Expression data from Pou4f3-Rb1 cKO and control inner ear
ABSTRACT: Retinoblastoma gene (Rb1) is required for proper cell cycle exit in the developing mouse inner ear and its deletion in the embryo leads to proliferation of sensory progenitor cells that differentiate into hair cells and supporting cells. In the Pou4f3-Cre:Rb1 flox/flox (Rb1 cKO) inner ear, utricular hair cells differentiate and survive into adulthood whereas differentiation and survival of cochlear hair cells are impaired. To comprehensively survey the pRb pathway in the mammalian inner ear, we performed microarray analysis of Rb1 cKO cochlea and utricle. P6 or 2-month control and Rb1 cKO littermates were euthanized and the inner ear tissues were dissected. Total RNA was extracted from the pooled samples. Technical duplicates of the pooled RNA were used for microarray.
Project description:Retinoblastoma gene (Rb1) is required for proper cell cycle exit in the developing mouse inner ear and its deletion in the embryo leads to proliferation of sensory progenitor cells that differentiate into hair cells and supporting cells. In the Pou4f3-Cre:Rb1 flox/flox (Rb1 cKO) inner ear, utricular hair cells differentiate and survive into adulthood whereas differentiation and survival of cochlear hair cells are impaired. To comprehensively survey the pRb pathway in the mammalian inner ear, we performed microarray analysis of Rb1 cKO cochlea and utricle. Overall design: P6 or 2-month control and Rb1 cKO littermates were euthanized and the inner ear tissues were dissected. Total RNA was extracted from the pooled samples. Technical duplicates of the pooled RNA were used for microarray.
Project description:Atonal homolog1 (Atoh1) is a bHLH transcription factor essential for inner ear hair cell differentiation. Targeted expression of Atoh1 at various stages in development can result in hair cell differentiation in the ear. However, the level and duration of Atoh1 expression required for proper hair cell differentiation and maintenance remain unknown. We generated an Atoh1 conditional knockout (CKO) mouse line using Tg(Atoh1-cre), in which the cre expression is driven by an Atoh1 enhancer element that is regulated by Atoh1 protein to "self-terminate" its expression. The mutant mice show transient, limited expression of Atoh1 in all hair cells in the ear. In the organ of Corti, reduction and delayed deletion of Atoh1 result in progressive loss of almost all the inner hair cells and the majority of the outer hair cells within three weeks after birth. The remaining cells express hair cell marker Myo7a and attract nerve fibers, but do not differentiate normal stereocilia bundles. Some Myo7a-positive cells persist in the cochlea into adult stages in the position of outer hair cells, flanked by a single row of pillar cells and two to three rows of disorganized Deiters cells. Gene expression analyses of Atoh1, Barhl1 and Pou4f3, genes required for survival and maturation of hair cells, reveal earlier and higher expression levels in the inner compared to the outer hair cells. Our data show that Atoh1 is crucial for hair cell mechanotransduction development, viability, and maintenance and also suggest that Atoh1 expression level and duration may play a role in inner vs. outer hair cell development. These genetically engineered Atoh1 CKO mice provide a novel model for establishing critical conditions needed to regenerate viable and functional hair cells with Atoh1 therapy.
