentage of monocytes and macrophages and decrease the percentage of B lymphocytes and mature red cells in bone marrow. The percentage of B lymphocytes in the spleen and the red blood cell count in peripheral blood also decreased, consistent with the response of bone marrow. The cytoskeleton in the BM-MSCs was disrupted. The expression levels of hematopoietic-related genes, such as fms-like tyrosine kinase-3 ligand, granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor, interleukin-3, and adipogenic differentiation associated genes, leptin and proliferator-activated receptor ? type 2, were upregulated under sµg conditions. These results indicated that simulating microgravity can affect the phenotype of certain types of hematopoietic cells and the morphology and gene expression pattern of BM-MSCs.