Transcription profiling of PBMCS - PIF modulated gene expression
ABSTRACT: Pregnancy is an immune paradox: where the mother accepts a semi-allograft/allograft (donor embryo), while avoiding maternal immune suppression. Indeed, impaired development of maternal immune tolerance towards the conceptus may be an important cause of implantation failure and pregnancy loss. Successful implantation rates for allogenic donor embryos are unexpectedly high, while abnormal embryos may be unable to initiate maternal tolerance, suggesting that embryo-specific compounds can play a vital role in this process. Both a tolerant T-suppressor (TH2), and inflammatory, T-helper 1 (TH1) cytokine profiles are an integral part of pregnancy and the viable embryo/fetus plays a critical role in creating this delicate balance. Maternal recognition of pregnancy occurs prior to implantation. There were several embryo derived factors reported. However, we previously found that preimplantation factor (PIF) is distinct from the other non-pregnancy-specific embryo-derived factors. Herein we aimed to characterize PIF and examine its role in early pregnancy events by observing the isolated novel peptide's effect on human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC). We did affymetrix, GeneChip Human Genome U133 plus 2.0 array on RNA isolated from normal human PBMC cultured for 24hrs in the presence or absence of PIF to study the genes modulated by PIF. Experiment Overall Design: Blood was collected from a male volunteer and PBMC were separated using the Ficoll Hypaque method. Cells were cultured in RPMI culture media for 24 hours in four different groups in duplicate viz., Media alone, Media + 50 nM PIF, Media + 50nM PIF +CD3 (10µg/ml)+ CD28 (10µg/ml) and Media + CD3 (10µg/ml) +CD28 (10µg/ml). At the end of incubation cells were removed from the media, washed and collected in RNAlater (Qiagen) and transferred to Biocodon Sciences (Tx, USA) for Gene array analysis on dry ice. Samples were analyzed using the Agilent Bioanalyzer Process found to be adequate. Each 100 µl contained 2.7-5.4 µg RNA (Nanodrop analyzer). Each sample was tested integrity. RNA from duplicate samples was combined and array was performed on an Affymetrix chip (Human Genome U 133 Plus 2.0 Array). Subsequently, arrays were processed, scanned, data was extracted and statistical evaluation was carried out comparing the various groups. Data generated were categorized as robust changes or mild changes based on differences in expression.
Project description:Pregnancy is an immune paradox: where the mother accepts a semi-allograft/allograft (donor embryo), while avoiding maternal immune suppression. Indeed, impaired development of maternal immune tolerance towards the conceptus may be an important cause of implantation failure and pregnancy loss. Successful implantation rates for allogenic donor embryos are unexpectedly high, while abnormal embryos may be unable to initiate maternal tolerance, suggesting that embryo-specific compounds can play a vital role in this process. Both a tolerant T-suppressor (TH2), and inflammatory, T-helper 1 (TH1) cytokine profiles are an integral part of pregnancy and the viable embryo/fetus plays a critical role in creating this delicate balance. Maternal recognition of pregnancy occurs prior to implantation. There were several embryo derived factors reported. However, we previously found that preimplantation factor (PIF) is distinct from the other non-pregnancy-specific embryo-derived factors. Herein we aimed to characterize PIF and examine its role in early pregnancy events by observing the isolated novel peptide's effect on human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cell (PBMC). We did affymetrix, GeneChip Human Genome U133 plus 2.0 array on RNA isolated from normal human PBMC cultured for 24hrs in the presence or absence of PIF to study the genes modulated by PIF. Overall design: Blood was collected from a male volunteer and PBMC were separated using the Ficoll Hypaque method. Cells were cultured in RPMI culture media for 24 hours in four different groups in duplicate viz., Media alone, Media + 50 nM PIF, Media + 50nM PIF +CD3 (10µg/ml)+ CD28 (10µg/ml) and Media + CD3 (10µg/ml) +CD28 (10µg/ml). At the end of incubation cells were removed from the media, washed and collected in RNAlater (Qiagen) and transferred to Biocodon Sciences (Tx, USA) for Gene array analysis on dry ice. Samples were analyzed using the Agilent Bioanalyzer Process found to be adequate. Each 100 µl contained 2.7-5.4 µg RNA (Nanodrop analyzer). Each sample was tested integrity. RNA from duplicate samples was combined and array was performed on an Affymetrix chip (Human Genome U 133 Plus 2.0 Array). Subsequently, arrays were processed, scanned, data was extracted and statistical evaluation was carried out comparing the various groups. Data generated were categorized as robust changes or mild changes based on differences in expression.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Early identification of viable pregnancy is paramount for successful reproduction. Detection of specific signals from pre-implantation viable embryos in normal pregnancy circulation would indicate initiation of embryo-maternal interaction and create a continuum to accurately reflect embryo/fetal well-being post-implantation. Viable mammalian embryos secrete PreImplantation Factor (PIF), a biomarker which plays key, multi-targeted roles to promote implantation, trophoblast invasion and modulate maternal innate and adaptive immunity toward acceptance. Anti-PIF monoclonal antibody (mAb-based chemiluminescent ELISA) accurately detects PIF in singly cultured embryos media and its increased levels correlate with embryo development up to the blastocyst stage. Herein reported that PIF levels (ELISA) in early maternal serum correlate with pregnancy outcome.