Physiology of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in Biofilms Revealed by Comparative Transcriptomic Analysis.
ABSTRACT: Abstract: Transcriptome analysis was applied to characterize the physiological activities of Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown for three days in drip-flow biofilm reactors. Conventional applications of transcriptional profiling often compare two paired data sets that differ in a single experimentally controlled variable. In contrast this study obtained the transcriptome of a single biofilm state, ranked transcript signals to make the priorities of the population manifest, and compared rankings for a priori identified physiological marker genes between the biofilm and published data sets. Two drip flow biofilm conditions with three replicates each: (1) baseline control at 72hrs, (2) no treatment for 12 hours past baseline. Data from these two conditions were pooled
Project description:Transcriptome analysis was applied to characterize the physiological activities of Psuedomonas aeruginosa cells grown for three days in drip flow biofilm reactors when compared to the activities of P. aeruginosa grown planktonically to exponential phase in the same media. Here, rather than examining the effect of an individual gene on biofilm antibiotic tolerance, we used a transcriptomics approach to identify regulons and groups of related genes that are induced during biofilm growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We then tested for statistically significant overlap between the biofilm-induced genes and independently compiled gene lists corresponding to stress responses and other putative antibiotic protective mechanisms. This data was evaluated and used to select strains that carry transposon mutations in genes that might play a role in antibiotic tolerance of biofilms. The strains were evaluated for defects in biofilm tolerance. One planktonic condition with four biological replicates; One drip flow biofilm condition grown for 72 hours with three biological replicates; One drip flow biofilm condition grown for 84 hours with three biological replicates.
Project description:Microarray analysis was used to identify changes in the level of transcription of genes in P. aeruginosa drip flow biofilms in response to ciprofloxacin and tobramycin exposure. This data was evaluated and used to select strains that carry transposon mutations in genes that might play a role in antibiotic tolerance of biofilms. The strains were evaluated for defects in biofilm tolerance. Four drip flow biofilm conditions with three replicates each: (1) baseline controls at 72 hours, (2) tobramycin treated for 12 hours past baseline, (3) ciprofloxacin treated for 12 hrs past baseline, and (4) no treatment for 12 hrs past baseline.
Project description:The physiological and transcriptional response of Nitrosomonas europaea biofilms to phenol and toluene was examined and compared to suspended cells. Biofilms were grown in Drip Flow Biofilm Reactors under continuous flow conditions of growth medium containing ammonia as growth substrate. The responses of N. europaea biofilms to the aromatic hydrocarbons phenol and toluene were determined during short-term (3 h) additions of each compound to the biofilms. Ammonia oxidation in the biofilms was inhibited 50% by 60 uM phenol and 100 uM toluene. These concentrations were chosen for microarray analysis of phenol- and toluene-exposed N. europaea biofilms. Liquid batch cultures of exponentially growing N. europaea cells were harvested alongside the biofilms to determine differential gene expression between attached and suspended growth of N. europaea. Four sample groups of N. europaea cells were used in this study, with biological triplicates of each group. Groups were: Control (untreated) biofilms, phenol-exposed biofilms, toluene-exposed biofilms, and exponentially growing suspended cells. Biofilms were grown in Drip Flow Biofilm Reactors containing 4 independent growth channels and subject to 2 hour inhibition tests. During each experiment, 2 biofilm channels served as control with no inhibitor present and the other 2 biofilm channels were exposed to either 60 uM phenol or 100 uM toluene. Nitrite production was monitored throughout the experiment, and the given concentrations of phenol and toluene resulted in 50% inhibition of ammonia oxidation by the biofilms. Suspended cells were grown in batch reactors. Three 4-plex NimbleGen microarray chips were used, and each chip contained one sample from each experimental group. QC of samples was determined by spectrophotometric methods and using Agilent bioanalyzer traces to determine purity and integrity of RNA and cDNA. A sample tracking report was used to verify the correct hybridization of each sample to the intended array.
