ABSTRACT: PHF8 is an H3K9me2 demethylase, interacts with H3K4me3 and RNA Polymerase II, is enriched at thousands of transcription start sites and can act as a transcriptional co-activator. ChIP-seq of PHF8 in HeLa, 293T and Hs68 cells, and of H3K4me3 in Hs68 fibroblasts was performed. Normal IgG-IP or input DNA served as negative controls.
Project description:Mutations in PHF8 are associated with X-linked mental retardation and cleft lip/cleft palate. PHF8 contains a plant homeodomain (PHD) in its N terminus and is a member of a family of JmjC domain-containing proteins. While PHDs can act as methyl lysine recognition motifs, JmjC domains can catalyze lysine demethylation. Here, we show that PHF8 is a histone demethylase that removes repressive histone H3 dimethyl lysine 9 marks. Our biochemical analysis revealed specific association of the PHF8 PHD with histone H3 trimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3). Chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by high-throughput sequencing indicated that PHF8 is enriched at the transcription start sites of many active or poised genes, mirroring the presence of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) and of H3K4me3-bearing nucleosomes. We show that PHF8 can act as a transcriptional coactivator and that its activation function largely depends on binding of the PHD to H3K4me3. Furthermore, we present evidence for direct interaction of PHF8 with the C-terminal domain of RNAPII. Importantly, a PHF8 disease mutant was defective in demethylation and in coactivation. This is the first demonstration of a chromatin-modifying enzyme that is globally recruited to promoters through its association with H3K4me3 and RNAPII.
Project description:Histone demethylase PHF8 is upregulated and plays oncogenic roles in various cancers; however, the mechanisms underlying its dysregulation and functions in carcinogenesis remain obscure. Here, we report the novel functions of PHF8 in EMT (epithelial to mesenchymal transition) and breast cancer development. Genome-wide gene expression analysis revealed that PHF8 overexpression induces an EMT-like process, including the upregulation of SNAI1 and ZEB1. PHF8 demethylates H3K9me1, H3K9me2 and sustains H3K4me3 to prime the transcriptional activation of SNAI1 by TGF-? signaling. We show that PHF8 is upregulated and positively correlated with MYC at protein levels in breast cancer. MYC post-transcriptionally regulates the expression of PHF8 via the repression of microRNAs. Specifically, miR-22 directly targets and inhibits PHF8 expression, and mediates the regulation of PHF8 by MYC and TGF-? signaling. This novel MYC/microRNAs/PHF8 regulatory axis thus places PHF8 as an important downstream effector of MYC. Indeed, PHF8 contributes to MYC-induced cell proliferation and the expression of EMT-related genes. We also report that PHF8 plays important roles in breast cancer cell migration and tumor growth. These oncogenic functions of PHF8 in breast cancer confer its candidacy as a promising therapeutic target for this disease.
Project description:Chromatin regulators play an important role in the development of human diseases. In this study, we focused on Plant Homeo Domain Finger protein 8 (PHF8), a chromatin regulator that has attracted special concern recently. PHF8 is a histone lysine demethylase ubiquitously expressed in nuclei. Mutations of PHF8 are associated with X-linked mental retardation. It usually functions as a transcriptional co-activator by associating with H3K4me3 and RNA polymerase II. We found that PHF8 may associate with another regulator, REST/NRSF, predominately at promoter regions via studying several published PHF8 chromatin immunoprecipitation-sequencing (ChIP-Seq) datasets. Our analysis suggested that PHF8 not only activates but may also repress gene expression.
