E.coli DH5alpha cells: reuterin-treated vs. untreated control cells
ABSTRACT: Transcriptional profiling of E. coli DH5alpha cells comparing control untreated cells with cells exposed to sublethal concentrations of reuterin (3-hydroxypropionaldehyde). Two-condition experiment, reuterin-treated vs. untreated control E. coli DH5alpha cells. 5 biological replicate sets of reuterin-treated vs. untreated cells which were independently grown and harvested. Each array is probed with 1 replicate set.
Project description:Background: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short non-coding RNAs predicted to regulate one third of protein-coding genes via mRNA targeting. In conjunction with key transcription factors, such as the repressor REST (RE1 silencing transcription factor), miRNAs play crucial roles in neurogenesis, which requires a highly orchestrated program of gene expression to ensure the appropriate development and function of diverse neural cell types. Whilst previous studies have highlighted select groups of miRNAs during neural development, there remains a need for amenable models in which miRNA expression and function can be analyzed over the duration of neurogenesis. Principal Findings: We performed large-scale expression profiling of miRNAs in human NTera2/D1 (NT2) cells during retinoic acid (RA)-induced transition from progenitors to fully differentiated neural phenotypes. Our results revealed dynamic changes of miRNA patterns, resulting in distinct miRNA subsets that could be linked to specific neurodevelopmental stages. Moreover, the cell-type specific miRNA subsets were very similar in NT2-derived differentiated cells and human primary neurons and astrocytes. Further analysis identified miRNAs as putative regulators of REST, as well as candidate miRNAs targeted by REST. Finally, we confirmed the existence of two predicted miRNAs; pred-MIR191 and pred-MIR222 associated with SLAIN1 and FOXP2, respectively, and provided some evidence of their potential co-regulation. Conclusions: In the present study, we demonstrate that regulation of miRNAs occurs in precise patterns indicative of their roles in cell fate commitment, progenitor expansion and differentiation into neurons and glia. Furthermore, the similarity between our NT2 system and primary human cells suggests their roles in molecular pathways critical for human in vivo neurogenesis. The experiment consists of a total of 51 arrays: 29 retinoic acid time series arrays (0,2,4,6,8,12,14,21 and 28 days), 2 each of NT2-derived neurons and astrocytes, 12 primary human fetal astrocytes, 3 primary human embryonic astrocytes and 3 primary human neurons. Each condition has a minimum of 2 biological replicates. The samples were compared as single channel experiments. NOTE: The raw data files were submitted as generated in Quantarray with 2 channels, but due to issues with the control sample dye (Cy5 on Channel 1), only the Channel 2 (Cy3) data was analysed.
Project description:Calcineurin plays an important role in the control of cell morphology and virulence in fungi. Calcineurin is a serine/threonine-specific protein phosphatase heterodimer consisting of a catalytic subunit A and a regulatory Ca2+/Calmodulin binding subunit. A mutant of A. fumigatus lacking the calcineurin A (calA) catalytic subunit exhibited defective hyphal morphology related to apical extension and branching growth, which resulted in drastically decreased filamentation. Here, we investigated which pathways are influenced by A. fumigatus calcineurin during proliferation by comparatively determining the transcriptional profile of A. fumigatus wild type and delta calA mutant strains. Our results showed that although the mitochondrial function is reduced in the delta calA mutant strain, its respiratory chain is functional and the mutant has increased alternative oxidase (aoxA) mRNA accumulation and activity. Furthermore, we identified several genes that encode transcription factors that have increased mRNA expression in the delta calA mutant and that could be involved in the Cal-CrzA pathway. Deletion mutants for these transcription factors had also reduced susceptibility to itraconazole, caspofungin, and sodium dodcyl sulfate. For the time course microarray experiments, 1.0 x 109 conidia of both A. fumigatus wild type [CEA17 delta akuB(KU80)] and mutant strain (delta calA) were used to inoculate 400 ml of pre-warmed liquid cultures in complete medium (YG) in 1 L erlenmeyer flasks. Cultures were allowed to grow for 6, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours in a reciprocal shaker (250 rpm) at 37°C. At each time point, germilings were harvested by centrifugation or filtration and total RNA was extracted. Hybridization experiments were competitive using Cy3 or Cy5-labeled probes derived from both wild type and delta calA strain grown for 6, 8, 12, 18 and 24 hours. Hybridizations were performed using the wild type RNA as reference in comparison to the mutant strain (test RNA) for the same time point. Normalized signal intensities were used to generate relative hybridization ratios (query/reference). Following normalization, the values for each gene in-slide replicates were condensed (median variance <0.01), and corresponding flip-dye replicates were averaged to compensate for dye-specific effects (see Supplementary files linked below).