<h4>Methods</h4>Artificially inseminated (AI) blind-coded Angus cattle (N = 21-23) serum samples (day 10,15 & 20 post-AI) with known calf birth were blindly tested, using both non-pregnant heifers (N = 30) and steer serum as negative controls. Assay properties and anti-PIF monoclonal antibody specificity were determined by examining linearity, spike and recovery experiments and testing the antibody against 234 different circulating proteins by microarray. Endogenous PIF was detected using <3 kDa filter separation followed by anti-PIF mAb-based affinity chromatography and confirmed by ELISA and HPLC. PIF expression was established in placenta using anti-PIF mAb-based IHC.<h4>Results</h4>PIF detects viable pregnancy at day 10 post-AI with 91.3% sensitivity, reaching 100% by day 20 and correlating with live calf birth. All non-pregnant samples were PIF negative. PIF level in pregnant samples was a stringent 3 + SD higher as compared to heifers and steer sera. Assay is linear and spike and recovery data demonstrates lack of serum interference. Anti-PIF mAb is specific and does not interact with circulating proteins. Anti-PIF based affinity purification demonstrates that endogenous PIF is what ELISA detects. The early bovine placenta expresses PIF in the trophoblast layer.<h4>Conclusion</h4>Data herein documents that PIF is a specific, reliable embryo-derived biomarker conveniently detectable in early maternal circulation. PIF ELISA emerges as practical tool to detect viable early pregnancy from day 20 post-AI.
Project description:Embryos secrete preimplantation factor (PIF), a peptide present in maternal circulation during viable pregnancy. We compared downstream synthetic PIF effect on gene expression in non-pregnant Human Endometrial Stromal Cell (HESC) and First Trimester Decidual cell (FTDC) culture to mimic the maternal intrauterine environment during embryo implantation and trophoblast invasion. Cells were cultured in triplicate with and without synthetic PIF for 24 hours. Cultured cells were then pooled for chip analysis. Altered gene expression relative to controls was assessed by Affymetrix microarray
Project description:BACKGROUND: Intimate embryo-maternal interaction is paramount for pregnancy success post-implantation. The embryo follows a specific developmental timeline starting with neural system, dependent on endogenous and decidual factors. Beyond altered genetics/epigenetics, post-natal diseases may initiate at prenatal/neonatal, post-natal period, or through a continuum. Preimplantation factor (PIF) secreted by viable embryos promotes implantation and trophoblast invasion. Synthetic PIF reverses neuroinflammation in non-pregnant models. PIF targets embryo proteins that protect against oxidative stress and protein misfolding. We report of PIF's embryotrophic role and potential to prevent developmental disorders by regulating uterine milieu at implantation and first trimester. METHODS: PIF's effect on human implantation (human endometrial stromal cells (HESC)) and first-trimester decidua cultures (FTDC) was examined, by global gene expression (Affymetrix), disease-biomarkers ranking (GeneGo), neuro-specific genes (Ingenuity) and proteins (mass-spectrometry). PIF co-cultured epidermal growth factor (EGF) in both HESC and FTDC (Affymetrix) was evaluated. RESULTS: In HESC, PIF promotes neural differentiation and transmission genes (TLX2, EPHA10) while inhibiting retinoic acid receptor gene, which arrests growth. PIF promotes axon guidance and downregulates EGF-dependent neuroregulin signaling. In FTDC, PIF promotes bone morphogenetic protein pathway (SMAD1, 53-fold) and axonal guidance genes (EPH5) while inhibiting PPP2R2C, negative cell-growth regulator, involved in Alzheimer's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In HESC, PIF affects angiotensin via beta-arrestin, transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-?), notch, BMP, and wingless-int (WNT) signaling pathways that promote neurogenesis involved in childhood neurodevelopmental diseases-autism and also affected epithelial-mesenchymal transition involved in neuromuscular disorders. In FTDC, PIF upregulates neural development and hormone signaling, while downregulating genes protecting against xenobiotic response leading to connective tissue disorders. In both HESC and FTDC, PIF affects neural development and transmission pathways. In HESC interactome, PIF promotes FUS gene, which controls genome integrity, while in FTDC, PIF upregulates STAT3 critical transcription signal. EGF abolished PIF's effect on HESC, decreasing metalloproteinase and prolactin receptor genes, thereby interfering with decidualization, while in FTDC, EGF co-cultured with PIF reduced ZHX2, gene that regulates neural AFP secretion. CONCLUSIONS: PIF promotes decidual trophic genes and proteins to regulate neural development. By regulating the uterine milieu, PIF may decrease embryo vulnerability to post-natal neurodevelopmental disorders. Examination of PIF-based intervention strategies used during embryogenesis to improve pregnancy prognosis and reduce post-natal vulnerability is clearly in order.