Project description:Atonal homolog1 (Atoh1, formerly Math1) is a crucial bHLH transcription factor for inner ear hair cell differentiation. Its absence in embryos results in complete absence of mature hair cells at birth and its misexpression can generate extra hair cells. Thus Atoh1 may be both necessary and sufficient for hair cell differentiation in the ear. Atoh1 null mice die at birth and have some undifferentiated cells in sensory epithelia carrying Atoh1 markers. The fate of these undifferentiated cells in neonates is unknown due to lethality. We use Tg(Pax2-Cre) to delete floxed Atoh1 in the inner ear. This generates viable conditional knockout (CKO) mice for studying the postnatal development of the inner ear without differentiated hair cells. Using in situ hybridization we find that Tg(Pax2-Cre) recombines the floxed Atoh1 prior to detectable Atoh1 expression. Only the posterior canal crista has Atoh1 expressing hair cells due to incomplete recombination. Most of the organ of Corti cells are lost in CKO mice via late embryonic cell death. Marker genes indicate that the organ of Corti is reduced to two rows of cells wedged between flanking markers of the organ of Corti (Fgf10 and Bmp4). These two rows of cells (instead of five rows of supporting cells) are positive for Prox1 in neonates. By postnatal day 14 (P14), the remaining cells of the organ of Corti are transformed into a flat epithelium with no distinction of any specific cell type. However, some of the remaining organ of Corti cells express Myo7a at late postnatal stages and are innervated by remaining afferent fibers. Initial growth of afferents and efferents in embryos shows no difference between control mice and Tg(Pax2-Cre)::Atoh1 CKO mice. Most afferents and efferents are lost in the CKO mutant before birth, except for the apex and few fibers in the base. Afferents focus their projections on patches that express the prosensory specifying gene, Sox2. This pattern of innervation by sensory neurons is maintained at least until P14, but fibers target the few Myo7a positive cells found in later stages.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) post-transcriptionally repress complementary target gene expression and can contribute to cell differentiation. The coordinate expression of miRNA-183 family members (miR-183, miR-96, and miR-182) has been demonstrated in sensory cells of the mouse inner ear and other vertebrate sensory organs. To further examine hair cell miRNA expression in the mouse inner ear, we have analyzed miR-183 family expression in wild type animals and various mutants with defects in neurosensory development. miR-183 family member expression follows neurosensory cell specification, exhibits longitudinal (basal-apical) gradients in maturating cochlear hair cells, and is maintained in sensory neurons and most hair cells into adulthood. Depletion of hair cell miRNAs resulting from Dicer1 conditional knockout (CKO) in Atoh1-Cre transgenic mice leads to more disparate basal-apical gene expression profiles and eventual hair cell loss. Results suggest that hair cell miRNAs subdue cochlear gradient gene expression and are required for hair cell maintenance and survival.
Project description:Photobiomodulation (PBM) stimulates different types of stem cells to migrate, proliferate, and differentiate in vitro and in vivo. However, little is known about the effects of PBM on the differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) toward the otic lineage. Only a few reports have documented the in vitro differentiation of ESCs into inner-ear hair cells (HCs) due to the complexity of HCs compared with other target cell types. In this study, we determined the optimal condition to differentiate the ESCs into the otic organoid using different culture techniques and PBM parameters. The efficiency of organoid formation within the embryoid body (EB) was dependent on the cell density of the hanging drop. PBM, using 630 nm wavelength light-emitting diodes (LEDs), further improved the differentiation of inner-ear hair cell-like cells coupled with reactive oxygen species (ROS) overexpression. Transcriptome analysis showed the factors that are responsible for the effect of PBM in the formation of otic organoids, notably, the downregulation of neural development-associated genes and the hairy and enhancer of split 5 (Hes5) gene, which inhibits the differentiation of prosensory cells to hair cells. These data enrich the current differentiation protocols for generating inner-ear hair cells.
Project description:At least five bHLH genes regulate cell fate determination and differentiation of sensory neurons, hair cells and supporting cells in the mammalian inner ear. Cross-regulation of Atoh1 and Neurog1 results in hair cell changes in Neurog1 null mice although the nature and mechanism of the cross-regulation has not yet been determined. Neurod1, regulated by both Neurog1 and Atoh1, could be the mediator of this cross-regulation.We used Tg(Pax2-Cre) to conditionally delete Neurod1 in the inner ear. Our data demonstrate for the first time that the absence of Neurod1 results in formation of hair cells within the inner ear sensory ganglia. Three cell types, neural crest derived Schwann cells and mesenchyme derived fibroblasts (neither expresses Neurod1) and inner ear derived neurons (which express Neurod1) constitute inner ear ganglia. The most parsimonious explanation is that Neurod1 suppresses the alternative fate of sensory neurons to develop as hair cells. In the absence of Neurod1, Atoh1 is expressed and differentiates cells within the ganglion into hair cells. We followed up on this effect in ganglia by demonstrating that Neurod1 also regulates differentiation of subtypes of hair cells in the organ of Corti. We show that in Neurod1 conditional null mice there is a premature expression of several genes in the apex of the developing cochlea and outer hair cells are transformed into inner hair cells.Our data suggest that the long noted cross-regulation of Atoh1 expression by Neurog1 might actually be mediated in large part by Neurod1. We suggest that Neurod1 is regulated by both Neurog1 and Atoh1 and provides a negative feedback for either gene. Through this and other feedback, Neurod1 suppresses alternate fates of neurons to differentiate as hair cells and regulates hair cell subtypes.
