ABSTRACT: Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen and resistant to numerous clinically used antibiotics. The first antibiotic developed for S. aureus infections was the nonribosomal petide secondary metabolite penicillin. We discovered cryptic nonribosomal peptide secondary metabolites, the aureusimines, made by S. aureus itself that are not antibiotics, but function as small molecule regulators of virulence factor expression. Using established rules and codes for nonribosomal peptide assembly we predicted these nonribosomal peptides, and used these predictions to identify them from S. aureus culture broths. Functional studies using global microarray and mouse bacteremia models established that the aureusimines control virulence factor expression and are necessary for productive infections. This is the first report of the aureusimines and has important implications for the treatment of drug resistant S. aureus. Targeting aureusimine synthesis may provide novel anti-infectives. Commerically available S. aureus GeneChips (Affymetrix) were used to compare biological replicates of early and late exponential phase wild type (Newman) and aureusimine defective (ausA) organisms.
Project description:More than 200 direct CodY target genes in Staphylococcus aureus were identified by genome-wide analysis of in vitro DNA binding. This analysis, which was confirmed for some genes by DNase I footprinting assays, revealed that CodY is a direct regulator of numerous transcription units associated with amino acid biosynthesis, transport of macromolecules and virulence. The virulence genes regulated by CodY fell into three groups. One group was dependent on the Agr system for its expression; these genes were indirectly regulated by CodY through its repression of the agr locus. A second group was regulated directly by CodY. The third group, which includes genes for alpha-toxin and capsule synthesis, was regulated by CodY in two ways, i.e., by direct repression and by repression of the agr locus. Since S. aureus CodY was activated in vitro by the branched chain amino acids and GTP, CodY appears to link changes in intracellular metabolite pools with the induction of numerous adaptive responses, including virulence. Affymetrix GeneChips were used to compare the transcript titers of S. aureus strains UAMS-1 (wild type) and corresponding agr- (strain CM18), codY- (strain MS1), and agr- codY- (strain CM19) isogenic mutant strains during exponential and stationary phase growth. At least two biological replicates were assessed for each strain and each growth phase.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of hospital- and community-associated infections. The organism’s ability to cause disease can, in part, be attributable to its ability to adapt to otherwise deleterious host-associated stresses. Like other bacterial species, the modulation of mRNA turnover appears to play an important role in S. aureus adaptation to certain environmental stresses. In the current study Affymetrix GeneChips® were used to examine the S. aureus responses to acid and alkaline shock-inducing conditions and to assess whether stress dependent changes in mRNA turnover are likely to facilitate the organism’s ability to tolerate extreme pH challenge. Results indicate that S. aureus adapts to pH shock by eliciting responses expected of organisms coping with pH alteration, including neutralizing cellular internal pH, DNA repair, amino acid biosynthesis and virulence factor expression. Further, it was found that the cellular response to alkaline conditions elicits a transcriptional profile that is similar to that of stringent response induced cells. Consistent with that observation, we show that the activator of the stringent response, (p)ppGpp, levels are profoundly elevated during alkaline shock conditions. We also show that the mRNA turnover properties of acid or alkaline shocked cells significantly differ from that of cells grown at neutral pH. A comparison of the mRNA degradation properties of transcripts whose titers either increased or decreased in response to sudden pH change revealed that alterations in mRNA degradation may, in part, account for the changes in the mRNA levels of factors predicted to mediate pH tolerance. Finally, a set of small stable RNA molecules were induced in response to acid or alkaline shock conditions. As in other organisms, these molecules may mediate mRNA stability and adaptation to otherwise deleterious growth conditions. Staphylococcus aureus strain UAMS-1 was grown to exponential phase and either mock treated (pH maintained at 7.4) or subjected to acid (pH 4)- or alkaline (pH 10) conditions for 30 min. Next, 200 micrograms per ml of rifampicin were added to arrest transcript synthesis. RNA was extracted from cell suspensions at 0, 2.5, 5, 15, and 30 min post-transcriptional arrest, labeled and hybridized to S. aureus GeneChips. A comparison of 0 min samples allowed assessment of acid and alkaline shock responses. A comparison of 0 min to that of various post-transcriptional arrest RNA samples allowed assessment of the mRNA turnover properties of mock vs acid or alkaline shocked cells. Duplicates of each experimental condition and corresponding post-transcriptional arrest time point were used (biological replicates).
