Cytokine interactome alterations promote oropharyngeal Epstien-barr virus (EBV) replication and shedding during HIV infection
ABSTRACT: Proteomic analysis of cytokines in unstimulated oropharyngeal secretions. Epstein-barr virus (EBV) is a type 1 carcinogen which causes many cancers in humans. Here we explored the cytokine involvement of the EBV replication process in the oropharynx. Cytokine interactomic profiles were geneerated to understand the involved signalling pathways in HIV infected group and the healthy group. Proteome profilers were used to understand the major cytokine expression levels that are related to infection and immune regulation. We analyzed unstimulated oropharyngeal samples (UOPS) from 42 healthy subjects and 72 HIV positive subjects using the R & D Proteome Profiler array panels. No techinical replicates were performed. 14 samples in HIV group without therapy (NHAART group); 58 HIV patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART group); 42 samples in healthy group
Project description:Proteomic analysis of cytokines in unstimulated oropharyngeal secretions. Epstein-barr virus (EBV) is a type 1 carcinogen which causes many cancers in humans. Here we explored the cytokine involvement of the EBV replication process in the oropharynx. Cytokine interactomic profiles were geneerated to understand the involved signalling pathways in HIV infected group and the healthy group. Proteome profilers were used to understand the major cytokine expression levels that are related to infection and immune regulation. Overall design: We analyzed unstimulated oropharyngeal samples (UOPS) from 42 healthy subjects and 72 HIV positive subjects using the R & D Proteome Profiler array panels. No techinical replicates were performed. 14 samples in HIV group without therapy (NHAART group); 58 HIV patients with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART group); 42 samples in healthy group
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE24037: Salivary cytokine alterations in HIV infection part 1 GSE24064: Salivary cytokine alterations in HIV infection part 2 Refer to individual Series
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Human herpesvirus (HHV) infections are common during infancy. Primary infections are frequently asymptomatic and best studied prospectively by using direct viral detection.<h4>Methods</h4>Oropharyngeal swab specimens were collected weekly from Ugandan newborn infants, their mothers, and other children in the household. Blood specimens were collected every 4 months. Samples were tested for herpes simplex virus (HSV) types 1 and 2, Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), cytomegalovirus (CMV), HHV-6A, HHV-6B, and HHV-8, using quantitative polymerase chain reaction.<h4>Results</h4>Thirty-two infants, 32 mothers, and 49 other household children were followed for a median of 57 weeks. Seventeen mothers had human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV) infection; no infants acquired HIV-1. The 12-month incidence of postnatal infection was 76% for HHV-6B, 59% for CMV, 47% for EBV, 8% for HSV-1, and 0% for HHV-8. The quantity of oropharyngeal shedding by contacts was associated with HHV-6A or HHV-6B transmission. Maternal HIV-1 infection was associated with EBV transmission, while breastfeeding and younger child contacts were associated with CMV transmission. Except for HSV-1, primary HHV infections were subclinical.<h4>Conclusions</h4>By capturing exposures and acquisition events, we found that the incidence and risk factors of infection vary by HHV type. HSV-1 infection, unlike other HHV infections, caused acute clinical illness in these infants.
Project description:A 507 protein microarray was employed to provide a broad view of cytokines and chemokines in saliva and plasma in acutely HIV infected subjects as compared to uninfected subjects. A 40 cytokine custom array derived from the initial results was refined to highlight those molecules with significant change relative to control subjects indicating the potential for biological impact. Systemic and local (oral mucosal) immune responses in acutely infected HIV individuals before the initiation of HAART have not been well characterized. Protein microarrays were used to analyze saliva and plasma from HIV infected and HIV uninfected subjects to identify new biomarkers for HIV disease progression and pathogenesis.
Project description:A growing number of studies reveal that oxidative stress is associated with viral infections or cancer development. However, there are few reports assessing the relationships between oxidative stress, viral infection, and carcinogenesis. The present study analyzed the level of total antioxidant status (TAS) as well as the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in patients with oropharyngeal cancer both Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-positive and EBV-negative in comparison with the control group. The correlations between these parameters and EBV type (wild-type LMP1 (wt-LMP1) or LMP1 with deletion (del-LMP1)), level of antibodies against EBV, the degree of tumor differentiation, and TNM classification were also investigated. Fresh frozen tumor tissue samples collected from 66 patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma were tested using nested PCR assay for EBV DNA detection. Spectrophotometric methods were used to measure TAS values as well as SOD and GPx activities in homogenates of tissue, using diagnostic kits produced by Randox Laboratories. Sera from all individuals were investigated using ELISA method to detect the presence of Epstein-Barr virus capsid antigen (EBVCA) IgM and IgG, Epstein-Barr virus nuclear antigen (EBNA) IgG, and early antigen (EA) IgG antibodies. The level of TAS and activities of antioxidant enzymes (GPx and SOD) were significantly decreased in tissues with oropharyngeal cancer, particularly in EBV-positive cases. In 82.3% of patients, wt-LMP1 was detected. Significantly lower TAS, GPx, and SOD values were stated in patients infected with wild-type EBV. The presence of antibodies against early antigen (anti-EA) was detected in over 80% of patients, which suggests reactivation of EBV infection. The correlation between the degree of tumor differentiation and TN classification, especially in EBV-positive patients, was also observed. Determination of these parameters may be useful in evaluating tumor burden in patients with various stages of oropharyngeal cancer and could be an important prognostic factor. Future studies are needed to understand the role of EBV lytic reactivation induced by oxidative stress.
