Initiation Pausing of 80S Ribosome on mRNA Is Governed by 5'UTR and Responsive to mTORC1 Signaling (RNA-Seq)
ABSTRACT: Recent studies have revealed that the mRNA translation is punctuated by ribosomal pauses through the body of transcripts. However, little is known about its physiological significance and regulatory aspects. Here we present a multi-dimensional ribosome profiling approach to quantify the dynamics of initiation and elongation of 80S ribosomes across the entire transcriptome in mammalian cells. We show that a subset of transcripts have a significant pausing of 80S ribosome around the start codon, creating a major barrier to the commitment of translation elongation. Intriguingly, genes encoding ribosome proteins themselves exhibit an exceptionally high initiation pausing on their transcripts. Our studies also reveal that the initiation pausing is dependent on the 5’ untranslated region (5’ UTR) of mRNAs and subject to the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Thus, the initiation pausing of 80S ribosome represents a novel regulatory step in translational control mediated by nutrient signaling pathway. Monitor the translational status of transcriptome in mammalian cells under different conditions
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE25331: Initiation pausing of mRNA translation controlled by mTORC1 signaling (microarray) GSE25626: Initiation pausing of mRNA translation controlled by mTORC1 signaling (RNA-Seq) Refer to individual Series
Project description:Recent studies have revealed that the mRNA translation is punctuated by ribosomal pauses through the body of transcripts. However, little is known about its physiological significance and regulatory aspects. Here we present a multi-dimensional ribosome profiling approach to quantify the dynamics of initiation and elongation of 80S ribosomes across the entire transcriptome in mammalian cells. We show that a subset of transcripts have a significant pausing of 80S ribosome around the start codon, creating a major barrier to the commitment of translation elongation. Intriguingly, genes encoding ribosome proteins themselves exhibit an exceptionally high initiation pausing on their transcripts. Our studies also reveal that the initiation pausing is dependent on the 5’ untranslated region (5’ UTR) of mRNAs and subject to the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Thus, the initiation pausing of 80S ribosome represents a novel regulatory step in translational control mediated by nutrient signaling pathway. Untreated TSC2 WT MEFs, TSC2 KO MEFs and TSC2 WT MEFs, TSC2 KO MEFs treated with 20nM rapamycin for 30 minutes or 3hours were harvested for ribosme profiling. The fraction samples were pooled into three groups based on velocity sedimentation: single ribosome fraction (Small group), fractions with 2 ~ 4 ribosomes (Medium group), and the one with ≥5 ribosomes (Large group). RNA were extracted from the whole cell lysis and each fraction group.
Project description:Recent studies highlight the importance of translational control in determining protein abundance, underscoring the value of measuring gene expression at the level of translation. We present a protocol for genome-wide, quantitative analysis of in vivo translation by deep sequencing. This ribosome profiling approach maps the exact positions of ribosomes on transcripts by nuclease footprinting. The nuclease-protected mRNA fragments are converted into a DNA library suitable for deep sequencing using a strategy that minimizes bias. The abundance of different footprint fragments in deep sequencing data reports on the amount of translation of a gene. Additionally, footprints reveal the exact regions of the transcriptome that are translated. To better define translated reading frames, we describe an adaptation that reveals the sites of translation initiation by pre-treating cells with harringtonine to immobilize initiating ribosomes. The protocol we describe requires 5 - 7 days to generate a completed ribosome profiling sequencing library. Ribosome profiling in cultured mammalian cells under three different footprinting conditions
Project description:Fully assembled ribosomes exist in two populations: polysomes and monosomes. While the former has been studied extensively, to what extent translation occurs on monosomes and its importance for overall translational output remains controversial. Here, we used ribosome profiling to examine the translational status of 80S monosomes in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that the vast majority of 80S monosomes are elongating, not initiating. Further, most mRNAs exhibit some degree of monosome occupancy, with monosomes predominating on nonsense-mediated decay (NMD) targets, upstream open reading frames (uORFs), canonical ORFs shorter than ~590 nucleotides and ORFs for which the total time required to complete elongation is substantially shorter than that required for initiation. Importantly, mRNAs encoding low-abundance regulatory proteins tend to be enriched in the monosome fraction. Our data highlight the importance of monosomes for the translation of highly regulated mRNAs. We examined the translational status of single 80S ribosomes using ribosome profiling, and compared these monosome footprints to both polysome ribosome footprints and general ribosome profiling. RNASeq libraries were also prepared from the overall sample input.
