Transcription profiling of mouse knockouts for Etv4 and Etv5 - plusGDNF and minusGDNF comparison using U74Av2 and 430A arrays
ABSTRACT: GDNF signaling through the Ret receptor tyrosine kinase is critical for ureteric bud branching morphogenesis during kidney development yet few of the downstream genes are currently known. We find that the ETS transcription factors Etv4 and Etv5 are positively regulated by Ret signaling in ureteric bud tips. Etv4-/-Etv5+/- mice display either renal agenesis or severe hypodysplasia, while kidney development fails completely in double homozygotes. We identify several genes whose expression in the ureteric bud depends on Etv4 and Etv5, including Cxcr4, Myb, Met, Mmp14. Thus, Etv4 and Etv5 are key components of a gene network downstream of Ret that promotes and controls renal branching morphogenesis. Experiment Overall Design: 3 plus GDNF and 2 minus GDNF chips were analyzed with different pooled samples for each chip (U74Av2 and 430A). Sample comparisons and statistical analysis were performed using dChip 1.3, using the Comparison Analysis feature to identify genes differentially expressed between the two groups. The following filtering criteria were used: the “lower limit” for fold-change between the means of the +GDNF and -GDNF samples must exceed 1.2 with a 90% confidence limit, and the absolute difference between the two group means must exceed 100.
Project description:To better understand the signaling and transcriptional events involved in the GDNF-independent emergence of the ureteric bud from the Wolffian duct, microarray expression analysis was performed on embryonic kidneys from wild-type and Ret-deficient mice. Microarray data was used to identify genes and gene networks involved in the GDNF-independent outgrowth of the ureteric bud. Whole embryonic kidneys from E12.5 Ret mutant and wild-type mice were isolated. Isolated kidneys were lysed and RNA was extracted with the Qiagen RNEasy Micro kit. The RNA was amplified using the NuGEn Ovation kit and hybridized to the Affymetrix GeneChip Mouse Whole Genome 430 2.0 microarray. Three biological replicates for Ret-knockout and wild-type kidneys were performed.
Project description:Kidney development depends critically on proper ureteric bud branching giving rise to the entire collecting duct system. The transcription factor HNF1B is required for the early steps of ureteric bud branching. Yet, the molecular and cellular events regulated by HNF1B are poorly understood. We report that specific removal of Hnf1b from the ureteric bud leads to defective cell-cell contacts and apico-basal polarity during the early branching events. High resolution ex vivo imaging combined with a membranous fluorescent reporter strategy show decreased mutant cell-rearrangements during mitosis-associated cell dispersal and severe epithelial disorganisation. Molecular analysis reveals downregulation of Gdnf-Ret pathway components and suggests that HNF1B acts both upstream and downstream of Ret-signaling by directly regulating Gfrα1 and Etv5. Subsequently, Hnf1b-deletion leads to massively mispatterned ureteric tree network, defective collecting duct differentiation and disrupted tissue architecture leading to cystogenesis. Consistently, mRNA-seq analysis performed from E15.5 control and mutant kidneys shows that the most impacted genes encode intrinsic cell-membrane components with transporter activity. Our study uncovers a fundamental and recurrring role of HNF1B in epithelial organization during early ureteric bud branching and further patterning and differentiation of the collecting duct system. Article submitted to Development. Authors: Audrey Desgrange, Claire Heliot,Ilya Skovorodkin, Saad U. Akram, Janne Heikkilä, Veli-Pekka Ronkainen, Ilkka Miinalainen I., Seppo J. Vainio and Silvia Cereghini Overall design: We examine the function of Hnf1b during renal branching morphogenesis by conditional inactivation in the UB and its derivatives using the Hoxb7cre reporter mouse line. We crossed mice homozygous for a Hnf1b floxed allele (Hnf1bfl/fl ) (Heliot el al., Development 2013 (4):873-885.) with males HoxB7-Cre;Hnf1bLacZ/+ heterozygous for the Hoxb7-cre and for the Hnf1b null allele (Hnf1blacZ/+), (Barbacci et al., Development 1999 21, 4795-805.) to generate HoxB7-Cre;Hnf1bLacZ/fl embryos designed as mutants. Hnf1bLacZ/fl and Hnf1b+/fl embryos without the HoxB7-Cre transgene were considered as controls, due to the lack of a phenotype in heterozygous embryos for the Hnf1b LacZ-null allele (Barbacci et al., Development 1999 21, 4795-805.).The two kidneys from E15.5 mutant and control embryos were microdissected from the same litter. This requirement limited the number of samples used to 2 controls and 2 mutants, independently of the sex since we found a similar phenotype in males and females. RNA was extracted by Tryzol using the miRNA mini kit Qiagen for extraction of total and miRNAs. The quality of the RNA samples was assessed on the Agilent Bioanalyzer system using the Agilent RNA 6000 Nano Kit (Agilent Technologies) and RNA with a RIN higher than 8 was used. 1-2 μg of total RNA were used for mRNA isolation using the Dynabeads® mRNA DIRECT™ Micro Kit (ThermoFisher Scientific). mRNA was digested with RNase III, purified, hybridized and ligated to Ion Adaptors, reverse transcribed, barcoded and amplified, using the Ion Total RNA‐Seq Kit v2 (ThermoFisher Scientific).