Project description:Epstein-Bar virus (EBV) can directly cause lymphoproliferative disease (LPD), including AIDS-defining lymphomas such as Burkitt’s lymphoma and other non-Hodgkin lymphomas (NHL), as well as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-related Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). The prevalence of EBV in HL and NHL is elevated in HIV-positive individuals compared with the general population. Rates of incidence of AIDS-defining cancers have been declining in HIV-infected individuals since initiation of combination anti-retroviral therapy (cART) use in 1996. However, HIV-infected persons remain at an increased risk of cancers related to infections with oncogenic viruses. Proposed pathogenic mechanisms of HIV-related cancers include decreased immune surveillance, decreased ability to suppress infection-related oncogenic processes and a state of chronic inflammation marked by alteration of the cytokine profile and expanded numbers of cytotoxic T lymphocytes with down-regulated co-stimulatory molecules and increased expression of markers of senescence in the setting of treated HIV infection. Here we discuss the cooperation of EBV-infected B cell- and environment-associated factors that may contribute to EBV-related lymphomagenesis in HIV-infected individuals. Environment-derived lymphomagenic factors include impaired host adaptive and innate immune surveillance, cytokine dysregulation and a pro-inflammatory state observed in the setting of chronic, cART-treated HIV infection. B cell factors include distinctive EBV latency patterns and host protein expression in HIV-associated LPD, as well as B cell-stimulating factors derived from HIV infection. We review the future directions for expanding therapeutic approaches in targeting the viral and immune components of EBV LPD pathogenesis.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Semen is the main carrier of sexually transmitted viruses, including human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). However, semen is not just a mere passive transporter of virions but also plays an active role in HIV-1 transmission through cytokines and other biological factors.<h4>Methods</h4>To study the relationship between viruses and the chemokine-cytokine network in the male genital tract, we measured the concentrations of 21 cytokines/chemokines and the loads of HIV-1 and of 6 herpesviruses in seminal and blood plasma from HIV-1-infected and HIV-uninfected men.<h4>Results</h4>We found that (1) semen is enriched in cytokines and chemokines that play key roles in HIV-1 infection or transmission; (2) HIV-1 infection changes the chemokine-cytokine network in semen, further enriching it in cytokines that modulate its replication; (3) HIV-1 infection is associated with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and cytomegalovirus (CMV) compartmentalized seminal reactivation; (4) CMV and EBV concomitant seminal shedding is associated with higher HIV-1 loads in blood and seminal plasma; and (5) CMV seminal reactivation increases the seminal levels of the CCR5 ligands RANTES and eotaxin, and of the CXCR3 ligand monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG).<h4>Conclusions</h4>HIV-1 infection results in an aberrant production of cytokines and reactivation of EBV and CMV that further changes the seminal cytokine network. The altered seminal milieu in HIV-1 infection may be a determinant of HIV-1 sexual transmission.
Project description:Copy number analysis was performed on EBV+ DLBCL samples compared with EBV- DLBCL. We analyzed the genomic DNA from 18 cases of EBV+ DLBCL, 21 cases of EBV- DLBCL, and 13 cases of nonneoplastic tonsillar tissues using OncoScan FFPE Express 2.0 (MIP). No technical replication were done.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is a Kaposi's sarcoma herpes virus (KSHV)-induced lymphoma that typically arises in body cavities of HIV-infected patients. PEL cells are often co-infected with Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). "PEL-like" lymphoma is a KSHV-unrelated lymphoma that arises in body cavities of HIV-negative patients. "PEL-like" lymphoma is sometimes EBV positive. The derivation of PEL/"PEL-like" cells is unclear.<h4>Methods</h4>Mesothelial cells were cultured from body cavity effusions of 23 patients. Cell proliferation, cytokine secretion, marker phenotypes, KSHV/EBV infection, and clonality were evaluated by standard methods. Gene expression was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting. A mouse model of PEL (3 mice/group) was used to evaluate tumorigenicity.<h4>Results</h4>We found that the mesothelia derived from six effusions of HIV-infected patients with PEL or other KSHV-associated diseases contained rare KSHV + or EBV + mesothelial cells. After extended culture (16-17 weeks), some mesothelial cells underwent a trans-differentiation process, generating lymphoid-type CD45 + /B220 + , CD5 + , CD27 + , CD43 + , CD11c + , and CD3 - cells resembling "B1-cells," most commonly found in mouse body cavities. These "B1-like" cells were short lived. However, long-term KSHV + EBV - and EBV + KSHV - clonal cell lines emerged from mesothelial cultures from two patients that were clonally distinct from the monoclonal or polyclonal B-cell populations found in the patients' original effusions.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Mesothelial-to-lymphoid transformation is a newly identified in vitro process that generates "B1-like" cells and is associated with the emergence of long-lived KSHV or EBV-infected cell lines in KSHV-infected patients. These results identify mesothelial cultures as a source of PEL cells and lymphoid cells in humans.