Initiation Pausing of 80S Ribosome on mRNA Is Governed by 5’UTR and Responsive to mTORC1 Signaling
ABSTRACT: This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE25331: Initiation pausing of mRNA translation controlled by mTORC1 signaling (microarray) GSE25626: Initiation pausing of mRNA translation controlled by mTORC1 signaling (RNA-Seq) Refer to individual Series
Project description:Recent studies have revealed that the mRNA translation is punctuated by ribosomal pauses through the body of transcripts. However, little is known about its physiological significance and regulatory aspects. Here we present a multi-dimensional ribosome profiling approach to quantify the dynamics of initiation and elongation of 80S ribosomes across the entire transcriptome in mammalian cells. We show that a subset of transcripts have a significant pausing of 80S ribosome around the start codon, creating a major barrier to the commitment of translation elongation. Intriguingly, genes encoding ribosome proteins themselves exhibit an exceptionally high initiation pausing on their transcripts. Our studies also reveal that the initiation pausing is dependent on the 5’ untranslated region (5’ UTR) of mRNAs and subject to the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Thus, the initiation pausing of 80S ribosome represents a novel regulatory step in translational control mediated by nutrient signaling pathway. Monitor the translational status of transcriptome in mammalian cells under different conditions
Project description:Recent studies have revealed that the mRNA translation is punctuated by ribosomal pauses through the body of transcripts. However, little is known about its physiological significance and regulatory aspects. Here we present a multi-dimensional ribosome profiling approach to quantify the dynamics of initiation and elongation of 80S ribosomes across the entire transcriptome in mammalian cells. We show that a subset of transcripts have a significant pausing of 80S ribosome around the start codon, creating a major barrier to the commitment of translation elongation. Intriguingly, genes encoding ribosome proteins themselves exhibit an exceptionally high initiation pausing on their transcripts. Our studies also reveal that the initiation pausing is dependent on the 5’ untranslated region (5’ UTR) of mRNAs and subject to the regulation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1). Thus, the initiation pausing of 80S ribosome represents a novel regulatory step in translational control mediated by nutrient signaling pathway. Untreated TSC2 WT MEFs, TSC2 KO MEFs and TSC2 WT MEFs, TSC2 KO MEFs treated with 20nM rapamycin for 30 minutes or 3hours were harvested for ribosme profiling. The fraction samples were pooled into three groups based on velocity sedimentation: single ribosome fraction (Small group), fractions with 2 ~ 4 ribosomes (Medium group), and the one with ≥5 ribosomes (Large group). RNA were extracted from the whole cell lysis and each fraction group.
Project description:Recent studies highlight the importance of translational control in determining protein abundance, underscoring the value of measuring gene expression at the level of translation. We present a protocol for genome-wide, quantitative analysis of in vivo translation by deep sequencing. This ribosome profiling approach maps the exact positions of ribosomes on transcripts by nuclease footprinting. The nuclease-protected mRNA fragments are converted into a DNA library suitable for deep sequencing using a strategy that minimizes bias. The abundance of different footprint fragments in deep sequencing data reports on the amount of translation of a gene. Additionally, footprints reveal the exact regions of the transcriptome that are translated. To better define translated reading frames, we describe an adaptation that reveals the sites of translation initiation by pre-treating cells with harringtonine to immobilize initiating ribosomes. The protocol we describe requires 5 - 7 days to generate a completed ribosome profiling sequencing library. Ribosome profiling in cultured mammalian cells under three different footprinting conditions
Project description:Aberrant activation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) is a common molecular event in a large variety of pathological settings, including genetic tumor syndromes, cancer, and obesity. However, the cell intrinsic consequences of mTORC1 activation remain poorly defined. Here, we identify global trancriptional changes in TSC1 and TSC2 null MEFs, which exhibit constitutive activation of mTORC1, compared to wild-type littermate control lines. A rapamycin time course is included to determine those changes that are dependent on mTORC1 signaling, revealing mTORC1 induced and repressed transcripts. In order to identify mTORC1-dependent transcriptional changes, we compared wild-type MEFs to both Tsc1-/- and Tsc2-/- MEFs following serum starvation, where mTORC1 signaling is off in wild-type cells and fully active in TSC-deficient cells. All cell lines were serum-starved for 24 h, and the Tsc1-/- and Tsc2-/- cells were treated with a time course of rapamycin prior to the isolation of mRNA for microarray analysis. Immortalized wild-type (Tsc2+/+ p53-/-), Tsc1-/- (p53+/+, 3T3-immortalized), and Tsc2-/- (p53-/-, derived from a littermate of the wild-type cell line) MEFs are the three cell lines used in this study and were derived in the laboratory of David J. Kwiatkowski (Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA). Wild-type and null MEFs were grown to 70% confluence in 10 cm plates and were serum starved for 24 h in the presence of vehicle (DMSO) for 24 h or rapamycin (20 nM) for 2, 6, 12, or 24 h. All vehicle-treated samples (0 h time points) were plated in triplicate and all rapamycin time course samples were plated in duplicate. For each replicate, expression analysis was performed by hybridization to an Affymetrix Mouse 430_2 oligonucleotide microarray chip.
