Human Beta-Defensin 3 attenuates the pro-inflammatory effects of LPS at 1 hour
ABSTRACT: We examine the global effect of hBD3 on transcription in TLR4-stimulated macrophages and for the first time show that hBD3 inhibits the transcription of critical pro-inflammatory genes. Among the repressed genes we detect significant enrichment of groups involved in the positive regulation of NFkappaB including components of Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Bone marrow derived macrophages from 3 separate mice were used for each treatment condition. ie macrophages from 3 mice were left untreated, macrophages from 3 mice were treated with LPS, macrophages from 3 mice were treated with LPS and hBD3, macrophages from 3 mice were treated with hBD3. We examined the differences in gene expression between each treatment group.
Project description:We examine the global effect of hBD3 on transcription in TLR4-stimulated macrophages and for the first time show that hBD3 inhibits the transcription of critical pro-inflammatory genes. Among the repressed genes we detect significant enrichment of groups involved in the positive regulation of NFkappaB including components of Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Bone marrow derived macrophages from 3 separate mice were used for each treatment condition. ie macrophages from 3 mice were left untreated, macrophages from 3 mice were treated with LPS, macrophages from 3 mice were treated with LPS and hBD3, macrophages from 3 mice were treated with hBD3. We examined the differences in gene expression between each treatment group.
Project description:We examine the global effect of hBD3 on transcription in TLR4-stimulated macrophages and for the first time show that hBD3 inhibits the transcription of critical pro-inflammatory genes. Among the repressed genes we detect significant enrichment of groups involved in the positive regulation of NFkappaB including components of Toll-like receptor signaling pathways. Total RNA obtained from bone marrow derived macrophages (BMDM) that have been subjected to 6 hour treatment with KLA, KLA&hBD3, hBD3 or untreated. There are 3 biological replicates per group.
Project description:Defensins have attracted considerable research interest worldwide because of their potential to serve as a substitute for antibiotics. In this study, we characterized a novel porcine ?-defensin (pBD129) and explored its role in alleviating bacterial endotoxin-induced inflammation and intestinal epithelium atrophy. The pBD129 gene was cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli. A recombinant pBD129 protein was also purified. To explore its role in alleviating the endotoxin-induced inflammation, mice, with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) challenge were treated by pBD129 at different doses. The recombinant pBD129 showed significant antimicrobial activities against the E. coli and Streptococcus with a minimal inhibitory concentration (MICs) of 32 ?g/mL. Hemolytic assays showed that the pBD129 had no detrimental impact on cell viabilities. Interestingly, we found that pBD129 attenuated LPS-induced inflammatory responses by decreasing serum concentrations of inflammatory cytokines, such as the IL-1?, IL-6, and TNF-? (P < 0.05). Moreover, pBD129 elevated the intestinal villus height (P < 0.05) and enhanced the expression and localization of the major tight junction-associated protein ZO-1 in LPS-challenged mice. Additionally, pDB129 at a high dose significantly decreased serum diamine oxidase (DAO) concentration (P < 0.05) and reduced intestinal epithelium cell apoptosis (P < 0.05) in LPS-challenged mice. Importantly, pBD129 elevated the expression level of Bcl-2-associated death promoter (Bcl-2), but down-regulated the expression levels of apoptosis-related genes such as the B-cell lymphoma-2-associated X protein (Bax), BH3-interacting domain death agonist (Bid), cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase-3 (Caspase-3), and caspase-9 in the intestinal mucosa (P < 0.05). These results suggested a novel function of the mammalian defensins, and the anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties of pBD129 may allow it a potential substitute for conventionally used antibiotics or drugs.
Project description:IRAK2, a member of the interleukin-1 receptor-associated kinase (IRAK) family, has been implicated in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-mediated signaling. We generated IRAK2-deficient mice to examine its function in detail. These mice are resistant to lipopolysaccharide-induced septic shock, because of impaired TLR4-mediated induction of pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Although IRAK2 deficiency did not affect TLR4-mediated NFkappaB activation, a reduction of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-mediated mRNA stabilization contributed to the reduced cytokine and chemokine production observed in bone marrow-derived macrophages from IRAK2-deficient mice. Furthermore, the ratios of LPS-induced cytokine and chemokine mRNAs in translation-active (polysomal) versus translation-inactive (free ribosomes) pools were reduced in IRAK2-deficient macrophages compared with wild type macrophages. Importantly, LPS-induced phosphorylation of MKK3/6, MNK1, and eIF4E was significantly reduced in IRAK2-deficient macrophages compared with wild type macrophages. Moreover, LPS stimulation induced an interaction of IRAK2 with TRAF6, MKK3/6, and MK2, implicating a critical role for mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling in LPS-induced IRAK2-mediated post-transcriptional control. These results reveal that IRAK2 is required for LPS-mediated post-transcriptional control of cytokine and chemokine expression, which plays an essential role in TLR4-induced septic shock.