Project description:LD13 mutant was considered for this analysis since it generated mushroom-type mature biofilm. This strain looses 17.6% of parental chromosome and lacks of several bacterial surface structures/genes but still has some novel autoaggregation genes. The global gene-expression profiles of LD13 flow-cell biofilm were compared after 24, 48, 72, 96, and 144 hr, respectively, as well as with those of LD13 planktonic cultures.
Project description:Microorganisms form biofilms containing differentiated cell populations. To determine factors driving differentiation, we study protein distributions in bacterial biofilms using shotgun proteomics. Notably, zinc- and manganese-depleted portions of the biofilm repress the production of anti-staphylococcal molecules. Exposure to calprotectin (a host protein known to sequester metal ions at infectious foci) recapitulates responses occurring within metal-deplete portions of the biofilm and promotes interaction between P. aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Consistent with these results, the presence of calprotectin promotes co-colonization of the murine lung, and polymicrobial communities are found to co-exist in calprotectin-enriched airspaces of a cystic fibrosis lung explant. These findings, which demonstrate that metal fluctuations are a driving force of microbial community structure, have clinical implications because of the frequent occurrence of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus co-infections.
Project description:Strand asymmetry in the distribution of guanines and cytosines, measured by GC skew, predisposes DNA sequences towards R-loop formation upon transcription. Previous work revealed that GC skew and R-loop formation associate with a core set of unmethylated CpG island (CGI) promoters in the human genome. Here, we show that GC skew can distinguish four classes of promoters, including three types of CGI promoters, each associated with unique epigenetic and gene ontology signatures. In particular, we identify a strong and a weak class of CGI promoters and show that these loci are enriched in distinct chromosomal territories reflecting the intrinsic strength of their protection against DNA methylation. Interestingly, we show that strong CGI promoters are depleted from the X chromosome while weak CGIs are enriched, a property consistent with the acquisition of DNA methylation during dosage compensation. Furthermore, we identify a third class of CGI promoters based on its unique GC skew profile and show that this gene set is enriched for Polycomb group targets. Lastly, we show that nearly 2,000 genes harbor GC skew at their 3’ ends and that these genes are preferentially located in gene-dense regions and tend to be closely arranged. Genomic profiling of R-loops accordingly showed that a large proportion of genes with terminal GC skew form R-loops at their 3’-ends, consistent with a role for these structures in permitting efficient transcription termination. Altogether, we show that GC skew and R-loop formation offer significant insights into the epigenetic regulation, genomic organization, and function of human genes. DRIP-seq was performed on genomic DNA extracted from human pluripotent Ntera2 cells. The DNA was either fragmented using HindIII, EcoRI, BsrGI, XbaI and SspI (DRIP-seq 1) or BamHI, NcoI, ApaLI, NheI and PvuII (DRIP-seq 2, two technical replicates). Input DNA was also fragmented with each restriction enzyme cocktail and sequenced alongside.
Project description:Low concentrations of pharmaceutical compounds were shown to induce transcriptional responses in isolated microorganisms, which could have consequences on ecosystem dynamics. In order to test if these transcriptional responses could also be observed in complex river microbial communities, biofilm reactors were inoculated with water from two distinct rivers and supplemented with environmentally relevant doses of four pharmaceutical products (erythromycin-ER, gemfibrozil-GM, sulfamethazine-SN and sulfamethoxazole-SL). To follow the expression of functional genes, we constructed a 9,600 features anonymous DNA microarray platform onto which cDNA from the various biofilms was hybridized. The reactor design for biofilm development has been previously described (Lawrence et al., 2004; Lawrence et al., 2000). Two duplicate experiments were carried out, with reactors being inoculated with either water from the WC (nutrient rich) or the SSR (nutrient poor). Treatments consisted in the addition of various pharmaceutical compounds: 1 µg l-1 erythromycin (ER), 1 µg l-1 gemfibrozil (GM), 0.5 µg l-1 sulfamethazine (SN), 0.5 µg l-1 sulfamethoxazole (SL). Nothing was added to control reactors (CO). All treatments were replicated independently three times. A reference sample (composite sample from Wascana Creek reactors used to construct the microarray) was hybridized (Cy5) on each slide.
