Gene expression analysis of S. Typhimurium cells residing in the food vacuole (phagosome) of the bacteria grazing ciliate Tetrahymena
ABSTRACT: The gene expression of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium MB282 residing in the food vacuole (phagosome) of Tetrahymena was analyzed by microarray. A minimum of three biological replicates were used. Each biological rep was comprised of at least two technical replicate arrays. MB282 incubated in H2O and MB282 grown to mid - log in LB were used as controls.
Project description:The gene expression of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium MB282 residing in the food vacuole (phagosome) of Tetrahymena was analyzed by microarray. Overall design: A minimum of three biological replicates were used. Each biological rep was comprised of at least two technical replicate arrays. MB282 incubated in H2O and MB282 grown to mid - log in LB were used as controls.
Project description:Vacuolar protein sorting 13 (VPS13) proteins have been studied in a number of organisms, and mutations in VPS13 genes have been implicated in two human genetic disorders, but the function of these proteins is poorly understood. The TtVPS13A protein was previously identified in a mass spectrometry analysis of the Tetrahymena thermophila phagosome proteome (M. E. Jacobs et al., Eukaryot. Cell 5:1990-2000, 2006), suggesting that it is involved in phagocytosis. In this study, we analyzed the structure of the macronuclear TtVPS13A gene, which was found to be composed of 17 exons spanning 12.5 kb and was predicted to encode a protein of 3,475 amino acids (aa). A strain expressing a TtVPS13A-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion protein was constructed, and the protein was found to associate with the phagosome membrane during the entire cycle of phagocytosis. In addition, Tetrahymena cells with a TtVPS13A knockout mutation displayed impaired phagocytosis. Specifically, they grew slowly under conditions where phagocytosis is essential, they formed few phagosomes, and the digestion of phagosomal contents was delayed compared to wild-type cells. Overall, these results provide evidence that the TtVPS13A protein is required for efficient phagocytosis.
Project description:Over 20% of Earth’s terrestrial surface is underlain by permafrost that represents one of the largest terrestrial carbon pools, with an estimated ~1700 Pg of carbon (C) contained in the upper 3 m of permafrost. Models estimate that C release from thawing permafrost might represent the largest new transfer of C from the biosphere to the atmosphere as the climate warms. Here we investigated microbial community phylogeny, genetic functional potential gene expression, and protein production patterns along a natural thaw gradient, including permafrost, the seasonally thawed active layer and nearby thawed thermokarst bog, using a combination of molecular “omics” approaches: metagenomics (MG), metatranscriptomics (MT) and metaproteomics (MP). Highlights from these analyses reveal energy yielding microbial processes and potential strategies for microbial survival in permafrost soils, and linkages between biogeochemical process rates and –omics measurements. The results provide new knowledge about microbial life and activity potential in permafrost, the potential importance of iron reduction as a survival strategy under frozen conditions in mineral soils, and the importance of methanogenesis following thaw. The multi-omics strategy demonstrated here enables better mechanistic understanding of the ecological strategies utilized by soil microbial communities in response to climate change. Associated metagenomics data available at the EBI Metagenomics portal under the accession number <a href="https://www.ebi.ac.uk/metagenomics/projects/SRP052575">SRP052575</a>.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of Salmonella Typhimurium strains SL1344 (pSfR27) and SL1344 (pSfR27) delta sfh to identify 'Sfh-dependent' transcripts Two condition experiment in which the transcriptomes of wild-type SL1344 (pSfR27) and SL1344 (pSfR27) delta sfh were compared to identify 'Sfh-dependent' transcripts
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE19230: The effect of sfh deletion on Salmonella Typhimurium gene expression GSE19231: Identification of Sfh and H-NS binding sites in the Salmonella Typhimurium genome Refer to individual Series
Project description:Bacillus spores are highly resistant to many environmental stresses, owing in part to the presence of multiple "extracellular" layers. Although the role of some of these extracellular layers in resistance to particular stresses is known, the function of one of the outermost layers, the spore coat, is not completely understood. This study sought to determine whether the spore coat plays a role in resistance to predation by the ciliated protozoan Tetrahymena, which uses phagocytosis to ingest and degrade other microorganisms. Wild-type dormant spores of Bacillus subtilis were efficiently ingested by the protozoan Tetrahymena thermophila but were neither digested nor killed. However, spores with various coat defects were killed and digested, leaving only an outer shell termed a rind, and supporting the growth of Tetrahymena. A similar rind was generated when coat-defective spores were treated with lysozyme alone. The sensitivity of spores with different coat defects to predation by T. thermophila paralleled the spores' sensitivities to lysozyme. Spore killing by T. thermophila was by means of lytic enzymes within the protozoal phagosome, not by initial spore germination followed by killing. These findings suggest that a major function of the coat of spores of Bacillus species is to protect spores against predation. We also found that indigestible rinds were generated even from spores in which cross-linking of coat proteins was greatly reduced, implying the existence of a coat structure that is highly resistant to degradative enzymes.