Project description:S. aureus ATCC 25923 is performance standard for antimicrobial susceptibility testing. S. aureus ATCC 33591 showed resistance against erytrhromycin, penicillin, and streptomycin. We used microarray to compare RNA expression between sensitive and resistant strain of S. aureus as a preliminary research for MRSA inhibition. S. aureus strains were cultivated in tryptic soy broth at 37℃ for 18hrs and harvested for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:The opportunistic pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus, encounters a wide variety of fluid shear levels within the human host, which may play a key role in dictating whether this organism adopts a commensal interaction with the host or transitions to cause disease. Using rotating-wall vessel bioreactors to create a physiologically-relevant, low fluid shear environment, S. aureus was evaluated for cellular responses that could impact its colonization and virulence. S. aureus cells grown in a low fluid shear environment initiated a novel attachment-independent biofilm phenotype and were completely encased in extracellular polymeric substances. Compared to controls, low-shear cultured cells displayed slower growth and repressed virulence characteristics, including decreased carotenoid production, increased susceptibility to oxidative stress, and reduced survival in whole blood. Transcriptional whole genome microarray profiling suggested alterations in metabolic pathways. Further genetic expression analysis revealed the down-regulation of the RNA chaperone Hfq, which parallels low fluid shear responses of certain Gram negative organisms. This is the first study to report an Hfq association to fluid shear in a Gram positive organism, suggesting an evolutionarily conserved response to fluid shear among structurally diverse prokaryotes. Collectively, our results suggest S. aureus responds to a low fluid shear environment by initiating a biofilm/colonization phenotype with diminished virulence characteristics, which could lead to insight into key factors influencing the divergence between infection and colonization during initial host pathogen interaction. Genetic expression profiles of Staphylococcus aureus cultured under low fluid shear conditions was compared to control cultures of S. aureus which was cultured in identical hardware in an orientation disrupting the low fluid shear effect. Samples from the same date of culture were compared (control 21:low 21 and control 30: low 30). S. aureus was cultured for 20 hours in either the low fluid shear or control orientated rotating wall vessel (RWV) bioreactor at which point the cells were removed and RNA extracted. At 20 hours, both cultures were in the same stage of growth (stationary phase) and at this point phenotypic differences between control and low fluid shear cultures were noted.
Project description:We report the profiling of induced mRNA transcripts in two C. elegan replicate populations -- WT (N2) and mutant strain with deficient HLH30. Both strains were fed either OP50 strain of e-coli (normal feed) or S. aureus Examination of infected versus uninfected wildtype and mutant lawns of animals
Project description:Although it has recently been shown that A/J mice are highly susceptible to Staphylococcus aureus sepsis as compared to C57BL/6J, the specific genes responsible for this differential phenotype are unknown. Using chromosome substitution strains (CSS), we found that factors on chromosomes (chr) 8, 11, and 18 are responsible for susceptibility to S. aureus sepsis in A/J mice. F1 mice from C57BL/6J X CSS8 cross (C8A) and C57BL/6J X CSS18 (C18A) were also susceptible to S. aureus (median survival < 48 h), whereas F1 mice from C57BL/6J X CSS11 cross (C11A) were resistant (median survival > 120 h) to S. aureus. Bacterial loads in the kidney were consistent with F1 median survivals, with higher bacterial counts in susceptible mice. No sexlinked associations with susceptibility were noted in F1 intercrosses. Using whole genome transcription profiling, we identified a total of 192 genes on chromosomes 8, 11, and 18 which are differentially expressed between A/J and C57BL/6J in the setting of S. aureus infection. Of these, 28 genes had Gene Ontology annotations indicating a potential immune response function. These 28 genes are associated with susceptibility to S. aureus in A/J mice, and are potential determinants of susceptibility to S. aureus infection in humans. To identify genes for which differential expression between A/J and C57BL/6J mice could contribute to host susceptibility to S. aureus infection, we compared the gene expression profiles between uninfected A/J and C57BL/6J mice and between infected A/J and C57BL/6J mice at 2, 4, 6, and 12 hours after infection.
