Dataset Information


Effects of diet and age on canine liver gene expression

ABSTRACT: The liver is the central organ in the regulation of nutrient metabolism, xenobiotic metabolism, and detoxification. Aging leads to a marked change in liver structure and function, characterized by a decline in weight, blood flow, regeneration rate, and detoxification. However, the mechanisms that contribute to these changes are poorly described. Global gene expression profiles of aged versus young adult dogs have not been compared previously. Thus, we used canine microarrays to compare gene expression profiles of liver tissue from geriatric and young adult dogs fed 2 different diets. Liver tissue samples were collected from 6 geriatric (12 yr-old) and 6 young adult (1 yr-old) female beagles after being fed one of two diets (animal protein-based versus plant-protein based) for 12 months. RNA samples were hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip Canine Genome Arrays. Statistical analyses indicated that age had the greatest impact on gene expression, with 234 gene transcripts differentially expressed in geriatric dogs. Although not as robust as age, diet affected mRNA abundance of 137 gene transcripts. The effect of age was most notable, with increased expression in genes related to inflammation, oxidative stress, and glycolysis and decreased expression in genes associated with regeneration, xenobiotic metabolism, and cholesterol trafficking in senior dogs. The effect of diet on gene expression was not consistent, but led to more changes in young adult dogs. Six geriatric (11.1 yr old) and 6 weanling (8 wk old) female beagles were used. Three dogs of each age were assigned to one of two dietary treatments and fed for 12 months. Diets tested in this experiment were previously shown to manipulate energy metabolism. One diet was an animal-protein based diet (APB) and was composed primarily of highly digestible ingredients and animal-derived protein and fat sources (brewer’s rice, poultry by-product meal, poultry fat) and was formulated to contain 28% protein, 23% fat, and 5% dietary fiber. The other diet was a plant-protein based diet (PPB) and was composed primarily of moderately digestible plant-derived ingredients (corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and meat and bone meal) and was formulated to contain 26% protein, 11% fat, and 15% dietary fiber. Although the two diets were very different in terms of ingredient and chemical composition, both were formulated to meet or exceed all nutrient requirements for canine growth according to the Association of American Feed Control Officials. Young dogs were fed ad libitum to allow for adequate growth, while geriatric dogs were fed to maintain baseline BW throughout the experiment. To produce the desired metabolic effects, the PPB diet was formulated to contain a lower caloric density (APB = 5.38 kcal/g; PPB = 4.75 kcal/g) and have a lower nutrient digestibility than the APB diet. Thus, dogs fed the PPB diet needed to consume a greater (P<0.05) quantity of food (237 g/d; 1123 kcal/d) than dogs fed the APB diet (166 g/d; 893 kcal/d) to grow (young) or maintain BW (geriatrics). Even though metabolic indices were altered, mean BW among dietary treatments was not different at any time over the course of the study for young or geriatric dogs. After 12 months on experiment, animals were fasted for 12 hr and then given a lethal dose (130 mg/kg BW) of sodium pentobarbital (Euthasol, Virbac Corp., Fort Worth, TX) intravenously into the left forearm. Death was confirmed by lack of respiration and a corneal reflex, and absence of a heartbeat detected with a stethoscope placed under the left elbow. Liver samples were collected immediately after death was confirmed, flash frozen using liquid nitrogen, and stored at -80oC until further analysis.

ORGANISM(S): Canis lupus familiaris  

SUBMITTER: Lawrence B Schook   Kelly S Swanson  Kelly Scott Swanson 

PROVIDER: E-GEOD-22945 | ArrayExpress | 2011-01-01



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Age and diet affect gene expression profiles in canine liver tissue.

Kil Dong Yong DY   Vester Boler Brittany M BM   Apanavicius Carolyn J CJ   Schook Lawrence B LB   Swanson Kelly S KS  

PloS one 20101012 10

BACKGROUND: The liver plays a central role in nutrient and xenobiotic metabolism, but its functionality declines with age. Senior dogs suffer from many of the chronic hepatic diseases as elderly humans, with age-related alterations in liver function influenced by diet. However, a large-scale molecular analysis of the liver tissue as affected by age and diet has not been reported in dogs. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Liver tissue samples were collected from six senior (12-year old) and six you  ...[more]

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