Project description:X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) is an inherited disorder that mostly affects males and is caused by mutations in genes located on the X chromosome. Here, we show that the XLMR protein PHF8 and a C. elegans homolog F29B9.2 catalyze demethylation of di- and monomethylated lysine 9 of histone H3 (H3K9me2/me1). The PHD domain of PHF8 binds to H3K4me3 and colocalizes with H3K4me3 at transcription initiation sites. Furthermore, PHF8 interacts with another XMLR protein, ZNF711, which binds to a subset of PHF8 target genes, including the XLMR gene JARID1C. Of interest, the C. elegans PHF8 homolog is highly expressed in neurons, and mutant animals show impaired locomotion. Taken together, our results functionally link the XLMR gene PHF8 to two other XLMR genes, ZNF711 and JARID1C, indicating that MR genes may be functionally linked in pathways, causing the complex phenotypes observed in patients developing MR.
Project description:Hypoxia through transcription factor HIF1? plays a critical role in cancer development. In prostate cancer, HIF1? interplays with androgen receptor (AR) to contribute to the progression of this disease to its lethal form-castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Hypoxia upregulates several epigenetic factors including histone demethylase KDM3A which is a critical co-factor of HIF1?. However, how histone demethylases regulate hypoxia signaling is not fully understood. Here, we report that histone demethylase PHF8 plays an essential role in hypoxia signaling. Knockdown or knockout of PHF8 by RNAi or CRISPR-Cas9 system reduced the activation of HIF1? and the induction of HIF1? target genes including KDM3A. Mechanistically, PHF8 regulates hypoxia inducible genes mainly through sustaining the level of trimethylated histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4me3), an active mark in transcriptional regulation. The positive role of PHF8 in hypoxia signaling extended to hypoxia-induced neuroendocrine differentiation (NED), wherein PHF8 cooperates with KDM3A to regulate the expression of NED genes. Moreover, we discovered that the role of PHF8 in hypoxia signaling is associated with the presence of full-length AR in CRPC cells. Collectively, our study identified PHF8 as a novel epigenetic factor in hypoxia signaling, and the underlying regulatory mechanisms likely apply to general cancer development involving HIF1?. Therefore, targeting PHF8 can potentially be a novel therapeutic strategy in cancer therapy.
Project description:X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) is a complex human disease that causes intellectual disability. Causal mutations have been found in approximately 90 X-linked genes; however, molecular and biological functions of many of these genetically defined XLMR genes remain unknown. PHF8 (PHD (plant homeo domain) finger protein 8) is a JmjC domain-containing protein and its mutations have been found in patients with XLMR and craniofacial deformities. Here we provide multiple lines of evidence establishing PHF8 as the first mono-methyl histone H4 lysine 20 (H4K20me1) demethylase, with additional activities towards histone H3K9me1 and me2. PHF8 is located around the transcription start sites (TSS) of approximately 7,000 RefSeq genes and in gene bodies and intergenic regions (non-TSS). PHF8 depletion resulted in upregulation of H4K20me1 and H3K9me1 at the TSS and H3K9me2 in the non-TSS sites, respectively, demonstrating differential substrate specificities at different target locations. PHF8 positively regulates gene expression, which is dependent on its H3K4me3-binding PHD and catalytic domains. Importantly, patient mutations significantly compromised PHF8 catalytic function. PHF8 regulates cell survival in the zebrafish brain and jaw development, thus providing a potentially relevant biological context for understanding the clinical symptoms associated with PHF8 patients. Lastly, genetic and molecular evidence supports a model whereby PHF8 regulates zebrafish neuronal cell survival and jaw development in part by directly regulating the expression of the homeodomain transcription factor MSX1/MSXB, which functions downstream of multiple signalling and developmental pathways. Our findings indicate that an imbalance of histone methylation dynamics has a critical role in XLMR.
