Transcription profiling of human untreated and fenretinide-treated CD34+ cells from 4 CML patients
ABSTRACT: Imatinib therapy is first-line treatment for chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), and its failure to target CML progenitor/stem cells may lead to an increased risk of relapse. We report here that fenretinide, a well-tolerated vitamin A derivative, is capable of eradicating primitive CML progenitor/stem cells and significantly enhances the efficacy of imatinib at physiologically achievable concentrations. As tested by colony forming cell assays, formation of various colonies derived primitive CML CD34+ cells was significantly suppressed by fenretinide, particularly with respect to the formation of colonies derived from erythroid progenitors and more primitive CML progenitor/stem cells. Also, fenretinide significantly enhanced the ability of imatinib to suppress the formation of the colonies. Moreover, fenretinide was able to induce apoptosis in primitive CML CD34+ cells while sparing the normal counterparts. In particular, primitive CML CD34+CD38- cells appeared to be most sensitive to fenretinide induced apoptosis. Through transcriptome analysis and molecular validation, we further showed that fenretinide induced apoptosis in CML CD34+ cells was probably mediated by a series of stress responsive events which were likely triggered by elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Accordingly, the combination of fenretinide and imatinib may provide a potential solution for overcoming relapse and resistance in CML. Experiment Overall Design: Transcriptome profiles of CML CD34+ cells with and without fenretinide treatment were analyzed using whole genome expression arrays (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0) in four CML patients (CML32, CML33, CML34 and CML35, see Table 1). To minimize potential data biases, both treated and untreated cell samples were maintained in culture for 48 hours before hybridization.
Project description:Imatinib, as the first-line agent of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML), is ineffective in eradicating CML stem/progenitor cells, thus unable to prevent late relapse. Here we present data indicating that fenretinide preferentially targets CD34+ CML cells and enhances the efficacy of imatinib in CML. As tested by colony forming cell assays, both number and size of total colonies derived from CD34+ CML cells were significantly reduced by fenretinide, and by combining fenretinide with imatinib. In particular, colonies derived from erythroid progenitors and those derived from more primitive pluripotent progenitor cells were highly sensitive to fenretinide/fenretinide plus immtinib. Further data showed that fenretinide was able to induce apoptosis in CD34+ CML cells which were refractory to imatinib. Through transcriptome analysis and followed by molecular validation, we further showed that apoptosis induced by fenretinide in CD34+ CML cells was mediated by complex mechanisms of stress responses, probably triggered by elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species. Thus, fenretinide combines with imatinib may represent a new strategy for the treatment of CML, in which fenretinide targets primitive CD34+ CML cells whereas imatinib targets leukemic blasts. This strategy may eventually reduce the risk of relapse and probably resistant as well in CML patients. Overall design: Transcriptome profiles of CML CD34+ cells with and without fenretinide treatment were analyzed using whole genome expression arrays (Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0) in four CML patients (CML32, CML33, CML34 and CML35, see Table 1). To minimize potential data biases, both treated and untreated cell samples were maintained in culture for 48 hours before hybridization.
Project description:ABL1 kinase inhibitors such as imatinib mesylate (IM) are effective in managing chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) but incapable of eliminating leukemia stem cells (LSCs), suggesting that kinase−independent pathways support LSC survival. Given that the bone marrow hypoxic microenvironment supports hematopoietic stem cells, we investigated if hypoxia similarly contributes to LSC persistence. Importantly, we found that while BCR−ABL1 kinase remained effectively inhibited by IM under hypoxia, apoptosis became partially suppressed. Furthermore, hypoxia enhanced the clonogenicity of CML cells, as well as their efficiency in repopulating immunodeficient mice, both in the presence and absence of IM. HIF1−α, which is the master regulator of the hypoxia transcriptional response is expressed in the bone marrow specimens of CML individuals. In vitro, HIF1−α is stabilized during hypoxia and its expression and transcriptional activity can be partially attenuated by concurrent IM treatment. Expression analysis demonstrates at the whole transcriptome level that hypoxia and IM regulate distinct subsets of genes. Functionally, knockdown of HIF1−α abolished the enhanced clonogenicity during hypoxia. Taken together, our results suggest that in the hypoxic microenvironment, HIF1−α signaling supports LSC persistence independently of BCR−ABL1 kinase activity. Thus targeting HIF1−α and its pathway components may be therapeutically important for the complete eradication of LSCs. 24 samples consisting CD34+ bone marrow aspirates of 3 chronic phase patients that were subjected to 24h or 96h of DMSO/Normoxia (21% oxygen, 5% carbon dioxide) control, 2 µM Imatinib, hypoxia (0.5% oxygen, 5% carbon dioxide) or combined Imatinib/hypoxia treatments in triplicate cultures.
