Response to nicotine in heads of the tobacco aphid Myzus persicae
ABSTRACT: This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE18657: Response to nicotine (100 µM) in heads of the tobacco aphid Myzus persicae GSE18658: Response to nicotine (250 µM) in heads of the tobacco aphid Myzus persicae Refer to individual Series
Project description:Lineages of the generalist hemipteran herbivore Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) that have expanded their host range to include tobacco often have elevated nicotine tolerance. The tobacco-adapted M. persicae lineage used in this study was able to reproduce on nicotine-containing artificial diets at concentrations that were 15-fold higher than those that were lethal to a non-adapted M. persicae lineage. Fecundity of the nicotine-tolerant M. persicae lineage was increased by 100 ?M nicotine in artificial diet, suggesting that this otherwise toxic alkaloid can serve as a feeding stimulant at low concentrations. This lineage also was pre-adapted to growth on tobacco, exhibiting no drop in fecundity when it was moved onto tobacco from a different host plant. Although growth of the non-tobacco-adapted M. persicae lineage improved after three generations on tobacco, this higher reproductive rate was not associated with increased nicotine tolerance. Myzus persicae gene expression microarrays were used to identify transcripts that are up-regulated in response to nicotine in the tobacco-adapted lineage. Induced expression was found for CYP6CY3, which detoxifies nicotine in M. persicae, other genes encoding known classes of detoxifying enzymes, and genes encoding secreted M. persicae salivary proteins.
Project description:Response of the aphid head transcriptome to nicotine in artificial diets (100 µM nicotine, 24 hours feeding) Two condition experiment: heads of aphids feeding on control diet vs heads of aphids feeding on 100 µM nicotine containing diet
Project description:Response of the aphid head transcriptome to nicotine in artificial diets (250 µM nicotine, 24 hours feeding) Two condition experiment: heads of aphids feeding on control diet vs heads of aphids feeding on 250 µM nicotine containing diet
Project description:Uridine diphosphate (UDP)-glycosyltransferases (UGTs) are major phase II detoxification enzymes involved in glycosylation of lipophilic endobiotics and xenobiotics, including phytoalexins. Nicotine, one of the most abundant secondary plant metabolites in tobacco, is highly toxic to herbivorous insects. Plant-herbivore competition is the major impetus for the evolution of large superfamilies of UGTs and other detoxification enzymes. However, UGT functions in green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) adaptation are unknown. In this study, we show that UGT inhibitors (sulfinpyrazone and 5-nitrouracil) significantly increased nicotine toxicity in M. persicae nicotianae, suggesting that UGTs may be involved in nicotine tolerance. In total, 101 UGT transcripts identified in the M. persicae genome/transcriptome were renamed according to the UGT Nomenclature Committee guidelines and grouped into 11 families, UGT329, UGT330, UGT339, UGT341-UGT345, and UGT348-UGT350, with UGT344 containing the most (57). Ten UGTs (UGT330A3, UGT339A2, UGT341A6, UGT342B3, UGT343C3, UGT344D5, UGT344D8, UGT348A3, UGT349A3, and UGT350A3) were highly expressed in M. persicae nicotianae compared to M. persicae sensu stricto. Knockdown of four UGTs (UGT330A3, UGT344D5, UGT348A3, and UGT349A3) significantly increased M. persicae nicotianae sensitivity to nicotine, suggesting that UGT expression in this subspecies may be associated with nicotine tolerance and thus host adaptation. This study reveals possible UGTs relevant to nicotine adaptation in tobacco-consuming M. persicae nicotianae, and the findings will facilitate further validation of the roles of these UGTs in nicotine tolerance.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Myzus persicae, the green peach aphid, is a polyphagous herbivore that feeds from hundreds of species of mostly dicot crop plants. Like other phloem-feeding aphids, M. persicae rely on the endosymbiotic bacterium, Buchnera aphidicola (Buchnera Mp), for biosynthesis of essential amino acids and other nutrients that are not sufficiently abundant in their phloem sap diet. Tobacco-specialized M. persicae are typically red and somewhat distinct from other lineages of this species. To determine whether the endosymbiotic bacteria of M. persicae could play a role in tobacco adaptation, we sequenced the Buchnera Mp genomes from two tobacco-adapted and two non-tobacco M. persicae lineages. RESULTS: With a genome size of 643.5 kb and 579 predicted genes, Buchnera Mp is the largest Buchnera genome sequenced to date. No differences in gene content were found between the four sequenced Buchnera Mp strains. Compared to Buchnera APS from the well-studied pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, Buchnera Mp has 21 additional genes. These include genes encoding five enzymes required for biosynthesis of the modified nucleoside queosine, the heme pathway enzyme uroporphyrinogen III synthase, and asparaginase. Asparaginase, which is also encoded by the genome of the aphid host, may allow Buchnera Mp to synthesize essential amino acids from asparagine, a relatively abundant phloem amino acid. CONCLUSIONS: Together our results indicate that the obligate intracellular symbiont Buchnera aphidicola does not contribute to the adaptation of Myzus persicae to feeding on tobacco.