Project description:Neuropilin-1 (Nrp1) encodes the transmembrane cellular receptor neuropilin-1, which is associated with cardiovascular and neuronal development and was within the peak SNP interval on chromosome 8 in our prior GWAS study on age-related hearing loss (ARHL) in mice. In this study, we generated and characterized an inner ear-specific Nrp1 conditional knockout (CKO) mouse line because Nrp1 constitutive knockouts are embryonic lethal. In situ hybridization demonstrated weak Nrp1 mRNA expression late in embryonic cochlear development, but increased expression in early postnatal stages when cochlear hair cell innervation patterns have been shown to mature. At postnatal day 5, Nrp1 CKO mice showed disorganized outer spiral bundles and enlarged microvessels of the stria vascularis (SV) but normal spiral ganglion cell (SGN) density and presynaptic ribbon body counts; however, we observed enlarged SV microvessels, reduced SGN density, and a reduction of presynaptic ribbons in the outer hair cell region of 4-month-old Nrp1 CKO mice. In addition, we demonstrated elevated hearing thresholds of the 2-month-old and 4-month-old Nrp1 CKO mice at frequencies ranging from 4 to 32kHz when compared to 2-month-old mice. These data suggest that conditional loss of Nrp1 in the inner ear leads to progressive hearing loss in mice. We also demonstrated that mice with a truncated variant of Nrp1 show cochlear axon guidance defects and that exogenous semaphorin-3A, a known neuropilin-1 receptor agonist, repels SGN axons in vitro. These data suggest that Neuropilin-1/Semaphorin-3A signaling may also serve a role in neuronal pathfinding in the developing cochlea. In summary, our results here support a model whereby Neuropilin-1/Semaphorin-3A signaling is critical for the functional and morphological integrity of the cochlea and that Nrp1 may play a role in ARHL.
Project description:In inner ear development, phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) is necessary for neuronal maintenance, such as neuronal survival and accurate nerve innervations of hair cells. We previously reported that Pten conditional knockout (cKO) mice exhibited disorganized fasciculus with neuronal apoptosis in spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs). To better understand the genes and signaling networks related to auditory neuron maintenance, we compared the profiles of differentially expressed genes (DEGs) using microarray analysis of the inner ear in E14.5 Pten cKO and wild-type mice. We identified 46 statistically significant transcripts using significance analysis of microarrays, with the false-discovery rate set at 0%. Among the DEGs, expression levels of candidate genes and expression domains were validated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization, respectively. Ingenuity pathway analysis using DEGs identified significant signaling networks associated with apoptosis, cellular movement, and axon guidance (i.e., secreted phosphoprotein 1 (Spp1)-mediated cellular movement and regulator of G-protein signaling 4 (Rgs4)-mediated axon guidance). This result was consistent with the phenotypic defects of SGNs in Pten cKO mice (e.g., neuronal apoptosis, abnormal migration, and irregular nerve fiber patterns of SGNs). From this study, we suggest two key regulatory signaling networks mediated by Spp1 and Rgs4, which may play potential roles in neuronal differentiation of developing auditory neurons.
Project description:Stem cells have been demonstrated in the inner ear but they do not spontaneously divide to replace damaged sensory cells. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) from bone marrow have been reported to differentiate into multiple lineages including neurons, and we therefore asked whether MSCs could generate sensory cells. Overexpression of the prosensory transcription factor, Math1, in sensory epithelial precursor cells induced expression of myosin VIIa, espin, Brn3c, p27Kip, and jagged2, indicating differentiation to inner ear sensory cells. Some of the cells displayed F-actin positive protrusions in the morphology characteristic of hair cell stereociliary bundles. Hair cell markers were also induced by culture of mouse MSC-derived cells in contact with embryonic chick inner ear cells, and this induction was not due to a cell fusion event, because the chick hair cells could be identified with a chick-specific antibody and chick and mouse antigens were never found in the same cell.