Study of gene expression of human liver Hepatocellular carcinoma
ABSTRACT: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) affects millions of people worldwide and is a lethal malignancy for which there are no effective therapies. To identify prognostic gene markers for liver cancer, we conducted transcriptome profiling of frozen tissues (tumor and non-tumor) from 300 early-to-advanced stage HCCs plus 40 cirrhotic and 6 normal livers. We have profiles 268 HCC tumor, 243 adjacent non-tumor, 40 cirrhotic and 6 healthy liver samples.
Project description:Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) affects millions of people worldwide and is a lethal malignancy for which there are no effective therapies. To identify prognostic gene markers for liver cancer, we conducted transcriptome profiling of frozen tissues (tumor and non-tumor) from 300 early-to-advanced stage HCCs plus 40 cirrhotic and 6 normal livers. Overall design: We have profiles 268 HCC tumor, 243 adjacent non-tumor, 40 cirrhotic and 6 healthy liver samples.
Project description:We analyzed the molecular changes in a mouse c-MET over-expression model of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). FVB mice overexpressing human c-MET carried one copy of the LAP-tTa transgene (the liver-specific LAP promoter driving the Tet-VP16 transactivator) and one copy of the TRE-c-MET transgene (Tet-operator regulated human c-MET gene). Normal liver or liver tumor tissue (two per mouse) was collected and processed for gene expression profiling.
Project description:Microarray analysis has been useful for identifying the targets of many transcription factors. However, gene expression changes in response to transcription factor perturbation reveal both direct transcriptional targets and secondary gene regulation. By integrating RNA interference, gene expression profiling, and chromatin immunoprecipitation technologies, we identified a set of 32 direct transcriptional targets of the tumor suppressor p53. Of these 32 genes, 11 are not currently associated with the core p53 pathway. From among these novel pathway members, we focused on understanding the connection between p53 and SULF2, which encodes an extracellular heparan sulfate 6-O-endosulfatase that modulates the binding of growth factors to their cognate receptors and that has been shown to function as a tumor suppressor. Genetic and pharmacologic perturbation of p53 directly influences SULF2 expression, and similar to silencing of TP53, RNA interference-mediated suppression of SULF2 results in an impaired senescence response of cells to genotoxic stress. Thus, our integrated genomic approach has led to the identification of a novel mediator of p53 network biology. Expression profiling experiments were performed to perturb the p53 status in cancer cell lines as a means of identifying novel members of the p53 pathway.
Project description:Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is a nearly uniformly lethal malignancy, with most patients facing an adverse clinical outcome. Given the pivotal role of aberrant Notch signaling in the initiation and progression of PDAC, we investigated the effect of MRK-003, a potent and selective γ-secretase inhibitor, in preclinical PDAC models. We used a panel of human PDAC cell lines, as well as patient-derived PDAC xenografts, to determine whether pharmacological targeting of the Notch pathway could inhibit pancreatic tumor growth and potentiate gemcitabine sensitivity. In vitro, MRK-003 treatment downregulated the canonical Notch target gene Hes-1, significantly inhibited anchorage independent growth, and reduced the subset of CD44+CD24+ and aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH)+ cells that have been attributed with tumor initiating capacity. Ex vivo pretreatment of PDAC cells with MRK-003 in culture significantly inhibited the subsequent engraftment in immunocompromised mice. In vivo, MRK-003 monotherapy significantly blocked tumor growth in 5 of 9 (56%) patient-derived PDAC xenografts. Moreover, a combination of MRK-003 and gemcitabine showed enhanced antitumor effects compared to gemcitabine alone in 4 of 9 (44%) PDAC xenografts. Baseline gene expression analysis of the treated xenografts indicated that upregulation of nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) pathway components was associated with the sensitivity to single MRK-003, while upregulation in B-cell receptor (BCR) signaling and nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (NRF2) pathway correlated with response to the combination of MRK-003 with gemcitabine. The preclinical findings presented here provide further rationale for small molecule inhibition of Notch signaling as a therapeutic strategy in PDAC. Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma xenografts were grown in Athymic Nude-Foxn1nu mice. RNA was extracted and profiled in Affymetrix platform to identify genes correlating with sensitivity to MRK-003
Project description:siRNAs mediate sequence-specific gene silencing in cultured mammalian cells but also silence unintended transcripts. Many siRNA off-target transcripts match the guide-strand ‘‘seed region,’’ similar to the way microRNAs match their target sites. The extent to which this seed-matched, microRNA-like, off-target silencing affects the specificity of therapeutic siRNAs in vivo is currently unknown. Here, we compare microRNA-like off-target regulations in mouse liver in vivo with those seen in cell culture for a series of therapeutic candidate siRNAs targeting Apolipoprotein B (APOB). Each siRNA triggered regulation of consistent microRNA-like off-target transcripts in mouse livers and in cultured mouse liver tumor cells. In contrast, there was only random overlap between microRNA-like off-target transcripts from cultured human and mouse liver tumor cells. Therefore, siRNA therapeutics may trigger microRNA-like silencing of many unintended targets in vivo, and the potential toxicities caused by these off-target gene regulations cannot be accurately assessed in rodent models. Hepa1-6 mouse hepatoma cell line and HUH7 and PLC/PRF/5 human hepatoma cell lines were transfected in 6-well plates using Lipofectamine RNAiMAX and siRNA duplexes at a final concentration of 10 nM. For in vitro analysis, RNA was extracted at 6, 12, 24, and 48 h post-transfection. For in vivo studies, mouse livers were harvested 3 d following a single administration of APOB siRNA (3 mg/kg) formulated in lipid nanoparticles. For details, please see: J. Burchard, A.L. Jackson, V. Malkov, R.H.V. Needham, Y. Tan, S.R. Bartz, H. Dai, A.B. Sachs and P.S. Linsley. microRNA-like off-target transcript regulation by siRNAs is species specific. RNA 15 (2009)