Project description:Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are highly effective in treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) but do not eliminate leukemia stem cells (LSC), which remain a potential source of relapse. TKI treatment effectively inhibits BCR-ABL kinase activity in CML LSC, suggesting that additional kinase-independent mechanisms contribute to LSC preservation. We investigated whether signals from the bone marrow (BM) microenvironment protect CML LSC from TKI treatment. Coculture with human BM mesenchymal stromal cells (MSC) significantly inhibited apoptosis and preserved CML stem/progenitor cells following TKI exposure, maintaining colony forming ability and engraftment potential in immunodeficient mice. We found that the N-Cadherin receptor plays an important role in MSC-mediated protection of CML progenitors from TKI. N-Cadherin-mediated adhesion to MSC was associated with increased cytoplasmic N-Cadherin-β-catenin complex formation, as well as enhanced β-catenin nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity. Increased exogenous Wnt-mediated β-catenin signaling played an important role in MSC-mediated protection of CML progenitors from TKI treatment. Our results reveal a close interplay between N-Cadherin and the Wnt-β-catenin pathway in protecting CML LSC during TKI treatment. Importantly, these results reveal novel mechanisms of resistance of CML LSC to TKI treatment, and suggest new targets for treatment designed to eradicate residual LSC in CML patients. RNA was obtained from CML CD34+ cells treated with or without IM (5μM) and MSC for 96 hours, amplified, labeled and hybridized to GeneChip 1.0 arrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA). Microarray data analysis was performed using R (version 2.9) with genomic analysis packages from Bioconductor (version 2.4). The 33297 probes represented on the microarray were filtered by cross-sample mean, and for standard deviation of greater than the 25% quantile, yielding 18624 probes representing 12553 genes. Linear regression was used to model the gene expression with the consideration of a 2x2 factorial design and matched samples. Differentially expressed genes were identified by calculating empirical Bayes moderated t-statistic, and p-values were adjusted by FDR using the “LIMMA” package. Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) was performed using GSEA software version 2.04 to detect enrichment of predetermined gene sets using t-scores from all genes for 1263 gene sets in the C2 (curated gene sets) category from the Molecular Signature Database (MsigDB).
Project description:Analysis of lin-CD34+CD45+ (iCD34+) cell population from two normal bone marrow-derived (BM1K and BM9) iPSCs and two CML (CML15 and CML17) iPSCs . CML iCD34+ cells have characteristics similar to primary CML leukemia stem cell in patients. Results provide insight into molecular profile characterized CML iCD34 and mechanism of its maintenance and drug resistance. iCD34+ cell samples obtained from two control BM1K and BM9 iPSCs (both for the same normal donor) and CML15 and CML17 iPSCs (both from the same patient in chronic phase of CML). Each group was treated with DMSO (control) or 5 μM imatinib. The complete phenotype for iCD34+ cells: lin-CD34+CD45+CD90+CD117+CD45RA-. This population also inclyde Rhodaminelow and ALDKhigh cells.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of human acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) CD34+ cells treated with 5 μM fenretinide. Two timepoints included are 6h, 12h, covering the apoptosis-induction time window of AML CD34+ cells responsing to the fenretinide treatment. We studied gene expression series in human AML CD34+ cells with or without 5 μM fenretinide treatment by cDNA microarray analysis. Several signal transduction pathways are involve, including stress response, NF-kappaB inhibition and p53 inhibition (p<0.05). These findings indicate fenretinide may represent a promising candidate for targeting AML-initiating cells. 6-condition experiment, untreated AML CD34+ cells vs. fenretinide-treated AML CD34+ cells,including 2 time points, for each point the untreated and 5 μM fenretinide treated, independently grown and harvested. Untreated was used to counteracting the background.
