ABSTRACT: Transcriptional profiling of human mesenchymal stem cells comparing normoxic MSCs cells with hypoxic MSCs cells. Hypoxia may inhibit senescence of MSCs during expansion. Goal was to determine the effects of hypoxia on global MSCs gene expression. Two-condition experiment, Normoxic MSCs vs. Hypoxic MSCs.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of human mesenchymal stem cells comparing normoxic MSCs cells with hypoxic MSCs cells. Hypoxia may inhibit senescence of MSCs during expansion. Goal was to determine the effects of hypoxia on global MSCs gene expression. Two-condition experiment, Normoxic MSCs vs. Hypoxic MSCs.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Hypoxia has been shown to be able to induce tenogenic differentiation and proliferation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) which lead hypoxia-induced MSCs to be a potential treatment for tendon injury. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the tenogenic differentiation and proliferation process of hypoxic MSCs, which limited the application of differentiation-inducing therapies in tendon repair. This study was designed to investigate the role of Mohawk homeobox (Mkx) in tenogenic differentiation and proliferation of hypoxic MSCs.<h4>Methods</h4>qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were performed to evaluate the expression of Mkx and other tendon-associated markers in adipose-derived MSCs (AMSCs) and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) under hypoxia condition. Small interfering RNA technique was applied to observe the effect of Mkx levels on the expression of tendon-associated markers in normoxic and hypoxic BMSCs. Hypoxic BMSCs infected with Mkx-specific short hair RNA (shRNA) or scramble were implanted into the wound gaps of injured patellar tendons to assess the effect of Mkx levels on tendon repair. In addition, cell counting kit-8 assay, colony formation unit assay, cell cycle analysis, and EdU assay were adopted to determine the proliferation capacity of normoxic or hypoxic BMSCs infected with or without Mkx-specific shRNA.<h4>Results</h4>Our data showed that the expression of Mkx significantly increased in hypoxic AMSCs and increased much higher in hypoxic BMSCs. Our results also detected that the expression of tenogenic differentiation markers after downregulation of Mkx were significantly decreased not only in normoxic BMSCs, but also in hypoxic BMSCs which paralleled the inferior histological evidences, worse biomechanical properties, and smaller diameters of collagen fibrils in vivo. In addition, our in vitro data demonstrated that the optical density values, the clone numbers, the percentage of cells in S phage, and cell proliferation potential of both normoxic and hypoxic BMSCs were all significantly increased after knockdown of Mkx and were also significantly enhanced in both AMSCs and BMSCs in hypoxia condition under which the expression of Mkx was upregulated.<h4>Conclusions</h4>These findings strongly suggested that Mkx mediated hypoxia-induced tenogenic differentiation of MSCs but could not completely repress the proliferation of hypoxic MSCs.
Project description:Background. The interests in mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their application in cell therapy have resulted in a better understanding of the basic biology of these cells. Recently hypoxia has been indicated as crucial for complete chondrogenesis. We aimed at analyzing bone marrow MSCs (BM-MSCs) differentiation capacity under normoxic and severe hypoxic culture conditions. Methods. MSCs were characterized by flow cytometry and differentiated towards adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes under normoxic or severe hypoxic conditions. The differentiations were confirmed comparing each treated point with a control point made of cells grown in DMEM and fetal bovine serum (FBS). Results. BM-MSCs from the donors displayed only few phenotypical differences in surface antigens expressions. Analyzing marker genes expression levels of the treated cells compared to their control point for each lineage showed a good differentiation in normoxic conditions and the absence of this differentiation capacity in severe hypoxic cultures. Conclusions. In our experimental conditions, severe hypoxia affects the in vitro differentiation potential of BM-MSCs. Adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic differentiations are absent in severe hypoxic conditions. Our work underlines that severe hypoxia slows cell differentiation by means of molecular mechanisms since a decrease in the expression of adipocyte-, osteoblast-, and chondrocyte-specific genes was observed.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of human mesenchymal stem cells comparing normoxic MSCs cells with hypoxic MSCs cells. Hypoxia may inhibit senescence of MSCs during expansion. Goal was to determine the effects of hypoxia on global MSCs gene expression. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, Normoxic MSCs vs. Hypoxic MSCs.