Project description:The aim of this experiment was to compare the transciptome of the peach-potato aphid (Myzus persicae) clone 4106a (a laboratory insecticide-susceptible standard collected from potato in Scotland in 2000) with clone 5191A (an insecticide resistant aphid clone collected from tobacco in Greece in 2007) to identify which genes are over or underexpressed in the resistant phenotype. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, 4106a vs. 5191a Myzus persicae clones. Biological replicates: 4 pools of RNA extracted from ten 15 day old aphids of each clone. Technical Replicates: Two technical reps incorporating a dye swap. Total replication: eight replicates for each clone.
Project description:The green peach aphid, Myzus persicae (Sulzer), is a world-wide insect pest capable of infesting more than 40 plant families, including many crop species. However, despite the significant damage inflicted by M. persicae in agricultural systems through direct feeding damage and by its ability to transmit plant viruses, limited genomic information is available for this species.Sequencing of 16 M. persicae cDNA libraries generated 26,669 expressed sequence tags (ESTs). Aphids for library construction were raised on Arabidopsis thaliana, Nicotiana benthamiana, Brassica oleracea, B. napus, and Physalis floridana (with and without Potato leafroll virus infection). The M. persicae cDNA libraries include ones made from sexual and asexual whole aphids, guts, heads, and salivary glands. In silico comparison of cDNA libraries identified aphid genes with tissue-specific expression patterns, and gene expression that is induced by feeding on Nicotiana benthamiana. Furthermore, 2423 genes that are novel to science and potentially aphid-specific were identified. Comparison of cDNA data from three aphid lineages identified single nucleotide polymorphisms that can be used as genetic markers and, in some cases, may represent functional differences in the protein products. In particular, non-conservative amino acid substitutions in a highly expressed gut protease may be of adaptive significance for M. persicae feeding on different host plants. The Agilent eArray platform was used to design an M. persicae oligonucleotide microarray representing over 10,000 unique genes.New genomic resources have been developed for M. persicae, an agriculturally important insect pest. These include previously unknown sequence data, a collection of expressed genes, molecular markers, and a DNA microarray that can be used to study aphid gene expression. These resources will help elucidate the adaptations that allow M. persicae to develop compatible interactions with its host plants, complementing ongoing work illuminating plant molecular responses to phloem-feeding insects.
Project description:The complex interactions between aphids and their host plant are species-specific and involve multiple layers of recognition and defense. Aphid salivary proteins, which are released into the plant during phloem feeding, are a likely mediator of these interactions. In an approach to identify aphid effectors that facilitate feeding from host plants, eleven Myzus persicae (green peach aphid) salivary proteins and the GroEL protein of Buchnera aphidicola, a bacterial endosymbiont of this aphid species, were expressed transiently in Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). Whereas two salivary proteins increased aphid reproduction, expression of three other aphid proteins and GroEL significantly decreased aphid reproduction on N. tabacum. These effects were recapitulated in stable transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana plants. Further experiments with A. thaliana expressing Mp55, a salivary protein that increased aphid reproduction, showed lower accumulation of 4-methoxyindol-3-ylmethylglucosinolate, callose and hydrogen peroxide in response to aphid feeding. Mp55-expressing plants also were more attractive for aphids in choice assays. Silencing Mp55 gene expression in M. persicae using RNA interference approaches reduced aphid reproduction on N. tabacum, A. thaliana, and N. benthamiana. Together, these results demonstrate a role for Mp55, a protein with as-yet-unknown molecular function, in the interaction of M. persicae with its host plants.