Project description:P. profundum SS9 strain cells were grown at two different temperatures 4°C and 16°C. RNA extracted from the two different cultures was labelled with Cy5 and Cy3 and competitively hybridized on the same slide.
Project description:P. profundum SS9 strain cells were grown at two different pressure conditions 45 MPa and at 28 MPa. RNA extracted from the two different cultures was labelled with Cy5 and Cy3 and competitively hybridized on the same slide.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of head tissue of Drosophila Darkener of apricot (Doa) and found in neurons (fne) mutants was performed by RNA-SEQ in females and males. The transcriptional and post-transcriptional targets of these genes, which are involved in regulation by several processes including splicing and mRNA stability, are examined and compared to wild-type. Examination of mRNA profiles in heads of wild-type male and female adult flies are compared to mutant
Project description:CRZ is a C2H2 zinc finger transcription factor activated by calcineurin, a protein phosphatase activated by calcium-calmodulin, in different stress conditions related with calcium cell accumulation. CRZ binds to a specific element on the promoter region of genes called CDRE (calcineurin-dependent response element) shown to be sufficient for calcium- and calcineurin-dependent gene expression. In order to investigate which pathways are involved under calcium stress conditions, we determined the transcriptional profile of A. fumigatus delta crzA mutant strain upon a time course 200 mM calcium chloride treatment. Conidia from the mutant and wild type strains were incubated at 37°C in complete medium for 16 hours and were challenged with 200 mM calcium chloride for 10 and 30 minutes. At each time point, the mycelia were harvested by centrifugation and used for competitive microarray hybridizations. We were able to observe a decreased mRNA expression of genes encoding inorganic ion transport proteins and lipid transport. In contrast, increased mRNA expression was observed for several genes involved in transcription, energy production and conversion, cell cycle control, cell division, chromosome partitioning, amino acid, lipid and carbohydrate transport and metabolism, nucleotide transport, cell wall and membrane biogenesis, posttranslation modifications, protein turnover, chaperones, inorganic ion transport, signal transduction mechanisms, intracellular trafficking, secretion and vesicular transport. Keywords: gene expression array-based (log2 ratio) For the time course microarray experiments, 5.0 x 108 conidia of A. fumigatus wild type [CEA17 delta akuB(KU80)] and delta crzA strains were inoculated in 300 ml of pre-warmed liquid cultures (YG) in 500-mL erlenmeyer flasks and allowed to grow for 16 hours in a reciprocal shaker (250 rpm) at 37°C. After this time, the cultures were added by calcium chloride (200 mM) and incubated for 10 and 30 more minutes before mycelia recovery and RNA extraction. Hybridization experiments were competitive using probes derived from calcium chloride shock cultures using the wild type strain exposed to calcium (10 or 30 minutes) as the reference RNA for every hybridizantion. Normalized signal intensities were used to generate relative hybridization ratios (query/reference). Following normalization, the values for each gene's in-slide replicates were averaged (median variance <0.01), and corresponding flip-dye replicates were averaged to compensate for dye-specific effects. These final, processed data are linked below as supplementary files.
Project description:We sequenced mRNA from head tissue of females and male of Drosophila melanogaster to identify genes differentially expressed between the sexes and sex-specific alternative splicing events. For data usage terms and conditions, please refer to http://www.genome.gov/27528022 and http://www.genome.gov/Pages/Research/ENCODE/ENCODEDataReleasePolicyFinal2008.pdf Comparison of expression profiles in female and male head tissue from D. melanogaster
Project description:The use of data-independent acquisition methods such as SWATH for mass spectrometry based proteomics is usually performed using peptide MS/MS reference ion assay libraries which enable identification and quantitation of peptide peak areas. Reference assay libraries can be generated locally through information dependent acquisition, or obtained from shared data repositories for commonly studied organisms. However, there have been no studies performed to systematically evaluate how locally-generated or repository-based assay libraries affect SWATH performance for proteomic studies. To undertake this analysis we developed a software workflow, SwathXtend, which generates extended peptide assay libraries using a local seed library and delivers statistical analysis of SWATH-based sample comparisons. We designed test samples using peptides from a yeast extract spiked into peptides from human K562 cell lysates at different ratios to simulate common protein abundance change comparisons. SWATH-MS data with 2, 5 and 10% of yeast peptides spiked into the human cell lysate were assessed using several local and repository-based assay libraries of different complexities and proteome compositions. We evaluated detection specificity and accuracy to detect differentially abundant proteins and reporting thresholds for statistical analyses. We demonstrate that extended assay libraries integrated with local seed libraries achieve better performance than local limited assay libraries alone from the aspects of the number of peptides and proteins identified and the specificity to detect differentially abundant proteins; the performance of extended assay libraries heavily depend on the similarity of the seed and add-on libraries; statistical analysis with multiple testing correction can improve the statistical rigor needed when using large, extended assay libraries.
