Comparative genomics of ten clinical Candida albicans strains
ABSTRACT: Candida albicans is the most common fungal pathogen in humans. C.albicans tolerates aneuploidy of all of its chromosomes. Genome plasticity is a hallmark of C.albicans. It is an adaptation strategy of this species. But questions like the extent of such genomic variability, which genes contribute to the divergence, and what mechanisms drive the adaptive genetic change, are not well answered yet. We used array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) to investigate the diversity of gene contents of 10 clinical C.albicans strains, of various anatomical origins and genotypes. One self to self hybridization was included as a control.
Project description:To investigate the diversity of gene contents of Candida albicans strain by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH; aCGH). the srd1 null mutant Candida albicans strain CaLY202 was selected to carry out the comparative genomics microarray. Two-condition experiment, CaLY202 vs.SN152. Biological replicates: 2 control, 2 transfected, independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array.
Project description:To investigate the diversity of gene contents of Candida albicans strain by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH; aCGH). A fluconazole-resistant Candida albicans strain CaLY350 was selected to carry out the comparative genomics microarray. Two-condition experiment, CaLY350 vs.SN152. Biological replicates: 2 control, 2 transfected, independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array.
Project description:To investigate the diversity of gene contents of Candida albicans strain by array-based comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH; aCGH). A fluconazole-resistant variant Candida albicans strain CaLY188 was selected to carry out the comparative genomics microarray. Two-condition experiment, CaLY188 vs.SN152. Biological replicates: 2 control, 2 transfected, independently grown and harvested. One replicate per array.
Project description:Chorioamnionitis is caused by intrauterine infection with microorganisms including Candida albicans (C.albicans). Chorioamnionitis is associated with postnatal intestinal pathologies including necrotizing enterocolitis. The underlying mechanisms by which intra-amniotic C.albicans infection adversely affects the fetal gut remain unknown. Therefore, we assessed whether intra-amniotic C.albicans infection would cause intestinal inflammation and mucosal injury in an ovine model. Additionally, we tested whether treatment with the fungistatic fluconazole ameliorated the adverse intestinal outcome of intra-amniotic C.albicans infection. Pregnant sheep received intra-amniotic injections with 10(7) colony-forming units C.albicans or saline at 3 or 5 days before preterm delivery at 122 days of gestation. Fetuses were given intra-amniotic and intra-peritoneal fluconazole treatments 2 days after intra-amniotic administration of C.albicans. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal colonization and invasive growth within the fetal gut with mucosal injury and intestinal inflammation, characterized by increased CD3(+) lymphocytes, MPO(+) cells and elevated TNF-? and IL-17 mRNA levels. Fluconazole treatment in utero decreased intestinal C.albicans colonization, mucosal injury but failed to attenuate intestinal inflammation. Intra-amniotic C.albicans caused intestinal infection, injury and inflammation. Fluconazole treatment decreased mucosal injury but failed to ameliorate C.albicans-mediated mucosal inflammation emphasizing the need to optimize the applied antifungal therapeutic strategy.
Project description:A large proportion of Candida albicans cell surface proteins are decorated post-translationally by glycosylation. Indeed N-glycosylation is critical for cell wall biogenesis in this major fungal pathogen and for its interactions with host cells. A detailed understanding of N-glycosylation will yield deeper insights into host-pathogen interactions. However, the analysis of N-glycosylation is extremely challenging because of the complexity and heterogeneity of these structures. Therefore, in an attempt to reduce this complexity and facilitate the analysis of N-glycosylation, we have developed new synthetic C. albicans reporters that carry a single N-linked glycosylation site derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae Suc2. These glycosylation reporters, which carry C.albicans Hex1 or Sap2 signal sequences plus carboxy-terminal FLAG? and His? tags, were expressed in C.albicans from the ACT1 promoter. The reporter proteins were successfully secreted and hyperglycosylated by C.albicans cells, and their outer chain glycosylation was dependent on Och1 and Pmr1, which are required for N-mannan synthesis, but not on Mnt1 and Mnt2 which are only required for O-mannosylation. These reporters are useful tools for the experimental dissection of N-glycosylation and other related processes in C.albicans, such as secretion.
