ABSTRACT: Gene methylation profiling of immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells comparing HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs cells with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)- and HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs. hTERT may increase gene methylation in MSCs. Goal was to determine the effects of different transfected genes on global gene methylation in MSCs. Two-condition experiment, KP MSCs vs. 3A6 MSCs.
Project description:Gene methylation profiling of immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells comparing HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs cells with human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT)- and HPV E6/E7-transfected MSCs. hTERT may increase gene methylation in MSCs. Goal was to determine the effects of different transfected genes on global gene methylation in MSCs. Overall design: Two-condition experiment, KP MSCs vs. 3A6 MSCs.
Project description:Cervical cancer is the most fourth common cancer in women worldwide. The E6 and E7 high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) types are the main cause of this cancer. Several studies have revealed that promoter methylation of tumor suppressor genes is induced by HPV E7. Recently, it was found that HPV16-E7 and the DNA methyltransferase 1 complex could bind at the cyclin A1 (CCNA1) promoter, resulting in CCNA1 promoter methylation. Therefore, there is a need to study other tumor suppressor genes for which HPV may induce promoter methylation. The present study investigated whether HPV induced cell adhesion molecule 1 (CADM1) and death associated protein kinase 1 (DAPK1) promoter methylation. C33a (no HPV infection) and SiHa (HPV 16 infection) cell lines were used for methylation status and expression observation. It was found that CADM1 and DAPK1 promoter methylation, no expression of CADM1 and decreased expression of DAPK1, was presented in SiHa cells. While no promoter methylation of these two genes was observed in C33a cells, with positive expression of the genes. It was subsequently investigated whether E6 and/or E7 could induce promoter methylation and decrease the expression of these two genes. Methylation-specific primer PCR and quantitative PCR were performed to elucidate the promoter methylation status and expression of CADM1 and DAPK1 in C33a cells transfected with HPV16 E6-PCDNA3 or HPV16 E7-PCDNA3.1 myc-his, compared to empty vector-transfected cells. The results showed that HPV E7 could induce CADM1 promoter methylation and decrease the gene expression in HPV E7 transfected C33a cells, while HPV E6 could induce DAPK1 promoter methylation and decrease its expression in C33a cells transfected with HPV E6. Finally, the mechanism by which HPV E7 induced CADM1 promoter methylation was observed by performing chromatin immunoprecipitation; the data showed that E7 induced CADM1 methylation by the same mechanism as that for CCNA1, by binding at the CADM1 promoter, resulting in the subsequent reduction of its expression in cervical cancer.
Project description:Gene expression profiling of immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells with hTERT/E6/E7 transfected MSCs. hTERT may change gene expression in MSCs. Goal was to determine the gene expressions of immortalized MSCs. One-condition experment, gene expression of 3A6
Project description:Gene expression profiling of immortalized human mesenchymal stem cells with hTERT/E6/E7 transfected MSCs. hTERT may change gene expression in MSCs. Goal was to determine the gene expressions of immortalized MSCs. Overall design: One-condition experment, gene expression of 3A6
Project description:BACKGROUND: Recently, transcriptional gene silencing induced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) was found in mammalian and human cells. However, previous studies focused on endogenous genes. METHODS: In this study, we designed siRNA targeting the promoter of human papillomavirus 16 E6/E7 and transfected it into the cervical cancer cell line, SiHa. E6 and E7 mRNA and protein expression were detected in cells treated by promoter-targeting siRNA. Futhermore, cellular growth, proliferation, apoptosis and senescence were detected. Thereafter, we investigated promoter DNA methylation and histone methylation status in cells treated with promoter-targeting siRNA. RESULTS: We found that E6/E7 mRNA and protein were simultaneously reduced, cell growth and proliferation were inhibited and cell death, especially senescence, was remarkably increased. Meanwhile, we also found a significantly increasing histone H3-Lys9 methylation on the promoter when E6/E7 gene expression was inhibited. INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that promoter-targeting siRNA effectively and simultaneously knocks down both extraneous HPV 16 E6 and E7 at the transcriptional level, and consequently inhibits proliferation and induces death in HPV 16-infected cells. This transcriptional repression is probably induced by histone modification rather than by alteration of DNA methylation.
Project description:Telomerase activation is critical for the immortalization of primary human keratinocytes by the high-risk HPV E6 and E7 oncoproteins, and this activation is mediated in part by E6-induction of the hTERT promoter. E6 induces the hTERT promoter via interactions with the cellular ubiquitin ligase, E6AP, and with the c-Myc and NFX-1 proteins, which are resident on the promoter. In the current study we demonstrate that E6 protein interacts directly with the hTERT protein. Correlating with its ability to bind hTERT, E6 also associates with telomeric DNA and with endogenous active telomerase complexes. Most importantly, E6 increases the telomerase activity of human foreskin fibroblasts transduced with the hTERT gene, and this activity is independent of hTERT mRNA expression. Unlike its ability to degrade p53, E6 does not degrade hTERT protein in vitro or in vivo. Our studies of E6/hTERT interactions also reveal that the C-terminal tagged hTERT protein, although incapable of immortalizing fibroblasts, does immortalize keratinocytes in collaboration with the viral E7 protein. Thus, E6 protein mediates telomerase activation by a posttranscriptional mechanism and these findings provide a model for exploring the direct modulation of cell telomerase/telomere function by an oncogenic virus and suggest its potential role in both neoplasia and virus replication.