Project description:Tendon injury is a common but tough medical problem. Unsatisfactory clinical results have been reported in tendon repair using mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy, creating a need for a better strategy to induce MSCs to tenogenic differentiation. This study was designed to examine the effect of hypoxia on the tenogenic differentiation of different MSCs and their tenogenic differentiation capacities under hypoxia condition in vitro and to investigate the in vivo inductility of hypoxia in tenogenesis. Adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AMSCs) and bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) were isolated and characterized. The expression of hypoxia-induced factor-1 alpha (Hif-1?) was examined to confirm the establishment of hypoxia condition. qRT-PCR, western blot, and immunofluorescence staining were used to evaluate the expression of tendon-associated marker Col-1a1, Col-3a1, Dcn, and Tnmd in AMSCs and BMSCs under hypoxia condition, compared with Tgf-?1 induction. In vivo, a patellar tendon injury model was established. Normoxic and hypoxic BMSCs were cultured and implanted. Histological, biomechanical, and transmission electron microscopy analyses were performed to assess the improved healing effect of hypoxic BMSCs on tendon injury. Our in vitro results showed that hypoxia remarkably increased the expression of Hif-1? and that hypoxia not only promoted a significant increase in tenogenic markers in both AMSCs and BMSCs compared with the normoxia group but also showed higher inductility compared with Tgf-?1. In addition, hypoxic BMSCs exhibited higher potential of tenogenic differentiation than hypoxic AMSCs. Our in vivo results demonstrated that hypoxic BMSCs possessed better histological and biomechanical properties than normoxic BMSCs, as evidenced by histological scores, patellar tendon biomechanical parameters, and the range and average of collagen fibril diameters. These findings suggested that hypoxia may be a practical and reliable strategy to induce tenogenic differentiation of BMSCs for tendon repair and could enhance the effectiveness of MSCs therapy in treating tendon injury.
Project description:BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) derived from bone marrow (BM-MSCs) and adipose tissue (AT-MSCs) are being applied to equine cell therapy. The physiological environment in which MSCs reside is hypoxic and does not resemble the oxygen level typically used in in vitro culture (20% O2). This work compares the growth kinetics, viability, cell cycle, phenotype and expression of pluripotency markers in both equine BM-MSCs and AT-MSCs at 5% and 20% O2. RESULTS: At the conclusion of culture, fewer BM-MSCs were obtained in hypoxia than in normoxia as a result of significantly reduced cell division. Hypoxic AT-MSCs proliferated less than normoxic AT-MSCs because of a significantly higher presence of non-viable cells during culture. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that the immunophenotype of both MSCs was maintained in both oxygen conditions. Gene expression analysis using RT-qPCR showed that statistically significant differences were only found for CD49d in BM-MSCs and CD44 in AT-MSCs. Similar gene expression patterns were observed at both 5% and 20% O2 for the remaining surface markers. Equine MSCs expressed the embryonic markers NANOG, OCT4 and SOX2 in both oxygen conditions. Additionally, hypoxic cells tended to display higher expression, which might indicate that hypoxia retains equine MSCs in an undifferentiated state. CONCLUSIONS: Hypoxia attenuates the proliferative capacity of equine MSCs, but does not affect the phenotype and seems to keep them more undifferentiated than normoxic MSCs.
Project description:Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSCs) display a variety of therapeutically relevant effects, such as the induction of angiogenesis, particularly under hypoxic conditions. It is generally recognized that MSCs exert their effects by secretion of paracrine factors and by stimulation of host cells. Furthermore, there is increasing evidence that some therapeutically relevant effects of MSCs are mediated by MSC-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs). Since our current knowledge on MSC-derived EVs released under hypoxic conditions is very limited, we aimed to characterize MSC-derived EVs from normoxic vs. hypoxic conditions (5% O2). Adipose-derived MSCs were grown under normoxic and hypoxic conditions, and EVs were analyzed by flow cytometry using lactadherin as a marker for EVs exposing phosphatidylserine, CD63 and CD81 as EV markers, as well as CD73 and CD90 as MSC surface markers. Particle concentration and size distribution were measured by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and the EV surface antigen signature was characterized using bead-based multiplex flow cytometry. Furthermore, we evaluated the potential of MSC-derived EVs obtained under hypoxic conditions to support angiogenesis using an in vitro assay with an hTERT-immortalized human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVEC) line. Proliferation and viability of MSCs were increased under hypoxic conditions. EV concentration, size, and surface signature did not differ significantly between normoxic and hypoxic conditions, with the exception of CD44, which was significantly upregulated on normoxic EVs. EVs from hypoxic conditions exhibited increased tube formation as compared to normoxic EVs or to the corresponding supernatants from both groups, indicating that tube formation is facilitated by EVs rather than by soluble factors. In conclusion, hypoxia conditioned MSC-derived EVs appear to be functionally more potent than normoxic MSC-derived EVs regarding the induction of angiogenesis.