Project description:Ribosome assembly occurs mainly in the nucleolus yet recent studies have revealed robust enrichment and translation of mRNAs encoding many ribosomal proteins (RPs) in axons, far away from neuronal cell bodies. Here, we report a physical and functional interaction between locally synthesized RPs and ribosomes in the axon. We show that axonal RP translation is regulated through a novel sequence motif, CUIC, that forms an RNA-loop structure in the region immediately upstream of the initiation codon. Using imaging and subcellular proteomics techniques, we show that RPs synthesized in axons join axonal ribosomes in a nucleolus-independent fashion. Inhibition of axonal CUIC-regulated RP translation causes a significant decline in local translation activity and markedly reduces axon branching in the brain, revealing the physiological relevance of axonal RP synthesis in vivo. These results suggest that axonal translation supplies cytoplasmic RPs to maintain/modify local ribosomal function far from the nucleolus in neurons.
Project description:The unfolded protein response (UPR) couples cellular translation rates and gene expression to the protein folding status of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Upon activation, the UPR machinery elicits a general suppression of protein synthesis and activation of stress gene expression, which act coordinately to restore protein folding homeostasis. We report here that UPR activation promotes the release of signal sequence-encoding mRNAs from the ER to the cytosol as a mechanism to decrease protein influx into the ER. This release of mRNA begins rapidly, then gradually recovers with ongoing stress. Upon release into the cytosol, these mRNAs have divergent fates: some synthesize full-length proteins, while others are translationally inactive and retain nascent protein chains. Together, these findings identify the dynamic subcellular localization of mRNAs and translation as a regulatory feature of the cellular response to protein folding stress. Cells were treated with a timecourse of Thapsigargin or DTT, then fractionated and analyzed by mRNA-seq or ribosome profiling
Project description:Disruptions of protein homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) elicit activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a translation- and transcription-coupled proteostatic stress response pathway. The primary translational control arm of the UPR is initiated by the PERK-dependent phosphorylation of eIF2α, leading to a large-scale reprogramming of translation and subsequent activation of an ATF4-mediated transcriptional program. It has remained challenging, however, to accurately evaluate the contribution of each component of the eIF2α/ATF4 pathway to the remodelling of transcription and translation. Here, we have used mouse embryonic fibroblasts containing either a knock-in of the non-phosphorylatable eIF2α S51A mutant or knock-out for ATF4 by ribosome profiling and mRNA-seq to define the specific contributions of eIF2α phosphoryation and ATF4 in controlling the translational and transcriptional components of the UPR. These studies show that the transcriptional and translational targets of each P-eIF2α, ATF4, and the other UPR gene expression programs overlapped extensively, leading to a core set of UPR genes whose robust expression in response to ER stress is driven by multiple mechanisms. The identification of other, more factor-specific targets illustrated the potential for functional specialization of the UPR. As the UPR progressed temporally, cells employed distinct combinations of transcriptional and translational mechanisms, initiated by different factors, to adapt to ongoing stress. These effects were accompanied by a buffering effect where changes in mRNA levels were coupled to opposing changes in ribosome loading, a property which makes cooperation between transcription and translation essential to confer robust protein expression. Translational analysis by ribosome profiling and mRNA-seq of PERK pathways mutants during the UPR. Mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) lacking components of the PERK pathway (eIF2a phosphorylation and ATF4) were subjected to ER stress and analyzed by ribosome profiling.