Project description:Microarrays are useful tools for detecting and quantifying specific functional and phylogenetic genes in natural microbial communities. In order to track uncultivated microbial genotypes and their close relatives in an environmental context, we designed and implemented a “genome proxy” microarray that targets microbial genome fragments recovered directly from the environment. Fragments consisted of sequenced clones from large-insert genomic libraries from microbial communities in Monterey Bay, the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station ALOHA, and Antarctic coastal waters. In a prototype array, we designed probe sets to thirteen of the sequenced genome fragments and to genomic regions of the cultivated cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4. Each probe set consisted of multiple 70-mers, each targeting an individual ORF, and distributed along each ~40-160kbp contiguous genomic region. The targeted organisms or clones, and close relatives, were hybridized to the array both as pure DNA mixtures and as additions of cells to a background of coastal seawater. This prototype array correctly identified the presence or absence of the target organisms and their relatives in laboratory mixes, with negligible cross-hybridization to organisms having ≤~75% genomic identity. In addition, the array correctly identified target cells added to a background of environmental DNA, with a limit of detection of ~0.1% of the community, corresponding to ~10^3 cells/ml in these samples. Signal correlated to cell concentration with an R2 of 1.0 across six orders of magnitude. In addition the array could track a related strain (at 86% genomic identity to that targeted) with a linearity of R2=0.9999 and a limit of detection of ~1% of the community. Closely related genotypes were distinguishable by differing hybridization patterns across each probe set. This array’s multiple-probe, “genome-proxy” approach and consequent ability to track both target genotypes and their close relatives is important for the array’s environmental application given the recent discoveries of considerable intra-population diversity within marine microbial communities. Keywords: target addition experiment, proof-of-concept for GPL6012 ***Overall Array design*** The prototype microarray targeted thirteen BAC or fosmid genome fragments (20-160kb) from both bacteria and archaea, recovered from a variety of marine habitats, as well as the cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4. These clones were originally sequenced because of the presence of taxonomic marker or specific functional genes. This array consisted of sets of 70-bp oligonucleotides targeting each genome or genome fragment (Fig. 1), dispersed along the target sequences with no more than one probe per gene, and excluding rRNA genes as targets. The probes were selected solely based on theoretical thermodynamic properties and GC content (~40%); that is, probe selection did not focus on specific genes or regions, but simply produced the “optimal” probes for each genome proxy based on the probes’ predicted hybridization properties. rRNA genes were excluded, because this probe design approach, which avoids sequence alignments and considerations of RNA secondary structure, would be unlikely to result in useful rRNA probes. Furthermore, rRNA probes of traditional design could not be included on the array because their appropriate hybridization conditions would be very different from those of this array’s probes. ***Microarray probe design*** Microarray 70-mer probes were designed using the program ArrayOligoSelector (Zhu et al., 2003) with the following settings: target %GC = 40%, 1 probe/gene, with the ORFs for each genome fragment as both the input and the database file. The output candidate 70mers were then sorted based on their %GC and those closest to 40% were chosen. In the case of more than the target number of probes having 40%GC, the subset with the lowest free energy of hybridization were selected as probes. Generally, 20 probes were selected per organism. Prochlorococcus MED4 was represented by 60 probes total, 20 each for three different 80kb “genome-proxy” regions: 0-80kb, 1.29-1.37Mbp, and 1.58 to 1.66Mbp. Using the same method, a set (n=20) of positive control probes were designed to the genome of the halophillic archaeon Halobacterium salinarum NRC-1. Negative control probes (n=28) were designed to a set of 49 random 1000-base sequences (Stothard, 2000). ***Microarray construction and hybridization*** Oligonucleotides were synthesized (Illumina, San Diego, California), suspended in 3XSSC to a concentration of 40pmol/μl, and spotted on homemade poly-L-lysine-coated glass slides using a QArray 2 microarraying robot (Genetix, Hampshire, England). Six replicates of each probe were spotted. ***Microarray data analysis*** Hybridized arrays were scanned using an Axon Instruments 4000B scanner (Foster City, CA) and the data was normalized and filtered using perl scripts written for the purpose, by the following steps. (1) Signal intensities for each spot were calculated by subtracting the local background (mean F532 – median B532, as calculated by GenePix Pro 5.1 software, Axon Instruments). (2) The median value across replicates was calculated for each probe. (3) For each probe set, the number of probes greater than twice the mean negative control signal was calculated, before further processing. (4) Filter I: Arrays with less than half their positive control probes exceeding twice the mean negative control signal were considered poor quality, low dynamic range, arrays and were excluded from further analysis. (5) Each probe signal was corrected for non-specific binding by subtracting the mean negative control spot signal. (6) The data was then normalized for array-to-array variations in brightness by dividing each probe signal by the mean positive control signal. This positive control signal was the mean signal across the Halobacterium salinarum probes in each hybridization, with identical amounts of H. salinarum DNA having been added to each reaction prior to amplification and labeling. (7) Filter II: In order for a genotype to be considered “present”, at least 45% of its probes had to exceed twice the mean negative control signal. (8) Finally, each genotype signal was calculated as either the MEAN or TUKEY BIWEIGHT across its probe set. ***Experimental Design*** The array was hybridized to laboratory mixtures of cloned environmental genomic DNA targeted by the array, in varying ratios. The use of multiple probes to target many genes from each organism helped to normalize probe-to-probe heterogeneity, by averaging across all probes in a set (as described below). The evenness of probe response across each genotype’s set was also used to evaluate the relatedness of hybridizing DNA. To more precisely define the array’s phylogenetic range and specificity, it was tested against DNA from Prochlorococcus MED4 and related strains, spanning the known range of Prochlorococcus phylogenetic diversity. To test the effects of hybridization stringency on the specificity and signal of the MED4 probes, Prochlorococcus strains were hybridized at a range of conditions. To test whether the specificity results for Prochlorococcus were comparable for other targeted clades, two genome fragments recovered from closely related phylotypes within the SAR86 clade of the gamma-proteobacteria were represented on the array, and were tested for specificity. To understand the equivalence of probe sets targeting different regions of the same organism’s genome, we targeted three 80kb “genome proxy” regions of the Prochlorococcus MED4 genome. One of the regions fell in a genomic “island” where inter-strain variability is concentrated (“ISL5” in Coleman et al., 2006). To test the array in a complex environmental context, we collected coastal seawater (lacking detectable Prochlorococcus cells by flow cytometry) and added Prochlorococcus cells from strains MED4, MIT9515, MIT9312 and MIT9313 over a range of concentrations from ~101 – 106 cells/ml (Fig. 3). The seawater was then filtered and the DNA extracted, amplified, labeled, and hybridized to the array.