Project description:It has been proposed that intrauterine administration of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) modulates maternal immune response through a cascade of cytokines, chemokines and growth factors to favor implantation. We conducted a meta-analysis to verify the effect of intrauterine PBMC administration on the outcome of embryo transfer in women with recurrent implantation failure (RIF). All relevant trials published in PubMed, Web of Science and Cochrane library databases were searched. Two randomized controlled trials and three cohort studies (1173 patients in total) matched the inclusion criteria. No differences in live birth rates were seen between the PBMC-treated patients and controls (OR: 1.65, 95% CI: 0.84-3.25; p = 0.14; I2: 66.3%). The clinical pregnancy rate was significantly higher in women who received intrauterine PBMCs before embryo transfer compared with those who did not (OR: 1.65, 95% CI: 1.30-2.10; p = 0.001, heterogeneity; I2: 60.6%). Subgroup analyses revealed a significant increase in clinical pregnancy rates with the administration of PBMCs in women with ≥3 previous failures compared with controls (OR: 2.69, 95% CI: 1.53-4.72; p = 0.001, I2: 38.3%). In summary, the data did not demonstrate an association between the administration of PBMCs into the uterine cavity before fresh or frozen-thawed embryo transfer and live birth rates in women with RIF. Whether intrauterine PBMC administration significantly changes live birth and miscarriage rates requires further investigation.
Project description:Recurrent pregnancy loss (RPL) affects 2-3% of couples. Despite a detailed work-up, the etiology is frequently undefined, leading to non-targeted therapy. Viable embryos and placentae express PreImplantation Factor (PIF). Maternal circulating PIF regulates systemic immunity and reduces circulating natural killer cells cytotoxicity in RPL patients. PIF promotes singly cultured embryos' development while anti-PIF antibody abrogates it. RPL serum induced embryo toxicity is negated by PIF. We report that PIF rescues delayed embryo development caused by <3 kDa RPL serum fraction likely by reducing reactive oxygen species (ROS). We reveal that protein disulfide isomerase/thioredoxin (PDI/TRX) is a prime PIF target in the embryo, rendering it an important ROS scavenger. The 16F16-PDI/TRX inhibitor drastically reduced blastocyst development while exogenous PIF increased >2 fold the number of embryos reaching the blastocyst stage. Mechanistically, PDI-inhibitor preferentially binds covalently to oxidized PDI over its reduced form where PIF avidly binds. PIF by targeting PDI/TRX at a distinct site limits the inhibitor's pro-oxidative effects. The >3kDa RPL serum increased embryo demise by three-fold, an effect negated by PIF. However, embryo toxicity was not associated with the presence of putative anti-PIF antibodies. Collectively, PIF protects cultured embryos both against ROS, and higher molecular weight toxins. Using PIF for optimizing in vitro fertilization embryos development and reducing RPL is warranted.
