Sciatic nerve FAIRE-chip and ChIP-Chip with Egr2/Krox20 and Sox10
ABSTRACT: Egr2/Krox20 and Sox10 regulate genes involved in formation of myelination in the peripheral nervous system. ChIP-chip assays were performed on rat sciatic nerve at P15, a peak timepoint of myelination. In addition, Faire was used to identify areas of open chromatin. This experiment includes a custom ChIP-chip design incorporating many genes that are dynamically regulated during peripheral nerve myelination. Two antibodies were used for Egr2, Abcam and Covance PRB-236P. Egr2 and Sox10 ChIP samples were hybridized along with total input. In addition, FAIRE samples were hybridized relative to input DNA
Project description:Egr2/Krox20 and Sox10 regulate genes involved in formation of myelination in the peripheral nervous system. ChIP-chip assays were performed on rat sciatic nerve at P15, a peak timepoint of myelination. In addition, Faire was used to identify areas of open chromatin. This experiment includes a custom ChIP-chip design incorporating many genes that are dynamically regulated during peripheral nerve myelination. Two antibodies were used for Egr2, Abcam and Covance PRB-236P. Overall design: Egr2 and Sox10 ChIP samples were hybridized along with total input. In addition, FAIRE samples were hybridized relative to input DNA
Project description:We provide ChIP-Seq analysis of Egr2 and Sox10 transcription factor binding in Schwann cells of rat peripheral nerve ChIP-Seq analysis of Egr2 and Sox10 binding in P15 rat sciatic nerve. Wiggle files of negative log of posterior probability determined by Mosaics.
Project description:Myelin is essential for the rapidity of saltatory nerve conduction, and also provides trophic support for axons to prevent axonal degeneration. Two critical determinants of myelination are SOX10 and EGR2/KROX20. SOX10 is required for specification of Schwann cells from neural crest, and is required at every stage of Schwann cell development. Egr2/Krox20 expression is activated by axonal signals in myelinating Schwann cells, and is required for cell cycle arrest and myelin formation. To elucidate the integrated function of these two transcription factors during peripheral nerve myelination, we performed in vivo ChIP-Seq analysis of myelinating peripheral nerve. Integration of these binding data with loss-of-function array data identified a range of genes regulated by these factors. In addition, although SOX10 itself regulates Egr2/Krox20 expression, leading to coordinate activation of several major myelin genes by the two factors, there is a large subset of genes that are activated independent of EGR2. Finally, the results identify a set of SOX10-dependent genes that are expressed in early Schwann cell development, but become subsequently repressed by EGR2/KROX20.
Project description:The NuRD complex is required for efficient and timely myelination in the peripheral nervous system. ChIP-chip assays were performed on rat sciatic nerve at P15, a peak timepoint of myelination, for binding of Chd4 to genes involved in regulating myelin formation. This experiment includes two custom ChIP-chip design incorporating many genes that are dynamically regulated during myelination. The antibodies used in this platform were Chd3/4 (Santa Cruz sc-11378) Chd4 (gift from Paul Wade), Mta2 (Santa Cruz sc-9447), and Nab2 (Santa Cruz sc-22815). Chd4 ChIP samples from experimental and input samples were hybridized.
Project description:Myelin is formed by specialized myelinating glia: oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells in the central and peripheral nervous systems, respectively. While there are distinct developmental aspects and regulatory pathways in these two cell types, myelination in both systems requires the transcriptional activator Sox10. Sox10 interacts with cell type-specific transcription factors at some loci to induce myelin gene expression, but it is largely unknown how Sox10 transcriptional networks globally compare between oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. We used in vivo ChIP-Seq analysis of spinal cord and peripheral nerve (sciatic nerve) to identify unique and shared Sox10 binding sites and assess their correlation with active enhancers and transcriptional profiles in oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells. Sox10 binding sites overlap with active enhancers and critical cell type-specific regulators of myelination, such as Olig2 and Myrf in oligodendrocytes, and Egr2/Krox20 in Schwann cells. Sox10 sites also associate with genes critical for myelination in both oligodendrocytes and Schwann cells and are found within super-enhancers previously defined in brain. In Schwann cells, Sox10 sites contain binding motifs of putative partners in the Sp/Klf, Tead, and nuclear receptor protein families. Specifically, siRNA analysis of nuclear receptors Nr2f1 and Nr2f2 revealed downregulation of myelin genes Mbp and Ndrg1 in primary Schwann cells. Our analysis highlights different mechanisms that establish cell type-specific genomic occupancy of Sox10, which reflects the unique characteristics of oligodendrocyte and Schwann cell differentiation. GLIA 2015;63:1897-1914.