Project description:Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by deep sequencing (ChIP-seq) is the method of choice to study function of transcription factors in cell fate determination. This technique faces two major obstacles when applied to developmental studies: the availability of ChIP grade antibodies and access to sufficient quantities of the cells of interest. We present a robust method for the genome-wide analysis of transcription factor binding during development in highly homogenous cells in defined developmental states. It combines efficient embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation protocols with an inducible system of tagged transcription factors to enable affinity based assays such as ChIP-seq during lineage specific development. To validate the system, we compared the activity and genomic binding of native and V5-tagged Olig2 in motor neuron progenitors and Flag-tagged and V5-tagged Hoxc9 in motor neurons. We find that tagging transcription factors and expressing them alongside their endogenous counterparts does not alter their function or genomic association. The technology presented here can be applied to known as well as novel DNA-binding proteins. In combination with a suitable ESC differentiation paradigm it can be applied to determine how lineage-specific transcriptional networks are established and regulated. The aim of this study is to validate a platform for analysis of transcription factor binding that combines directed differentiation of ES cells with an inducible system of tagged transcription factors. Here, we perform ChIP-seq analysis to compare binding profiles of Olig2 as found using a native antibody and anti-V5 against the epitope tag. We also compare the ChIP-seq profiles of Hoxc9 as found using two independent epitope tags (V5 and FLAG). In all, there are 6 Illumina sequence datasets in this submission, including one replicate for each of native Olig2, iOlig2-V5 and FLAG-iHoxc9, two replicates of iHoxc9-V5, and a pseudo-ChIP control using anti-V5 in a non-induced iOlig2 cell-line. The differentiation of ventral motor neurons is induced by treating embryonic stem cell cultures with retinoic acid and hedgehog.
Project description:Codon usage in a sample of 28 genes from the pathogenic yeast Candida albicans has been analysed using multivariate statistical analysis. A major trend among genes, correlated with gene expression level, was identified. We have focussed on the extent and nature of divergence between C.albicans and the closely related yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. It was recently suggested that significant differences exist between the subsets of preferred codons in these two species [Brown et al. (1991) Nucleic Acids Res. 19, 4293]. Overall, the genes of C.albicans are more A + T-rich, reflecting the lower genomic G + C content of that species, and presumably resulting from a different pattern of mutational bias. However, in both species highly expressed genes preferentially use the same subset of 'optimal' codons. A suggestion that the low frequency of NCG codons in both yeast species results from selection against the presence of codons that are potentially highly mutable is discounted. Codon usage in C.albicans, as in other unicellular species, can be interpreted as the result of a balance between the processes of mutational bias and translational selection. Codon usage in two related Candida species, C.maltosa and C.tropicalis, is briefly discussed.
Project description:CandidaDB is a database dedicated to the genome of the most prevalent systemic fungal pathogen of humans, Candida albicans. CandidaDB is based on an annotation of the Stanford Genome Technology Center C.albicans genome sequence data by the European Galar Fungail Consortium. CandidaDB Release 2.0 (June 2004) contains information pertaining to Assembly 19 of the genome of C.albicans strain SC5314. The current release contains 6244 annotated entries corresponding to 130 tRNA genes and 5917 protein-coding genes. For these, it provides tentative functional assignments along with numerous pre-run analyses that can assist the researcher in the evaluation of gene function for the purpose of specific or large-scale analysis. CandidaDB is based on GenoList, a generic relational data schema and a World Wide Web interface that has been adapted to the handling of eukaryotic genomes. The interface allows users to browse easily through genome data and retrieve information. CandidaDB also provides more elaborate tools, such as pattern searching, that are tightly connected to the overall browsing system. As the C.albicans genome is diploid and still incompletely assembled, CandidaDB provides tools to browse the genome by individual supercontigs and to examine information about allelic sequences obtained from complementary contigs. CandidaDB is accessible at http://genolist.pasteur.fr/CandidaDB.