Project description:Protein synthesis by ribosomes takes place on a linear substrate but at variable speeds. Transient pausing of ribosomes can impact a variety of co-translational processes, including protein targeting and folding. These pauses are influenced by the sequence of the mRNA. Thus redundancy in the genetic code allows the same protein to be translated at different rates. However, our knowledge of both the position and the mechanism of translational pausing in vivo is highly limited. Here we present a genome-wide analysis of translational pausing in bacteria using ribosome profiling-deep sequencing of ribosome-protected mRNA fragments. This approach enables high-resolution measurement of ribosome density profiles along most transcripts at unperturbed, endogenous expression levels. Unexpectedly, we found that codons decoded by rare tRNAs do not lead to slow translation under nutrient-rich conditions. Instead, Shine-Dalgarno-(SD) like features within coding sequences cause pervasive translational pausing. Using an orthogonal ribosome possessing an altered anti-SD sequence, we demonstrated that pausing is due to hybridization between mRNA and the 16S rRNA of the translating ribosome. In protein coding sequences, internal SD sequences are disfavoured, which leads to biased usage, avoiding codons and codon pairs that resemble canonical SD sites. Our results indicate that internal SD-like sequences are a major determinant of translation rates and a global driving force for the coding of bacterial genomes. Identification of translation pause sites in vivo using ribosome profiling
Project description:Roberts syndrome (RBS) is a human developmental disorder caused by mutations in the cohesin acetyltransferase ESCO2. We previously reported that mTORC1 was inhibited and overall translation was reduced in RBS cells. Treatment of RBS cells with L-leucine partially rescued mTOR function and protein synthesis, correlating with increased cell division. In this study, we use RBS as a model for mTOR inhibition and analyze transcription and translation with ribosome profiling to determine genome-wide effects of L-leucine. The translational efficiency of many genes is increased with Lleucine in RBS cells including genes involved in ribosome biogenesis, translation, and mitochondrial function. snoRNAs are strongly upregulated in RBS cells, but decreased with L-leucine. Imprinted genes, including H19 and GTL2, are differentially expressed in RBS cells consistent with contribution to mTORC1 control. This study reveals dramatic effects of L-leucine stimulation of mTORC1 and supports that ESCO2 function is required for normal gene expression and translation. 42 samples of human fibroblast cell lines with various genotypes (wt, corrected, and esco2 mutants) are treated with l-leucine or d-leucine (control) for 3 or 24 hours. Biological replicates are present.
Project description:Amino acid availability regulates translation through the action of the GCN2 and mTORC1 pathways. Low amino acids activate the eIF2α kinase GCN2 through binding of uncharged tRNAs to a histidyl-tRNA synthetase−related regulatory domain. Once activated GCN2 phosphorylates eIF2α, inhibiting ternary complex formation and translation initiation. Recent studies show that mTORC1 is particularly sensitive to arginine and leucine status, with a deprivation of these amino acids leading to a strong inhibition of mTORC1 that prevents the phosphorylation and inactivation of the translational repressor 4EBP1. Though amino acids are known regulators of translation, the effects that deficiencies of specific amino acids have on translation have yet to be determined. We demonstrate that deprivation of leucine or methionine results in large inhibitory effects on translation initiation and on polysome formation that are not replicated by overexpressing non-phosphorylatable 4EBP1 or a phosphomimetic eIF2α. Our results demonstrate that a lack of either leucine or methionine has a major impact on mRNA translation, though they act by quite different mechanisms. Leucine deprivation appears to primarily inhibit ribosome loading, whereas methionine deprivation appears to primarily impair start site recognition. These data point to a unique regulatory effect that methionine status has on translation initiation. Overall design: Ribosome profiling of single Amino acid starvation