Project description:To determine the transcriptional effects of a novel plant-based compound, dehydrobrachylaenolide, on P. falciparum, parasite cultures were treated with the compound over time. Samples were taken for analysis 2, 6, and 12 hours post-invasion of human red blood cells. Control cultures were treated simultaneously with DMSO, and samples isolated at 2, 6, and 12 hours for transcriptional analysis. Background Antimalarial drug resistance threatens to undermine efforts to eliminate this deadly disease. The resulting omnipresent requirement for drugs with novel modes of action prompted a national consortium initiative to discover new antiplasmodial agents from South African medicinal plants. One of the plants selected for investigation was Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii, based on its ethnomedicinal profile. Methods Standard phytochemical analysis techniques including solvent-solvent extraction, thin-layer and column chromatography, were used to isolate the main active constituent of Dicoma anomala subsp. gerrardii. The crystallised pure compound was identified using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, mass spectrometry and X-ray crystallography. The compound was tested in vitro on Plasmodium falciparum cultures using the parasite lactate dehydrogenase assay. The effects of treatment on the P. falciparum transcriptome were subsequently investigated by treating ring-stage parasites (alongside untreated controls) with the pure compound, followed by oligonucleotide microarray and data analysis. Results The main active constituent was identified as dehydrobrachylaenolide, a eudesmanolide-type sesquiterpene lactone. The compound demonstrated an in vitro IC50 of 245.6 nM, which was comparable to the IC50 of chloroquine, against a chloroquine-resistant strain (K1) of P. falciparum. Microarray data analysis identified a cluster of unique genes that were differentially expressed as a result of the treatment and gene ontology analysis identified various biological processes that were significantly affected. Comparison of the dehydrobrachylaenolide treatment transcriptional dataset with a published artesunate (also a sesquiterpene lactone) dataset revealed little overlap. This suggests differentiated modes of action between the two compounds. Conclusions Dehydrobrachylaenolide could play a valuable role as a drug candidate to generate new antimalarial compounds with novel modes of action and favourable ADMET properties. Reference design. Transcriptional analysis was performed as described in GSE18075 with the following modification. Profiles from parasite cultures isolated 2hrs after drug treatment during early ring-stage development were contrasted against untreated control cultures isolated at this timepoint. Profiles from parasites isolated 6 and 12 hours following drug treatment were contrasted to against untreated control cultures isolated at 6 hours. A detailed description of the statistical methodology used for this dataset is outlined in the accompanying manuscript. A reference design was employed for array hybridisation, utilising the URR pool described previously in the NCBI GEO Series GSE18075 dataset. All solvent-control and drug-treated samples were hybridised to Operon slides, along with the URR. In contrast to the hybridisation protocol described in GSE18075, 40 pmoles of each dye was hybridised to each array, utilising Cy3 (sample) and Cy5 (reference) dyes from GE Healthcare (#RPN5661), specifically optimised for nucleic acid labelling. A total of nineteen slides were processed in the study. Two independent cDNA samples (biological replicates) were prepared for each untreated and drug-treated sample at each time point. One of the biological replicate cDNA samples were additionally hybridised to a third slide (representing the technical replicate). In the case of the 2 hour DMSO treated control culture, an additional technical microarray replicate was included for quality control purposes. GenePix results (gpr) files were generated using GenePix 6.0 (Molecular Devices) software, without normalization. For clustering analyses, results files were normalized with DNMAD (Diagnosis and Normalization for MicroArray Data) using print-tip loess. The normalized values were subsequently downloaded and analyzed with the Multiexperiment Viewer (MeV) in the TM4 software suite. Hierarchical Clustering (HCL, average linkage) was performed to estimate technical and biological variation between samples and at which point cytostasis most likely occurred for comparative purposes in downstream analyses. Intensity data for individual slides were imported into LIMMA (linear models for microarray data) in the R computing environment. Pre- and post-normalization diagnostic plots were performed using MARRAY. Data from each microarray slide was normalized using print-tip loess. Data between microarrays was normalized using R-Quantile normalisation. Pearson correlations were computed in MS Excel to estimate variation between technical and biological replicates. Spots excluded from slide correlations and normalisation were those weighted by the limma script or flagged in the genepix results file (gpr). Additionally, spots termed Alien, Empty, Null and Operon Use Only were excluded from the correlation analyses. These spots were similarly excluded for correlations between untreated and treated samples at each time point following normalisation. Results from biological and slide replicates within each of the time points were collated, and linear models were computed to contrast gene expression between time points. A two-fold change in gene expression was used as cut-off, in conjunction with correction for false discovery (false discovery rate (FDR) = 5%). Analysis of differentially expressed genes was performed in MADIBA (Micro Array Data Interface for Biological Annotation).