Project description:Salmonella enterica Typhimurium remains undigested in the food vacuoles of the common protist, Tetrahymena. Contrary to its interaction with Acanthamoeba spp., S. Typhimurium is not cytotoxic to Tetrahymena and is egested as viable cells in its fecal pellets. Through microarray gene expression profiling we investigated the factors in S. Typhimurium that are involved in its resistance to digestion by Tetrahymena. The transcriptome of S. Typhimurium in Tetrahymena phagosomes showed that 989 and 1282 genes were altered in expression compared with that in water and in LB culture medium, respectively. A great proportion of the upregulated genes have a role in anaerobic metabolism and the use of alternate electron acceptors. Many genes required for survival and replication within macrophages and human epithelial cells also had increased expression in Tetrahymena, including mgtC, one of the most highly induced genes in all three cells types. A ?mgtC mutant of S. Typhimurium did not show decreased viability in Tetrahymena, but paradoxically, was egested at a higher cell density than the wild type. The expression of adiA and adiY, which are involved in arginine-dependent acid resistance, also was increased in the protozoan phagosome. A ?adiAY mutant had lower viability after passage through Tetrahymena, and a higher proportion of S. Typhimurium wild-type cells within pellets remained viable after exposure to pH 3.4 as compared with uningested cells. Our results provide evidence that acid resistance has a role in the resistance of Salmonella to digestion by Tetrahymena and that passage through the protist confers physiological advantages relevant to its contamination cycle.
Project description:Background: Microorganisms are the major cause of food spoilage during storage, processing and distribution. Pseudomonas fluorescens is a typical spoilage bacterium that contributes to a large extent to the spoilage process of proteinaceous food. RpoS is considered an important global regulator involved in stress survival and virulence in many pathogens. Our previous work revealed that RpoS contributed to the spoilage activities of P. fluorescens by regulating resistance to different stress conditions, extracellular acylated homoserine lactone (AHL) levels, extracellular protease and total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N) production. However, RpoS-dependent genes in P. fluorescens remained undefined. Results: RNA-seq transcriptomics analysis combined with quantitative proteomics analysis basing on multiplexed isobaric tandem mass tag (TMT) labeling was performed for the P. fluorescens wild-type strain UK4 and its derivative carrying a rpoS mutation. A total of 375 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and 212 differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) were identified in these two backgrounds. The DGEs were further verified by qRT-PCR tests, and the genes directly regulated by RpoS were confirmed by 5’-RACE-PCR sequencing. The combining transcriptome and proteome analysis revealed a role of this regulator in several cellular processes, including polysaccharide metabolism, intracellular secretion and extracellular structures, cell well biogenesis, stress responses, ammonia and biogenic amine production, which may contribute to biofilm formation, stress resistance and spoilage activities of P. fluorescens. Moreover, in this work we indeed observed that RpoS contributed to the production of the macrocolony biofilm’s matrix.
Project description:Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) pathogenicity depends on its ability to inhibit phagosome acidification and maturation processes after engulfment by macrophages. Here, we show that the secreted Mtb protein tyrosine phosphatase (PtpA) binds to subunit H of the macrophage vacuolar-H(+)-ATPase (V-ATPase) machinery, a multisubunit protein complex in the phagosome membrane that drives luminal acidification. Furthermore, we show that the macrophage class C vacuolar protein sorting complex, a key regulator of endosomal membrane fusion, associates with V-ATPase in phagosome maturation, suggesting a unique role for V-ATPase in coordinating phagosome-lysosome fusion. PtpA interaction with host V-ATPase is required for the previously reported dephosphorylation of VPS33B and subsequent exclusion of V-ATPase from the phagosome during Mtb infection. These findings show that inhibition of phagosome acidification in the mycobacterial phagosome is directly attributed to PtpA, a key protein needed for Mtb survival and pathogenicity within host macrophages.
Project description:Professional phagocytic cells ingest microbial intruders by engulfing them into phagosomes, which subsequently mature into microbicidal phagolysosomes. Phagosome maturation requires sequential fusion of the phagosome with early endosomes, late endosomes, and lysosomes. Although various phosphoinositides (PIPs) have been detected on phagosomes, it remained unclear which PIPs actually govern phagosome maturation. Here, we analyzed the involvement of PIPs in fusion of phagosomes with various endocytic compartments and identified phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate [PI(4)P], phosphatidylinositol 3-phosphate [PI(3)P], and the lipid kinases that generate these PIPs, as mediators of phagosome-lysosome fusion. Phagosome-early endosome fusion required PI(3)P, yet did not depend on PI(4)P. Thus, PI(3)P regulates phagosome maturation at early and late stages, whereas PI(4)P is selectively required late in the pathway.