Project description:Deregulated developmental processes in the cerebellum cause medulloblastoma, the most common malignant tumor of the central nervous system. About 20-30% of cases are caused by mutations increasing the activity of the Sonic hedgehog (Shh) pathway, a critical mitogen in cerebellar development. The proto-oncogene Smoothened is a key transducer of the Shh pathway. Activating mutations in Smoothened that lead to constitutive activity of the Shh pathway have been identified in human medulloblastoma. To understand the molecular and cellular effects of Smoothened variants in normal development and medulloblastoma genesis, we generated the SmoA2 transgenic mouse model which expresses the transgene exclusively in granule neuron precursors. In this study, we demonstrate how two point mutations in a single molecule can produce starkly different phenotypes as seen in comparison to our previous model, ND2:SmoA1. The SmoA2 mice have severe aberrations in cerebellar development whereas the SmoA1 mice are largely normal during development. Medulloblastomas in the SmoA2 mice develop in the dysplastic cerebellar milieu. Intriguingly, despite disruptions in the stereotypic organization of the cerebellum, the SmoA2 mice do not exhibit any overt abnormalities in motor coordination. The differences in the global transcriptional profiles downstream of SmoA1 and SmoA2 further demonstrate the distinctiveness of the two oncogenic Smoothened mutations. The SmoA2 model serves as a unique spatiotemporal tool to investigate the functional significance of the reiterative cerebellar circuitry as well as to further understand Shh pathway mechanics in cerebellar development and oncogenesis. We previously generated a SmoA1 transgenic mouse medulloblastoma model, which expresses the SmoA1 transgene driven by the GNP-specific fragment of the promoter of ND2 transcription factor leading to constitutively active Shh signaling exclusively in the cerebellum. In this study, we characterize the ND2:SmoA2 transgenic mouse model with a similarly designed transgene expressing the SmoA2 mutation. To assess transcriptional changes downstream of SmoA1 and SmoA2, we evaluated global gene expression profiles of P5 SmoA1, SmoA2 and Wt age-matched cerebella. We chose this specific developmental stage because (1) the phenotypes of SmoA1 and SmoA2 are robust and distinct at P5; (2) at P5 GNPs undergo proliferation, migration and differentiation and therefore expression profiling could capture key differences in multiple processes.
Project description:Cancer cells exhibit the ability to proliferate indefinitely, but paradoxically, overexpression of cellular oncogenes in primary cells can result in a rapid and irreversible cell cycle arrest known as oncogene-induced senescence (OIS). However, we have shown that constitutive overexpression of the oncogene c-MYC in primary human foreskin fibroblasts results in a population of cells with unlimited lifespan; these immortalized cells are henceforth referred to as iMYC. Here, in order to further elucidate the mechanisms underlying the immortalization process, a gene expression signature of three independently established iMYC cell lines compared to matched early passage c-MYC overexpressing cells was derived. Network analysis of this "iMYC signature" indicated that a large fraction of the down-regulated genes were functionally connected and major nodes centered around the TGFb, IL-6 and IGF-1 signaling pathways. Here, we focused on the functional validation of the alteration of TGFb response during c-MYC-mediated immortalization. The results demonstrate loss of sensitivity of iMYC cells to activation of TGFb signaling upon ligand addition. Furthermore, we show that aberrant regulation of the p27 tumor suppressor protein in iMYC cells is a key event that contributes to loss of response to TGFb. These findings highlight the potential to reveal key pathways contributing to the self-renewal of cancer cells through functional mining of the unique gene expression signature of cells immortalized by c-MYC. Cell Cycle. 2011 Aug 1;10(15). Cell culture. Human foreskin fibroblast cell lines expressing empty vector pBABE or vector with gene sequence encoding c-MYC were previously described in PMID 17982115. Cells were cultured in Dulbecco’s modified eagle medium (DMEM) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum and penicillinstreptomycin. For cell growth assays, equal number of cells per cell line were plated and counted on the specified days after plating. Microarray analysis. Total RNA was purified using an RNeasy kit (Qiagen, Valencia, CA). Genome-scale expression analysis was performed using custom microarrays (Affymetrix, Santa Clara, CA) containing oligonucleotide probes corresponding to approximately 22,000 human genes. Microarray analysis was performed as described in PMID 12925520. Data were analyzed using Rosetta Resolver(TM) software. We determined a p-value cutoff of 0.01 for genes in all three samples.