Project description:To ensure the survival of engineered bone after implantation, we combined human endothelial colony forming cells (ECFCs) and multipotent stromal cells (MSCs) as a proof of concept in a co-culture model to create in vitro prevascularized bone constructs. We hypothesized that a hypoxic stimulus will contribute to prevascularization of engineered bone. Bone marrow-derived MSCs and ECFCs from human adult peripheral blood were allowed to form co-culture pellets containing ECFCs and MSCs (1:4) or MSCs only in controls. After culture under normoxia or hypoxia (5%), pellets were harvested and processed for immunohistochemistry of CD31, ?-smooth muscle actin, and osteocalcin. Expression of vascular endothelial growth factor and SDF-1? was analyzed by PCR to elucidate their involvement in hypoxic stimulation of prevascularization. The normoxic condition in co-cultures of MSCs and ECFCs supported the formation and maintenance of prevascular structures, including organized CD31-positive cells embraced by differentiated mural cells. These structures failed to form in hypoxic conditions, thereby rejecting the hypothesis that hypoxia stimulates prevasculogenesis in three-dimensional engineered bone constructs. Further, the formation of prevascular structures was paralleled by increased SDF-1? expression. It is suggested that actual oxygen levels were below 5% in the hypoxic co-cultures, which prevented prevascular structure formation. In conclusion, our normoxic co-culture model containing cells from clinically relevant sources sustained simultaneous endothelial, smooth muscle, and osteogenic differentiation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Treatment with bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) has been demonstrated to be an excellent cellular-based therapeutic strategy for treating myocardial infarction (MI). However, most of the patients suffering with MI are elderly. Hypoxic conditions can cause apoptosis of BM-MSCs, and this type of apoptosis is more prevalent in aged BM-MSCs. Decreased autophagy is one of the mechanisms underlying aging. The aim of this study is to uncover whether the increased hypoxic injury of aged BM-MSCs is due to autophagy and whether reducing autophagy diminishes the tolerance of hypoxia in aged BM-MSCs. METHODS:Young and aged BM-MSCs were isolated from male young and aged GFP/Fluc transgenic C57BL/6 mice respectively and then exposed to hypoxia and serum deprivation (H/SD) injury. The apoptosis level induced by H/SD was measured by terminal deoxynucleotidy transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Additionally, autophagy was analyzed via transfection with plasmids encoding green fluorescent protein-microtubule-associated protein lightchain3 (GFP-LC3), and autophagic vacuoles were visualized with transmission electron microscopy. Meanwhile, protein expression was measured by western blot analysis. Autophagic activity was manipulated by the administration of IGF-1 (insulin-like growth factor siRNA) and 3-methyladenine (3MA). Furthermore, young, aged, and the IGF-1 siRNA-transfected aged BM-MSCs were transplanted to myocardial infarcted adult C57BL/6 mice respectively. In vivo longitudinal in vivo bioluminescence imaging (BLI) of transplanted BM-MSCs was performed to monitor the survival of transplanted BM-MSCs in each groups. RESULTS:Aged BM-MSCs exhibited a higher rate of apoptosis compared with young BM-MSCs under hypoxic conditions. Additionally, the level of autophagy was lower in aged BM-MSCs compared with young BM-MSCs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Meanwhile, hypoxia decreased the activity of the protein kinase B (Akt) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathway in young and aged BM-MSCs, but aged BM-MSCs exhibited a relatively stronger Akt/mTOR activity compared with young BM-MSCs. In addition, IGF-1 knockdown significantly decreased the level of apoptosis in aged BM-MSCs under normoxic and hypoxic conditions. IGF-1 knockdown also decreased the activity of the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway and increased the level of autophagy in aged BM-MSCs under hypoxic condition. Furthermore, IGF-1 knockdown protected aged BM-MSCs from hypoxic injury by increasing the level of autophagy, thereby promoting the survival of aged BM-MSCs after myocardial infarction transplantation. CONCLUSION:This study demonstrates that reducing autophagy decreases the hypoxia tolerance of aged BM-MSCs. Maintaining optimal levels of autophagy may serve as a new strategy in treating MI by BM-MSC transplantation in aged patients.
Project description:<h4>Background and objectives</h4>Although it is well known that hypoxic culture conditions enhance proliferation of human mesenchymal stem cells, the exact mechanism is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of fibroblast growth factor (FGF)-17 from hypoxic human Wharton's Jelly-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hWJ-MSCs) on cell proliferation at late passages.<h4>Methods and results</h4>hWJ-MSCs were cultured in <i>α</i>-MEM medium supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS) in normoxic (21% O<sub>2</sub>) and hypoxic (1% O<sub>2</sub>) conditions. Protein antibody array was performed to analyze secretory proteins in conditioned medium from normoxic and hypoxic hWJ-MSCs at passage 10. Cell proliferation of hypoxic hWJ-MSCs was increased compared with normoxic hWJ-MSCs from passage 7 to 10, and expression of secretory FGF-17 was highly increased in conditioned medium from hypoxic hWJ-MSCs at passage 10. Knockdown of FGF-17 in hypoxic and normoxic hWJ-MSCs decreased cell proliferation, whereas treatment of hypoxic and normoxic hWJ-MSCs with recombinant protein FGF-17 increased their proliferation. Signal transduction of FGF-17 in hypoxic and normoxic hWJ-MSCs involved the ERK1/2 pathway. Cell phenotypes were not changed under either condition. Differentiation-related genes <i>adiponectin</i>, <i>Runx2</i>, and <i>chondroadherin</i> were downregulated in normoxic hWJ-MSCs treated with rFGF-17, and upregulated by siFGF-17. Expression of <i>alkaline phosphatase</i> (<i>ALP</i>), <i>Runx2</i>, and <i>chondroadherin</i> was upregulated in hypoxic hWJ-MSCs, and this effect was rescued by transfection with siFGF-17. Only <i>chondroadherin</i> was upregulated in hypoxic hWJ-MSCs with rFGF-17.<h4>Conclusions</h4>In hypoxic culture conditions, FGF-17 from hypoxic hWJ-MSCs contributes to the maintenance of high proliferation at late passages through the ERK1/2 pathway.