Project description:In this study we identify molecules with highly restricted expression patterns during the initial stages of metanephric development, when the ureteric bud has entered the metanephric mesenchyme and initiated branching morphogenesis. Using the Affymetrix Mouse Genome 430 2.0 Array, we compare gene expression patterns in ureteric bud tips, stalks and metanephric mesenchymes from mouse E12.5 embryos. To identify conserved molecular pathways, we also analyze transcriptional profiles in rat E13.5 ureteric buds and metanephric mesenchymes using the Affymetrix Rat Genome U34 Set. Taken together, these data sets help to identify conserved and highly localized transcripts in the metanephric kidney.
Project description:Isolated mouse ureteric buds from E11.5 were grown in Matri-gel plus or minus GDNF. Differential gene expression was analyzed between the "plus" and "minus" GDNF ureteric buds. Overall design: 3 "plus GDNF" and 2 "minus GDNF" chips were analyzed with different pooled samples for each chip (U74Av2 and 430A). Sample comparisons and statistical analysis were performed using dChip 1.3, using the Comparison Analysis feature to identify genes differentially expressed between the two groups. The following filtering criteria were used: the “lower limit” for fold-change between the means of the +GDNF and -GDNF samples must exceed 1.2 with a 90% confidence limit, and the absolute difference between the two group means must exceed 100.
Project description:E11.5 metanephric mesenchyme and ureteric bud were dissected from the E11.5 kidney rudiment using fine manual microdissection (ureteric bud only) or both fine manual microdissection and laser capture microdissection (metanephric mesenchyme) to define the gene expression profiles of these structures. Additionally, HoxA11, HoxD11 compound null E11.5 metanephric mesenchyme was obtained through laser capture microdissection allowing analysis of possible Hox targets in kidney development. Targets from multiple biological replicates of each were generated and the expression profiles were determined using Affymetrix MOE430_v2 arrays. Using microdissection techniques, ureteric bud and metanephric mesenchyme were dissected from E11.5 kidney rudiments allowing the identificated genes specifically regulated in either structure. In addition, Hoxa11, Hoxd11 compound null E11.5 metanephric mesenchyme were normalized to wild type embryonic controls allowing the identification of potential Hox targets in normal kidney development. Each structure/genotype were represented in biological (seperate embryo) replicate.
Project description:Signaling of the RET receptor is crucial for the migration, proliferation, differentiation and survival of enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) that form the enteric nervous system (ENS). Disturbances in RET signaling are associated with ENS defects, as is seen in patients with Hirschsprung disease. However, the downstream effectors of RET signalling in ENCCs is largely unknown. This study aims to gain new insight into the pathways involved in or triggered by RET in ENCCs. We used microarrays to detect the gene expression of mouse embryonic ENCCs when we stimulated with GDNF compare to control without GDNF and also compare to the gene expression of mouse embryonic gut (all are isolated from mouse embryonic day 14.5). Our aim is to gain insight of RET-GDNF downstream effectors and also all signalling pathways that regulate by RET-GDNF in ENCCs during development. We performed gene expression profiling with RNA isolated from GDNF- (the RET ligand) stimulated and non-stimulated mouse ENCCs and also from mouse embryonic gut E14.5. We compare these three set of microarray data to each other and analyzed single-gene analysis methods. by this analysis we could detect genes that regulate by RET-GDNF signalling in ENCCs and by comparing data of ENCCs with and without GDNF to the expression data of mouse embryonic gut in the same stage of development, we could also detect gene that specifically express in ENCCs dependent and independently of RET-GDNF signalling. We analyzed the gene expression data of ENCCs with and without GDNF by gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) to detect which pathways are down- and up-regulated by RET-GDNF signalling.
Project description:The molecular mechanisms of endocrine resistance in breast cancer remain poorly understood. Here we used PRO-seq to map the location of hundreds of genes and thousands of distal enhancers whose activities differ between endocrine sensitive and resistant MCF-7 cells. Our genome-wide screen identified a 16-fold transcriptional increase in glial-cell line derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), a RET tyrosine kinase receptor ligand, which is both necessary and sufficient for resistance in MCF-7 cells. GDNF causes endocrine resistance by switching the active state of a bi-stable feedback loop from ERα signaling to GDNF-RET signaling. To catalyze this switch, we found that GDNF directly downregulates ERα transcription and activates the transcription factor EGR1, which, in turn, induces GDNF expression. Remarkably, both MCF-7 cells and ER+ primary tumors appear poised for endocrine resistance via the RET signaling pathway, but lack robust RET ligand expression and only develop resistance upon expression of GDNF or other RET ligands. Overall design: PRO-seq was used to analyze four different MCF-7 cell subclones in seven different biological conditions.
Project description:We searched for roles of Etv4 and Etv5 during EMT through genome-wide analysis of their binding sites in Ras-transformed mammary gland epithelial cells. Overall design: Etv4 and Etv5 binding sites in TGF-beta-stimulated EpRas cells were determined by ChIP-seq.
Project description:Transcriptome analysis by RNA-seq of lungs from control and Rfwd2 epithelial-specific conditional knockout mice at embryonic 13.5 day age. RFWD2, is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that modifies specific target proteins, priming their degradation via the ubiquitin proteasome system. Rfwd2 deficiency led to a striking halt in branching morphogenesis shortly after secondary branch formation. In the mutant lung, two ETS transcript factors essential for normal lung branching, ETV4 and ETV5, were upregulated at the protein, but not transcript level. Introduction of Etv loss-of-function alleles into the Rfwd2 mutant background attenuated the branching phenotype, suggesting that RFWD2 functions at least in part through degrading ETV proteins. As a number of E3 ligases are known to target factors important for lung development, our findings provides a preview of a protein-level regulatory network essential for lung branching morphogenesis. Overall design: Total mRNA obtained from three samples per group (control and Rfwd2 conditional knockout)