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of P. falciparum cultures treated with cyclohexylamine over time (18, 25 and 30 hours post invasion) A control experiment was also set up in which P. falciparum was not treated with cyclohexylamine, and samples were taken at 18, 25 and 30 h post invasion). Background Plasmodium falciparum, the causative agent of severe human malaria, has evolved to become resistant to previously successful antimalarial chemotherapies, most notably chloroquine and the antifolates. The prevalence of resistant strains has necessitated the discovery and development of new chemical entities with novel modes-of-action. Although much effort has been invested in the creation of analogues based on existing drugs and the screening of chemical and natural compound libraries, a crucial shortcoming in current Plasmodial drug discovery efforts remains the lack of an extensive set of novel, validated drug targets. A requirement of these targets (or the pathways in which they function) is that they prove essential for parasite survival. The polyamine biosynthetic pathway, responsible for the metabolism of highly abundant amines crucial for parasite growth, proliferation and differentiation, is currently under investigation as an antimalarial target. Chemotherapeutic strategies targeting this pathway have been successfully utilized for the treatment of Trypanosomes causing West African sleeping sickness. In order to further evaluate polyamine depletion as possible antimalarial intervention, the consequences of inhibiting P. falciparum spermidine synthase (PfSpdSyn) were examined on a morphological, transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic level. Results Morphological analysis of P. falciparum 3D7 following application of the PfSpdSyn inhibitor cyclohexylamine confirmed that parasite development was completely arrested at the early trophozoite stage. This is in contrast to untreated parasites which progressed to late trophozoites at comparable time points. Global gene expression analyses confirmed a transcriptional arrest in the parasite. Several of the differentially expressed genes mapped to the polyamine biosynthetic and associated metabolic pathways. Differential expression of corresponding parasite proteins involved in polyamine biosynthesis was also observed. Most notably, uridine phosphorylase, adenosine deaminase, lysine decarboxylase (LDC) and S-adenosylmethionine synthetase were differentially expressed at the transcript and/or protein level. Several genes in associated metabolic pathways (purine metabolism and various methyltransferases) were also affected. The specific nature of the perturbation was additionally reflected by changes in polyamine metabolite levels. Conclusions This study details the malaria parasite’s response to PfSpdSyn inhibition on the transcriptomic, proteomic and metabolic levels. The results corroborate and significantly expand previous functional genomics studies relating to polyamine depletion in this parasite. Moreover, they confirm the role of transcriptional regulation in P. falciparum, particularly in this pathway. The findings promote this essential pathway as a target for antimalarial chemotherapeutic intervention strategies. Keywords: Time course experiment in response to a drug treatment Reference design. All timepoints compared with t = 18 hours (untreated) post invasion. Two biological replicates and one technical sample per treatment and per time point. A reference design was employed for array hybridisation, utilising the URR pool described previously. All solvent-control and drug-treated sampled were hybridised to Operon slides, along with the URR. For each time point and each untreated/treated sample, three microarray slides were processed, such that a total of eighteen slides were processed in the study. Two independent cDNA samples (biological replicates) were prepared for each untreated and drug-treated sample at each time point. One of the biological replicate cDNA samples were additionally hybridised to a third slide (representing the technical replicate). GenePix results (gpr) files were generated using GenePix 6.0 (Molecular Devices) software, without normalization. For clustering analyses, results files were normalized with DNMAD (Diagnosis and Normalization for MicroArray Data) using print-tip loess. The normalized values were subsequently downloaded and analyzed with the Multiexperiment Viewer (MeV) in the TM4 software suite. Hierarchical Clustering (HCL, average linkage) was performed to estimate technical and biological variation between samples and at which point cytostasis most likely occurred for comparative purposes in downstream analyses. Intensity data for individual slides were imported into LIMMA (linear models for microarray data) in the R computing environment. Pre- and post-normalization diagnostic plots were performed using MARRAY. Data from each microarray slide was normalized using print-tip loess. Data between microarrays was normalized using rquantile normalisation. Pearson correlations were computed in ExCel to estimate variation between technical and biological replicates. Spots excluded from slide correlations and normalisation were those weighted by the limma script or flagged in the genepix results file (gpr). Additionally, spots termed Alien, Empty, Null and Operon Use Only were excluded from the correlation analyses. These spots were similarly excluded for correlations between untreated and treated samples at each time point following normalisation. Results from biological and slide replicates within each of the time points were collated, and linear models were computed to contrast gene expression between time points. A two-fold change in gene expression was used as cut-off, in conjunction with correction for false discovery (false discovery rate (FDR) = 5%). Normalised data was deposited in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, number GSE18075. Analysis of differentially expressed genes was performed in MADIBA (Micro Array Data Interface for Biological Annotation).