Project description:Maternal control of inflammation is essential during pregnancy and an exaggerated response is one of the underlying causes of fetal loss. Inflammatory response is mediated by multiple factors and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are central. Activation of TLRs results in NALP-3 mediated assembly of apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 into the inflammasome and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1? and IL-18. Given that preventing measures are lacking, we investigated PreImplantation Factor (PIF) as therapeutic option as PIF modulates Inflammation in pregnancy. Additionally, synthetic PIF (PIF analog) protects against multiple immune disorders. We used a LPS induced murine model of fetal loss and synthetic PIF reduced this fetal loss and increased the embryo weight significantly. We detected increased PIF expression in the placentae after LPS insult. The LPS induced serum and placenta cytokines were abolished by synthetic PIF treatment and importantly synthetic PIF modulated key members of inflammasome complex NALP-3, ASC, and caspase-1 as well. In conclusion our results indicate that synthetic PIF protects against LPS induced fetal loss, likely through modulation of inflammatory response especially the inflammasome complex. Given that synthetic PIF is currently tested in autoimmune diseases of non-pregnant subjects (clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02239562), therapeutic approach during pregnancy can be envisioned.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Viable embryos secrete preimplantation factor (PIF), a peptide that has autocrine effects where levels correlate with cultured embryos development. sPIF (PIF synthetic analog) promotes implantation by regulating decidual-cells immunity, adhesion, apoptosis and enhances trophoblastic cell invasion. Herein sPIF priming effects on non-decidualized endometrium and decidualized-stroma are investigated, assessing elements critical for effective embryo-maternal cross-talk, prior to and at implantation. METHODS: We tested sPIF effect on human non-pregnant endometrial epithelial and non-decidualized stroma ?2?3 integrin expression (IHC and flow cytometry), comparing with scrambled PIF (PIFscr-control). We examined sPIF effect on decidualized non-pregnant human endometrial stromal cells (HESC) determining pro-inflammatory mediators expression and secretion (ELISA) and growth factors (GFs) expression (Affymetrix global gene array). We tested sPIF effect on HESC Phospho-kinases (BioPlex) and isolated kinases activity (FastKinase). RESULTS: sPIF up-regulates ?2?3 integrin expression in epithelial cells, (P?<?0.05) while PIFscr had no effect. In contrast, in stromal cell cultures sPIF had no effect on the same. In HESC, sPIF up-regulates pro-inflammatory cytokines; IL8, IL1? and IL6 expression. The major increase in GRO-?, ICAM-1 and MCP-3 expression is coupled with same ligands secretion (P?<?0.05). sPIF modulates in HESC GFs expression: up-regulates amphiregulin and epiregulin- critical for implantation and enhances several fibroblast growth factors (FGF) relevant for decidual function. In contrast, sPIF down-regulates major pro-proliferative ligands, betacellulin and IGF1 expression. sPIF modulatory effect on GFs is exerted by down-regulating pro-proliferative phospho-activated MAPkinases, p-MEK1 and p-ERK (P?<?0.01, P?<?0.04, respectively). Stress-induced p-38-MAPK (P?=?0.04) and c-Jun kinase signaling involved MAPK8IP2 (-2.1 fold) expression decreased which protects against reactive oxygen species. Although pro-inflammatory p-NFkB (P?=?0.06) decrease was mild, its promoter TNFRS11 expression markedly (-25-fold) decreased. In contrast, anti-proliferative phosphatases PTPRZ1 and PPP2R2C expression increased. CONCLUSIONS: sPIF post-fertilization primes endometrial-epithelium, while during implantation creates a beneficial pro-inflammatory milieu. PIF acts by balancing decidual pro-implantation properties while controlling excessive pro-proliferative and inflammatory signals expression. Overall, PIF influences critical peri-implantation events in a sequential coordinated fashion which facilitates embryo implantation.
Project description:Dysfunction and loss of neurons are the major characteristics of CNS disorders that include stroke, multiple sclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease. Activation of the Toll-like receptor 7 by extracellular microRNA let-7, a highly expressed microRNA in the CNS, induces neuronal cell death. Let-7 released from injured neurons and immune cells acts on neighboring cells, exacerbating CNS damage. Here we show that a synthetic peptide analogous to the mammalian PreImplantation factor (PIF) secreted by developing embryos and which is present in the maternal circulation during pregnancy inhibits the biogenesis of let-7 in both neuronal and immune cells of the mouse. The synthetic peptide, sPIF, destabilizes KH-type splicing regulatory protein (KSRP), a key microRNA-processing protein, in a Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-dependent manner, leading to decreased production of let-7. Furthermore, s.c. administration of sPIF into neonatal rats following hypoxic-ischemic brain injury robustly rescued cortical volume and number of neurons and decreased the detrimental glial response, as is consistent with diminished levels of KSRP and let-7 in sPIF-treated brains. Our results reveal a previously unexpected mechanism of action of PIF and underscore the potential clinical utility of sPIF in treating hypoxic-ischemic brain damage. The newly identified PIF/TLR4/KSRP/let-7 regulatory axis also may operate during embryo implantation and development.
Project description:Immune cells within the endometrium at implantation are thought to play an important role in implantation, although their exact role is not well understood.A co-culture system of rhesus monkey embryos and maternal immune cells was established. Blastocysts obtained by in vitro fertilization were co-cultured with peripheral blood cells or decidual macrophages. Culture media were collected to assess secretions. Embryo growth was monitored, and trophoblasts were evaluated for proliferation, apoptosis, and differentiation.Embryonic trophoblast outgrowths were visible within 6 days of culture, and the area of embryo outgrowth was reduced when blastocysts were cultured with peripheral-derived or decidual macrophages. Trophoblast proliferation was not significantly affected with macrophage co-culture while chorionic gonadotropin secretion was increased. Trophoblast expression of CDH 11 and GJA1 was increased, suggesting that macrophages accelerate differentiation of peri-implantation trophoblasts.These results indicate an important role of macrophages in placentation and pregnancy success.