Project description:For Streptococcus pneumoniae, biofilms have been suggested to promote long-term colonization of the nasopharynx and contribute to the pathology of recurrent middle ear infections. To date numerous studies have investigated the contribution of specific genetic determinants for the development of pneumococcal biofilms, however, studies examining the global changes that occur during biofilm development and how they contribute to disease are lacking. Using Scanning and Transmission electron microscopy we examined development of a mature pneumococcal biofilm in a continuous flow through reactor. We determined that a mature biofilm is formed in discrete stages, is marked by the formation of complex 3-dimensional structures, and is primarily composed of dead pneumococci. Using genomic microarrays we determined that pneumococci in mature biofilms down regulate genes involved in protein synthesis, energy production, metabolism, capsular polysaccharide production, and virulence. We confirmed these changes by testing bacterial resistance to antimicrobials, measuring capsule production by ELSIA, and immunoblotting for pneumolysin production. We determined that biofilm pneumococci are hyper-adhesive, binding to cell lines at levels 9 to 11-fold greater than planktonic counterparts. Using Western blot and ELISA, we determined that biofilm bacteria produce greater amounts of the adhesins PsrP, CbpA, and surface exposed phosphorylcholine. We subsequently determined that the hyper-adhesive phenotype was in part due to selection of the transparent phase variant during biofilm growth. Intranasal, intratracheal and intraperitoneal challenge of mice with biofilm and planktonic pneumococci determined that biofilm bacteria were highly attenuated for invasive disease but not nasopharyngeal colonization. Immunization of mice with ethanol-killed biofilm pneumococci of serotype 4 conferred protection against challenge with same isolate but not a serotype 3. ELISA for reactive IgG levels subsequently determined that biofilm pneumococci do not provide high levels of cross-reactive protein antigens. Together these studies suggest that biofilms do not directly contribute to disease but instead confer a protected mode of growth for the pneumococcus. Pneumococcal biofilms compared to planktonic control at 4, 12, 24, 48 hours. 3 biological replicates each of 4 and 12 hour time points, and 2 biological replicates each of 24 and 48 hour time points. Flip dye (technical replicates) performed for 4, 12, and 24 hour time points; no technical replicate performed for 48 hour time point due to limiting material. Ratios were determined by averaging across technical and biological replicates. The following hybridizations made up each biological replicate: 14090167.tav.annot and 14090190.tav.annot (4hr biol rep 1); 14090169.tav.annot and 14090176.tav.annot (4hr biol rep 2); 14090192.tav.annot and 14090188.tav.annot (4hr biol rep 3); 14087688.tav.annot and 14090180.tav.annot (12hr biol rep 1); 14090185.tav.annot and 14090168.tav.annot (12hr biol rep 2); 14090191.tav.annot and 14090174.tav.annot (12hr biol rep 3); 14090170.tav.annot and 14090175.tav.annot (24hr biol rep 2); 14090193.tav.annot and 14087687.tav.annot (24hr biol rep 3); 14090181.tav.annot (48hr biol rep 1); 14090187.tav.annot (48hr biol rep 2)
Project description:Three E.coli affymetrix antisense arrays were used to examine the global gene expression of pNCF carrying E.coli biofilm. The pNCF is the derivative of only 65 kb non-conjugative factor of F plasmid. It was introduced to E.coli MG1655 strains before prepare the biofilm samples. The biofilms were cultured under the continuous flow cell system using MOP minimal medium supplemented with 0.02% glucose at 37C. The total RNA was extracted directly from the chamber after 48h of incubation for further array procedures according to the manufacture manual.