Project description:Myelination in the PNS is accompanied by a large induction of the myelin protein zero (Mpz) gene to produce the most abundant component in peripheral myelin. Analyses of knockout mice have shown that the EGR2/Krox20 and SOX10 transcription factors are required for Mpz expression. Our recent work has shown that the dominant EGR2 mutations associated with human peripheral neuropathies cause disruption of EGR2/SOX10 synergy at specific sites, including a conserved enhancer element in the first intron of the Mpz gene. Further investigation of Egr2/Sox10 interactions reveals that activation of the Mpz intron element by Egr2 requires both Sox10-binding sites. In addition, both Egr1 and Egr3 cooperate with Sox10 to activate this element, which indicates that this capacity is conserved among Egr family members. Finally, a conserved composite structure of Egr2/Sox10-binding sites in the genes encoding Mpz, myelin-associated glycoprotein and myelin basic protein genes was used to screen for similar modules in other myelin genes, revealing a potential regulatory element in the periaxin gene. Overall, these results elucidate a working model for developmental regulation of Mpz expression, several facets of which extend to regulation of other peripheral myelin genes.
Project description:Myelination of the peripheral nervous system is required for axonal function and long term stability. After peripheral nerve injury, Schwann cells transition from axon myelination to a demyelinated state that supports neuronal survival and ultimately remyelination of axons. Reprogramming of gene expression patterns during development and injury responses is shaped by the actions of distal regulatory elements that integrate the actions of multiple transcription factors. We used ChIP-seq to measure changes in histone H3K27 acetylation, a mark of active enhancers, to identify enhancers in myelinating rat peripheral nerve and their dynamics after demyelinating nerve injury. Analysis of injury-induced enhancers identified enriched motifs for c-Jun, a transcription factor required for Schwann cells to support nerve regeneration. We identify a c-Jun-bound enhancer in the gene for Runx2, a transcription factor induced after nerve injury, and we show that Runx2 is required for activation of other induced genes. In contrast, enhancers that lose H3K27ac after nerve injury are enriched for binding sites of the Sox10 and early growth response 2 (Egr2/Krox20) transcription factors, which are critical determinants of Schwann cell differentiation. Egr2 expression is lost after nerve injury, and many Egr2-binding sites lose H3K27ac after nerve injury. However, the majority of Egr2-bound enhancers retain H3K27ac, indicating that other transcription factors maintain active enhancer status after nerve injury. The global epigenomic changes in H3K27ac deposition pinpoint dynamic changes in enhancers that mediate the effects of transcription factors that control Schwann cell myelination and peripheral nervous system responses to nerve injury.
Project description:Myelination of peripheral nerves by Schwann cells depends upon a gene regulatory network controlled by early growth response Egr2/Krox20, which is specifically required for Schwann cells to initiate and maintain myelination. To elucidate the mechanism by which Egr2 regulates gene expression during myelination, we have performed chromatin immunoprecipitation analysis on myelinating rat sciatic nerve in vivo. The resulting samples were applied to a tiled microarray consisting of a broad spectrum of genes that are activated or repressed in Egr2-deficient mice. The results show extensive binding within myelin-associated genes, as well as some genes that become repressed in myelinating Schwann cells. Many of the Egr2 peaks coincide with regions of open chromatin, which is a marker of enhancer regions. In addition, further analysis showed that there is substantial colocalization of Egr2 binding with Sox10, a transcription factor required for Schwann cell specification and other stages of Schwann cell development. Finally, we have found that Egr2 binds to promoters of several lipid biosynthetic genes, which is consistent with their dramatic up-regulation during the formation of lipid-rich myelin. Overall, this analysis provides a locus-wide profile of Egr2 binding patterns in major myelin-associated genes using myelinating peripheral nerve.
Project description:The Mpz (myelin protein zero) gene codes for the principal component of myelin in the peripheral nervous system, and mutations in this gene cause human peripheral myelinopathies. Expression of the Mpz gene is controlled by two major transactivators that coordinate Schwann cell development: Egr2/Krox20 and Sox10. Our in vivo ChIP-chip analysis in myelinating peripheral nerve identified major sites of Egr2 interaction within the first intron of the Mpz gene and approximately 5 kb upstream of the transcription start site. In addition, the sites of Egr2 binding display many of the hallmarks associated with enhancer elements. Interestingly, the upstream Egr2 binding sites lie proximal to the divergently transcribed succinate dehydrogenase C gene, but Sdhc expression was not affected by the massive induction of Mpz mediated by Egr2. Mpz induction was greatly enhanced in the presence of the Egr2 binding sites, and removal of them markedly diminished transgenic expression of a construct derived from the Mpz locus. Sox10 was also found to be associated with the upstream region, and its binding was required for Egr2-mediated activation in this distal regulatory region. Our findings highlight that peripheral nerve-specific expression of Mpz is primarily regulated by both upstream and intron-associated regulatory elements. Overall, these results provide a locus-wide analysis of the role and activity of Egr2 in regulation of the Mpz gene within its native chromosomal context.