Project description:It has been shown that inbred strains of mice exhibit variable susceptibility to S. aureus infection, but the specific genes responsible for this differential phenotype are unknown. Using ISHM to identify genomic regions associated with the phenotypes, we considered genes within those interval to be candidate genes and used the gene expression patterns of the genes contained in the region to determine whether the genes are differentially expressed between the 2 phenotypically different groups of mice. To identify genes differentially expressed between mice susceptible and resistant to S. aureus infection that could contribute to host susceptibility to S. aureus infection, we compared the gene expression profiles between 2 groups of mice where 3 were susceptible (A/J, BALBcBy/J, AKR/J) and resistant (C57BL/J, C3H/HeJ, NOD/ShiLtJ) to S. aureus. The susceptible group had high bacterial count values in the kidney while the resistant group had low values.
Project description:Staphylococcus aureus causes a spectrum of human infection. Diagnostic delays and uncertainty lead to treatment delays and inappropriate antibiotic use. A growing literature suggests the host’s inflammatory response to the pathogen represents a potential tool to improve upon current diagnostics. The hypothesis of this study is that the host responds differently to S. aureus than to E. coli infection in a quantifiable way, providing a new diagnostic avenue. This study uses Bayesian sparse factor modeling and penalized binary regression to define peripheral blood gene-expression classifiers of murine and human S. aureus infection. The murine-derived classifier distinguished S. aureus infection from healthy controls and Escherichia coli-infected mice across a range of conditions (mouse and bacterial strain, time post infection) and was validated in outbred mice (AUC>0.97). A S. aureus classifier derived from a cohort of 95 human subjects distinguished S. aureus blood stream infection (BSI) from healthy subjects (AUC 0.99) and E. coli BSI (AUC 0.82). Murine and human responses to S. aureus infection share common biological pathways, allowing the murine model to classify S. aureus BSI in humans (AUC 0.84). Both murine and human S. aureus classifiers were validated in an independent human cohort (AUC 0.95 and 0.94, respectively). The approach described here lends insight into the conserved and disparate pathways utilized by mice and humans in response to these infections. Furthermore, this study advances our understanding of S. aureus infection; the host response to it; and identifies new diagnostic and therapeutic avenues. To create a host gene expression-based classifier for S. aureus infection, mice from a variety of experimental conditions were utilized. Seven different strains of inbred mice (n=187 total) were challenged with four different S. aureus strains via intraperitoneal inoculation and sacrificed at various time points as described in Methods. The comparator group for model derivation included 50 A/J or C57BL/6J mice inoculated with E. coli (O18:K1:H7) as well as 54 uninfected mice. Next, the murine S. aureus classifier was externally validated in outbred CD-1 mice with S. aureus infection (Sanger 476 or USA300), E. coli infection (O18:K1:H7), or uninfected controls (10 animals per condition). Method: All experiments were performed on mice 6-8 weeks old. For the murine S. aureus predictor, seven inbred mouse strains (3 mice/strain: 129S1/SvImJ, A/J, AKR/J, BALB/cByJ, C57BL/6J, C3H/HeJ, and NOD/LtJ) were IP inoculated with 107 CFU/g of S. aureus Sanger476, euthanized at 2h after injection, and bled. This was repeated using four different S. aureus strains (USA100, USA300, MW2, and Sanger476) in A/J mice (n=3 per S. aureus strain). For time series experiments, both A/J and C57BL/6J mouse strains were IP inoculated with S. aureus Sanger476 as above, and sacrificed at 2, 4, 6, and 12h after injection (n=5 per time point).
Project description:Genes that showed altered expression in Stk1 and Stp1 deficient Staphylococcus aureus Newman were identified. strain comparison, global regulation Deletion mutants were examined for alterations in gene expression.
Project description:We sequenced a total of 12 cDNA libararies derived from fragmented total mRNA and ribosome protected mRNAs from azithromycin-treated and -untreated S. aureus samples. The data represented 2 independent biological replicates. Examination of the impact of azithromycin on global translatome, mRNA abundance and the ribosome density along the transcripts.