Project description:Inhibition of Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) has been a mechanism of interest for metabolic disorders. DGAT1 inhibition has been shown to be a key regulator in an array of metabolic pathways; however, based on the DGAT1 KO mouse phenotype the anticipation is that pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 could potentially lead to skin related adverse effects. One of the aims in developing small molecule DGAT1 inhibitors that target key metabolic tissues is to avoid activity on skin-localized DGAT1 enzyme. In this report we describe a modeling-based approach to identify molecules with physical properties leading to differential exposure distribution. In addition, we demonstrate histological and RNA based biomarker approaches that can detect sebaceous gland atrophy pre-clinically that could be used as potential biomarkers in a clinical setting. Mice were treated with DGAT1 inhibitors for 14 days and dorsal skin biopsies (3-5 mm^2) were taken. RNA was profiled on custom Affymetrix microarrays. The primary goal was to identify robust and consistent biomarkers of DGAT1 inibition in skin.
Project description:FGF21 is a novel secreted protein with robust anti-diabetic, anti-obesity, and anti-atherogenic activities in preclinical species. In the current study, we investigated the signal transduction pathways downstream of FGF21 following acute administration of the growth factor to mice. Focusing on adipose tissues, we identified FGF21-mediated downstream signaling events and target engagement biomarkers. Specifically, RNA profiling of adipose tissues and phosphoproteomic profiling of adipocytes, following FGF21 treatment revealed several specific changes in gene expression and post-translational modifications, specifically phosphorylation, in several relevant proteins. Affymetrix microarray analysis of white adipose tissues isolated from both C57BL/6 (fed either regular chow or HFD) and db/db mice identified over 150 robust potential RNA transcripts and over 50 potential secreted proteins that were changed greater than 1.5 fold by FGF21 acutely. Phosphoprofiling analysis identified over 130 phosphoproteins that were modulated greater than 1.5 fold by FGF21 in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Bioinformatic analysis of the combined gene and phosphoprotein profiling data identified a number of known metabolic pathways such as glucose uptake, insulin receptor signaling, Erk/Mapk signaling cascades, and lipid metabolism. Moreover, a number of novel events with hitherto unknown links to FGF21 signaling were observed at both the transcription and protein phosphorylation levels following treatment. We conclude that such a combined "omics" approach can be used not only to identify robust biomarkers for novel therapeutics but can also enhance our understanding of downstream signaling pathways; in the example presented here, novel FGF21-mediated signaling events in adipose tissue have been revealed that warrant further investigation. Three mouse strains (C57BL6 on chow diet, C57BL6 on high fat diet, and db/db on chow diet) were treated with either vehicle, wild-type FGF21, or pegylated FGF21 acutely or for several days and three white adipose tissues (IWAT, EWAT, RPWAT) and brown adipose tissue (BAT) were profiled on custom Affymetrix microarrays. The primary goal was to identify robust and consistent acute target engagement biomarkers of FGF21 activation in white adipose tissues.
Project description:Aberrant activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway is implicated in the pathogenesis of many cancers, including medulloblastoma and basal cell carcinoma (BCC). In this study, using neonatally irradiated Ptch1+/- mice as a model of Hh-dependent tumors, we investigated the in vivo effects of MK-4101, a novel SMO antagonist, for treatment of medulloblastoma and BCC. Results clearly demonstrate a robust antitumor activity of MK-4101, achieved through the inhibition of proliferation and induction of extensive apoptosis in tumor cells. Of note, beside antitumor activity on transplanted tumors, MK-4101 was highly efficacious against primary medulloblastoma and BCC developing in the cerebellum and skin of Ptch1+/- mice. By identifying the changes induced by MK-4101 in gene expression profiles in tumors, we also elucidate the mechanism of action of this novel, orally administrable compound. MK-4101 targets the Hh pathway in the tumor cells, showing the maximum inhibitory effect on Gli1 activity. MK-4101 also induced deregulation of cell cycle and block of DNA replication in tumors. Members of the IGF and Wnt signaling pathways , were among the most highly deregulated genes by MK-4101, suggesting that the interplay among Hh, IGF and Wnt is crucial in Hh-dependent tumorigenesis. Altogether, the results of this preclinical study support a therapeutic opportunity for MK-4101 in the treatment of Hh-driven cancers, also providing useful information for combination therapy with drugs targeting pathways cooperating with Hh oncogenic activity. Gene expression data was generated (in replicates) from Medulloblastoma allografts collected at various time points and following low (40mpk) or high (80 mpk) or vehicle single dose (QD) or mutiple dose (BID) treatment with a SHH pathway inhibitor.