Project description:Quiescent and dividing hemopoietic stem cells (HSC) display marked differences in their ability to move between the peripheral circulation and the bone marrow. Specifically, long-term engraftment potential predominantly resides in the quiescent HSC subfraction, and G-CSF mobilization results in the preferential accumulation of quiescent HSC in the periphery. In contrast, stem cells from chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients display a constitutive presence in the circulation. To understand the molecular basis for this, we have used microarray technology to analyze the transcriptional differences between dividing and quiescent, normal, and CML-derived CD34+ cells.
Project description:To investigate why dipeptides accumulate in immature CML cells, we examined upstream gene expression patterns. We isolated the most primitive long-term stem cells, short-term stem cells, and KLS- progenitor cells from healthy littermate control and CML-affected mice and performed gene expression profiling using next-generation RNA-sequencing. Gene expression profiles of the most primitive long-term (LT) stem cells (CD150+CD48-CD135-KLS+ cells), short-term (ST) stem cells (CD150-CD48-CD135- KLS+ cells), and KLS- progenitor cells from healthy littermate control and CML-affected mice
Project description:We show the molecular and functional characterization of a novel population of lineage-negative CD34-negative (Lin- CD34-) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) from chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) patients at diagnosis. Molecular caryotyping and quantitative analysis of BCR/ABL transcript demonstrated that about one third of CD34- was leukemic. CML CD34- cells showed kinetic quiescence and limited clonogenic capacity. However, stroma-dependent cultures and cytokines induced CD34 expression on some HSCs, cell cycling, acquisition of clonogenic activity and increased expression of BCR/ABL transcript. CML CD34- cells showed an engraftment rate in immunodeficient mice similar to that of CD34+ cells. Gene expression profiling revealed the down-regulation of cell cycle arrest genes together with genes involved in antigen presentation and processing, while the expression of angiogenic factors was strongly up-regulated when compared to normal counterparts. Flow cytometry analysis confirmed the significant down-regulation of HLA class I and II molecules in CML CD34-cells. Increasing doses of imatinib mesilate (IM) did not affect fusion transcript levels, BCR-ABL kinase activity and the clonogenic efficiency of CML CD34- cells as compared to leukemic CD34+cells. Thus, we identified in CML a novel CD34- leukemic stem cell subset with peculiar molecular and functional characteristics which may be a potential target for CML therapeutics. Leukemic cells were obtained from 12 chronic phase Ph+ CML patients at diagnosis and before treatment. Normal samples were leukapheresis products from 12 healthy stem cell donors receiving recombinant human granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF; Lenograstim, Sanofi-Aventis, Milan, Italy). The protocol was approved by the ethical committee of the University Hospital and each patient/donor gave written informed consent. Hemopoietic stem/progenitor cell purification and phenotypic analyses were performed as previously described (Lemoli et al, Br J Haematol, 2003; Lemoli RM et al., Blood, 1997). Aliquots of sorted Lin-CD34-, Lin-CD34+ and Lin+CD34+ were reanalyzed by FacScan (Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ) to assess their purities. Total cellular RNA was extracted from 0.5x105 cells of each sample using RNeasy Micro kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA) following the protocol supplied by the manufacturer. Disposable RNA chips (Agilent RNA 6000 Nano LabChip kit, Agilent Technologies, Waldbrunn, Germany) were used to determine the concentration and purity/integrity of RNA samples using Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer. RNAs originating from 12 normal donors or from 12 CML patients were pooled in order to obtain at least 2 mg per sample. One-cycle target labeling assays, as well as the Affymetrix Human HG-U95Av2 GeneChip arrays hybridization, staining, and scanning, were performed, using Affymetrix standard protocols (Affymetrix, Santa Clara,CA).
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of four cell populations to understanding chronic myeloid leukaemia in humans. The populations are normal haematopoietic stem cells (HSC), normal progenitor cells (HPC), CML stem cells (LSC) and CML progenitor cells (LPC).