Project description:Overcoming senescence signals in somatic cells is critical to cellular immortalization and carcinogenesis. High-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) can immortalize epithelial cells in culture through degradation of the retinoblastoma protein by HPV E7 and activation of hTERT transcription, the catalytic subunit of telomerase, by the heterodimer HPV E6/E6-associated protein (E6AP). Recent work in our laboratory identified a novel repressor of hTERT transcription, NFX1-91, which is targeted for ubiquitin-mediated degradation by HPV type 16 (HPV16) E6/E6AP. In contrast, NFX1-123, a splice variant NFX1, increased expression from an hTERT promoter that was activated by HPV16 E6/E6AP. Here, we show that HPV16 E6 bound both NFX1-91 and NFX1-123 through the common central domain of NFX1 in the absence of E6AP. NFX1-123 positively regulated hTERT expression, as its knockdown decreased hTERT mRNA levels and telomerase activity and its overexpression increased telomerase activity. We identified new protein partners of NFX1-123, including several cytoplasmic poly(A) binding proteins (PABPCs) that interacted with NFX1-123 through its N-terminal PAM2 motif, a protein domain characteristic of other PABPC protein partners. Furthermore, NFX1-123 and PABPCs together had a synergistic stimulatory effect on hTERT-regulated reporter assays. The data suggest that NFX1-123 is integral to hTERT regulation in HPV16 E6-expressing epithelial cells and that the interaction between NFX1-123 and PABPCs is critical to hTERT activity.
Project description:HPV-16 E6 and E7 genes are required to efficiently immortalize a broad spectrum of cell types including cervical keratinocytes. Therefore, the E6/E7 genes can be considered relevant targets for anti-cancer therapy. We produced several engineered hairpin (HP) ribozymes to specifically disrupt HPV-16 E6/E7 mRNA. After extensive biochemical characterization, one anti-E6 HP ribozyme (R434) was selected for in vivo testing because of its superior catalytic capabilities. When expressed in cis, R434 efficiently inhibited E6 in vitro translation. Cis-expression of the HP ribozyme with HPV-16 E6/E7 genes in normal human keratinocytes reduced the growth rate and prevented immortalization. RNA analysis by reverse transcription-PCR showed that E6/E7 transcripts were cleaved in post-transfected cells and virtually were eliminated after long term expression. Of interest, an inactive version of the HP also was able to significantly affect the immortalizing ability of E6/E7, probably through passive hybridization. The combination of passive and cleaving antisense RNA therefore is established as an effective inhibitor of HPV-16 E6/E7 immortalization.
Project description:The intestinal epithelium is a major site of interaction with pathogens. In bovine intestinal epithelial cells (BIECs), Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play an important role in innate immune responses against enteric pathogens. This study is aimed at establishing a stable bovine intestinal epithelial cell line that can be maintained by a continuous passage so that studies on innate immune responses against various enteric pathogens can be performed. The main goal was to establish pure cultures of primary and immortalized bovine intestinal epithelial cells from the ileum and then characterize them biochemically and immunologically. Mixed epithelial and fibroblast bovine ileal intestinal cultures were first established from a 2-day old calf. Limiting dilution method was used to obtain a clone of epithelial cells which was characterized using immunocytochemistry (ICC). The selected clone BIEC-c4 was cytokeratin positive and expressed low levels of vimentin, confirming the epithelial cell phenotype. Early passage BIEC-c4 cells were transfected with either simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen or human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT), or human papillomavirus (HPV) type 16E6/E7 genes to establish three immortalized BIEC cell lines. The expression of SV40, hTERT and HPV E6/E7 genes in immortalized BIECs was confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Immunocytochemistry and immunofluorescence assays also confirmed the expression of SV40, hTERT and HPV E6 proteins. The immortalized BIECs were cytokeratin positive and all except HPV-BIECs expressed low levels of vimentin. A growth kinetics study indicated that there were no significant differences in the doubling time of immortalized BIECs as compared to early passage BIEC-c4 cells. All four BIEC types expressed TLR 1-10 genes, with TLR 3 and 4 showing higher expression across all cell types. These newly established early passage and immortalized BIEC cell lines should serve as a good model for studying infectivity, pathogenesis and innate immune responses against enteric pathogens.
Project description:Previous studies have shown that wild-type human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein can functionally replace the human papillomavirus type 16 (HPV-16) E6 protein, which cooperates with the viral E7 protein in the immortalization of primary keratinocytes. In the current study, we made the surprising finding that catalytically inactive hTERT (hTERT-D868A), elongation-defective hTERT (hTERT-HA), and telomere recruitment-defective hTERT (hTERT N+T) also cooperate with E7 in mediating bypass of the senescence blockade and effecting cell immortalization. This suggests that hTERT has activities independent of its telomere maintenance functions that mediate transit across this restriction point. Since hTERT has been shown to have a role in gene activation, we performed microarray studies and discovered that E6, hTERT and mutant hTERT proteins altered the expression of highly overlapping sets of cellular genes. Most important, the E6 and hTERT proteins induced mRNA and protein levels of Bmi1, the core subunit of the Polycomb Group (PcG) complex 1. We show further that Bmi1 substitutes for E6 or hTERT in cell immortalization. Finally, tissue array studies demonstrated that expression of Bmi1 increased with the severity of cervical dysplasia, suggesting a potential role in the progression of cervical cancer. Together, these data demonstrate that hTERT has extra-telomeric activities that facilitate cell immortalization and that its induction of Bmi1 is one potential mechanism for mediating this activity.