Project description:Mutations in PHF8 are associated with X-linked mental retardationand cleft lip/cleft palate. PHF8 contains a plant homeodomain(PHD) in its N-terminus and is member of a family of JmjC-domaincontaining proteins. While PHDs can act as methyl lysine recognitionmotifs, JmjC-domains can catalyze lysine demethylation. Here,we show that PHF8 is a histone demethylase that removes repressivehistone H3 dimethyl lysine 9 marks. Our biochemical analysisrevealed specific association of the PHF8 PHD domain with histoneH3 trimethylated at lysine 4 (H3K4me3). Chromatin-immunoprecipitationfollowed by high throughput sequencing indicated that PHF8 isenriched at transcription start sites of many active or poisedgenes, mirroring the presence of RNA polymerase II (RNAPII)and of H3K4me3-bearing nucleosomes. We show that PHF8 can actas a transcriptional co-activator and its activation functionlargely depends on binding of the PHD to H3K4me3. Furthermore,we present evidence for direct interaction of PHF8 with theC-terminal domain of RNAPII. Importantly, a PHF8 disease mutantis defective in demethylation and in co-activation. This isthe first demonstration of a chromatin-modifying enzyme whichis globally recruited to promoters through its association withH3K4me3 and RNAPII. This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE20563: Knockdown of PHF8 in HeLa S3 cells GSE20725: ChIP-Seq of PHF8 and H3K4me3 Refer to individual Series
Project description:Histone demethylase plant homeodomain (PHD) finger protein 8 (PHF8) has been implicated in tumor development and malignant progression in various types of cancers. However, its potential roles in gastric cancer (GC) have not been explored. In this report, we show that PHF8 expression is upregulated in GC tissues, and the enhanced PHF8 level indicates a poor prognosis of GC patients. PHF8 knockdown reduces proliferation and metastasis of GC cells, while PHF8 overexpression has the opposite effects. Mechanistically, PHF8 interacts with ?-catenin, and binds to the promoter region of vimentin, leading to the promotion of vimentin transcription. In addition, we show that H. pylori, the single most important risk factor for GC, markedly induce PHF8 expression. Our results suggest that H. pylori-induced PHF8-?-catenin-vimentin axis activation is a novel mechanism for GC malignant progression. Thus, we identify PHF8 as an oncogenic factor of GC, and suggest PHF8 might be a potential molecular target for therapeutic approaches for GC.
Project description:Recent studies provide strong evidence that the androgen receptor (AR) signaling pathway remains active in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). However, the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that plant homeo domain finger protein 8 (PHF8 )interacts with and functions as an essential histone demethylase activity-dependent AR coactivator. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the expression of PHF8 is induced by hypoxia in various prostate cancer cell lines. Knockdown of either hypoxia-inducible factor HIF2? or HIF1? almost completely abolished hypoxia-induced PHF8 expression. Importantly, we observed that PHF8 is highly expressed in clinical androgen deprived prostate cancer samples and expression of PHF8 correlates with increased levels of HIF1? and HIF2?. Moreover, elevated PHF8 is associated with higher grade prostate cancers and unfavorable outcomes. Our findings support a working model in which hypoxia in castrated prostate cancer activates HIF transcription factors which then induces PHF8 expression. The elevated PHF8 in turn promotes the AR signaling pathway and prostate cancer progression. Therefore, the HIF/PHF8/AR axis could serve as a potential biomarker for CRPC and is also a promising therapeutic target in combating CRPC.
Project description:PHF8 is a histone demethylase associated with X-linked mental retardation. It has been described as a transcriptional co-activator involved in cell cycle progression, but its physiological role is still poorly understood. Here we show that PHF8 controls the expression of genes involved in cell adhesion and cytoskeleton organization such as RhoA, Rac1 and GSK3?. A lack of PHF8 not only results in a cell cycle delay but also in a disorganized actin cytoskeleton and impaired cell adhesion. Our data demonstrate that PHF8 directly regulates the expression of these genes by demethylating H4K20me1 at promoters. Moreover, c-Myc transcription factor cooperates with PHF8 to regulate the analysed promoters. Further analysis in neurons shows that depletion of PHF8 results in down-regulation of cytoskeleton genes and leads to a deficient neurite outgrowth. Overall, our results suggest that the mental retardation phenotype associated with loss of function of PHF8 could be due to abnormal neuronal connections as a result of alterations in cytoskeleton function.