Project description:Ribosome profiling suggests that ribosomes occupy many regions of the transcriptome thought to be non-coding, including 5' UTRs and lncRNAs. Apparent ribosome footprints outside of protein-coding regions raise the possibility of artifacts unrelated to translation, particularly when they occupy multiple, overlapping open reading frames (ORFs). Here we show hallmarks of translation in these footprints: co-purification with the large ribosomal subunit, response to drugs targeting elongation, trinucleotide periodicity, and initiation at early AUGs. We develop a metric for distinguishing between 80S footprints and nonribosomal sources using footprint size distributions, which validates the vast majority of footprints outside of coding regions. We present evidence for polypeptide production beyond annotated genes, including induction of immune responses following human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) infection. Translation is pervasive on cytosolic transcripts outside of conserved reading frames, and direct detection of this expanded universe of translated products enables efforts to understand how cells manage and exploit its consequences. Ribosome profiling to verify that true ribosome footprints shift in response to different elongation inhibitors (CHX vs Emetine) and co-purify with an affinity-tagged large ribosomal subunit (bound vs input)
Project description:Protein synthesis by ribosomes takes place on a linear substrate but at variable speeds. Transient pausing of ribosomes can impact a variety of co-translational processes, including protein targeting and folding. These pauses are influenced by the sequence of the mRNA. Thus redundancy in the genetic code allows the same protein to be translated at different rates. However, our knowledge of both the position and the mechanism of translational pausing in vivo is highly limited. Here we present a genome-wide analysis of translational pausing in bacteria using ribosome profiling-deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments. This approach enables high-resolution measurement of ribosome density profiles along most transcripts at unperturbed, endogenous expression levels. Unexpectedly, we found that codons decoded by rare tRNAs do not lead to slow translation under nutrient-rich conditions. Instead, Shine-Dalgarno-(SD) like features within coding sequences cause pervasive translational pausing. Using an orthogonal ribosome possessing an altered anti-SD sequence, we demonstrated that pausing is due to hybridization between mRNA and the 16S rRNA of the translating ribosome. In protein coding sequences, internal SD sequences are disfavoured, which leads to biased usage, avoiding codons and codon pairs that resemble canonical SD sites. Our results indicate that internal SD-like sequences are a major determinant of translation rates and a global driving force for the coding of bacterial genomes. Identification of translation pause sites in vivo using ribosome profiling
Project description:Proteins begin to fold as they emerge from translating ribosomes. The kinetics of ribosome transit along a given mRNA can influence nascent chain folding, but the extent to which individual codon translation rates impact proteome integrity remains unknown. Here, we show that slower decoding of discrete codons elicits widespread protein aggregation in vivo. Using ribosome profiling, we find that loss of anticodon wobble uridine (U34) modifications in a subset of tRNAs leads to ribosome pausing at their cognate codons in S. cerevisiae and C. elegans. Yeast cells lacking U34 modifications exhibit gene expression hallmarks of proteotoxic stress and accumulate aggregates of endogenous proteins with key cellular functions. Moreover, these cells are severely compromised in clearing stress-induced protein aggregates. Overexpression of hypomodified tRNAs alleviates ribosome pausing, concomitantly restoring protein homeostasis. Our findings demonstrate that modified U34 is an evolutionarily conserved accelerator of decoding and reveal an unanticipated role for tRNA anticodon modifications in maintaining proteome integrity. Ribosome profiling of wild-type and tRNA modification-deficient yeast and nematodes. Yeast samples were generated in various growth conditions (rich medium versus stress induced by treatment with diamide or rapamycin) and paired mRNA-Seq was performed on a subset of samples. Dataset contains three biological replicates for yeast samples and two biological replicates for nematode samples.
Project description:The rate of protein synthesis varies according to the mRNA sequence in ways that affect gene expression. Global analysis of translational pausing is now possible with ribosome profiling. Here, we revisit an earlier report that Shine-Dalgarno sequences are the major determinant of translational pausing in bacteria. Using refinements in the profiling method as well as biochemical assays, we find that SD motifs have little (if any) effect on elongation rates. We argue that earlier evidence of pausing arose from two factors. First, in previous analyses, pauses at Gly codons were difficult to distinguish from pauses at SD motifs. Second, and more importantly, the initial study preferentially isolated long ribosome-protected mRNA fragments that are enriched in SD motifs. These findings clarify the landscape of translational pausing in bacteria as observed by ribosome profiling. Ribosome profiling (three replicates) and RNAseq (two replicates) of E. coli MG1655
Project description:Disruptions of protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) elicit activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a translation- and transcription-coupled proteostatic stress response pathway. The primary translational control arm of the UPR is initiated by the PERK-dependent phosphorylation of eIF2α, leading to a large-scale reprogramming of translation and subsequent activation of an ATF4-mediated transcriptional program. It has remained challenging, however, to accurately evaluate the contribution of each component of the eIF2α/ATF4 pathway to the remodelling of transcription and translation. Here, we have used mouse embryonic fibroblasts containing either a knock-in of the non-phosphorylatable eIF2α S51A mutant or knock-out for ATF4 by ribosome profiling and mRNA-seq to define the specific contributions of eIF2α phosphoryation and ATF4 in controlling the translational and transcriptional components of the UPR. These studies show that the transcriptional and translational targets of each P-eIF2α, ATF4, and the other UPR gene expression programs overlapped extensively, leading to a core set of UPR genes whose robust expression in response to ER stress is driven by multiple mechanisms. The identification of other, more factor-specific targets illustrated the potential for functional specialization of the UPR. As the UPR progressed temporally, cells employed distinct combinations of transcriptional and translational mechanisms, initiated by different factors, to adapt to ongoing stress. These effects were accompanied by a buffering effect where changes in mRNA levels were coupled to opposing changes in ribosome loading, a property which makes cooperation between transcription and translation essential to confer robust protein expression. Translational analysis by ribosome profiling and mRNA-seq of PERK pathways mutants during the UPR. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking components of the PERK pathway (eIF2a phosphorylation and ATF4) were subjected to ER stress and analyzed by ribosome profiling.
Project description:Primary human foreskin fibroblasts (HFF) were infected with wild-type simplex virus 1 (HSV-1) strain 17 at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10. Ribosome profiling was performed at various times during infection with minor modification to the protocol described in Stern-Ginossar N et al., Science 2012 Ribosome profiling was performed a 0, 1, 2, 4, 6 and 8 h post infection. Two biological replicates were analysed.