Project description:This study demonstrates that pretreatment with polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) significantly decreased the mortality and liver injury caused by injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in the presence of d-galactosamine (d-GalN) in C57BL/6 mice. Depletion of natural killer, natural killer T, and T cells did not change the protective effect of poly I:C on LPS/d-GalN-induced liver injury in vivo. However, depletion of macrophages abolished LPS/d-GalN-induced fulminant hepatitis, which could be restored by adoptive transfer of macrophages but not by transfer of poly I:C-treated macrophages. Treatment with poly I:C down-regulated the expression of the toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) on macrophages and reduced the sensitivity of macrophages (Kupffer cells and peritoneal macrophages from C57BL/6 mice, or RAW264.7 cells) to LPS stimulation. Poly I:C pretreatment also impaired the signaling of mitogen-activated protein kinases and NF-kappaB induced by LPS in RAW264.7 cells. Blockade of TLR3 with a TLR3 antibody abolished poly I:C down-regulation of TLR4 expression and LPS stimulation of TNF-alpha production in RAW264.7 cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that activation of TLR3 by its ligand, poly I:C, induced LPS tolerance by down-regulation of TLR4 expression on macrophages.
Project description:BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: There is major evidence for the strong bi-directional interrelation of parenchymal cell apoptosis and leukocyte accumulation and inflammation in acute liver injury. Therefore, the aim of this in vivo study was to investigate the anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory potential of antileukoproteinase (ALP) in a murine model of acute liver failure. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: C57BL/6J mice were given galactosamine (D-GalN) and E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS) followed by administration of saline or ALP. Besides survival rate, hepatic tissue damage and inflammatory response were analyzed by intravital fluorescence microscopy 6 hours after treatment. In addition, immunohistochemical analysis of NFkappaB-p65 and hepatocellular apoptosis, plasma levels of AST/ALT, TNF-alpha and IL-10 were determined. KEY RESULTS: Administration of D-GalN/LPS provoked hepatic damage, including marked leukocyte recruitment and microvascular perfusion failure, as well as hepatocellular apoptosis and enzyme release. NFkappaB-p65 became increasingly detectable in hepatocellular nuclei, accompanied by a rise of TNF-alpha and IL-10 plasma levels. ALP markedly reduced intrahepatic leukocyte accumulation, nuclear translocation of NFkappaB and plasma levels of TNF-alpha and IL-10. Moreover, liver enzyme levels indicated the absence of necrotic parenchymal cell death. In contrast, ALP failed to block both apoptosis and caspase-3 levels and the mortality rate of ALP-treated animals was comparable to that of saline-treated mice. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: ALP could effectively prevent D-GalN/LPS-associated intrahepatic inflammatory responses by inhibition of NFkappaB activity, but not apoptosis-driven mortality. Thus, a protease-inactivating approach such as application of ALP seems to be inadequate in damaged liver where apoptosis represents the predominant mode of cell death.
Project description:Macrophage autophagy has been shown to be protective against atherosclerosis. We previously discovered that ursolic acid (UA) promoted cancer cell autophagy. In the present study, we aimed to examine whether UA enhances macrophage autophagy in the context of atherogenesis. Cell culture study showed that UA enhanced autophagy of macrophages by increasing the expression of Atg5 and Atg16l1, which led to altered macrophage function. UA reduced pro-interleukin (IL)-1? protein levels and mature IL-1? secretion in macrophages in response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), without reducing IL-1? mRNA expression. Confocal microscopy showed that in LPS-treated macrophages, UA increased LC3 protein levels and LC3 appeared to colocalize with IL-1?. In cholesterol-loaded macrophages, UA increased cholesterol efflux to apoAI, although it did not alter mRNA or protein levels of ABCA1 and ABCG1. Electron microscopy showed that UA induced lipophagy in acetylated LDL-loaded macrophages, which may result in increased cholesterol ester hydrolysis in autophagolysosomes and presentation of free cholesterol to the cell membrane. In LDLR(-/-) mice fed a Western diet to induce atherogenesis, UA treatment significantly reduced atherosclerotic lesion size, accompanied by increased macrophage autophagy. In conclusion, the data suggest that UA promotes macrophage autophagy and, thereby, suppresses IL-1? secretion, promotes cholesterol efflux, and attenuates atherosclerosis in mice.
Project description:The role of phytochemicals in preventive and therapeutic medicine is a major area of scientific research. Several studies have illustrated the mechanistic roles of phytochemicals in Nrf2 transcriptional activation. The present study aims to examine the importance of the transcription factor Nrf2 by treating peritoneal macrophages from Nrf2(+/+) and Nrf2(-/-) mice ex vivo with phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and curcumin (CUR). The peritoneal macrophages were pretreated with the drugs and challenged with lipopolysaccharides (LPSs) alone and in combination with PEITC or CUR to assess their anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects based on gene and protein expression in the treated cells. LPS treatment resulted in an increase in the expression of inflammatory markers such as cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in both Nrf2(+/+) and Nrf2(-/-) macrophages, detected by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Nrf2(+/+) macrophages treated with PEITC and CUR exhibited a significant decrease in the expression of these anti-inflammatory genes along with an increase in the expression of hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1), which is an antioxidative stress gene downstream of the Nrf2 transcription factor battery. Although there was no significant decrease in the expression of the anti-inflammatory genes or an increase in HO-1 expression in Nrf2(-/-) macrophages treated with either PEITC or CUR, there was a significant decrease in the protein expression of COX-2 and an increase in the expression of HO-1 in Nrf2(+/+) macrophages treated with PEITC compared to that with CUR treatment. No significant changes were observed in the macrophages from knockout animals. Additionally, there was a significant decrease in LPS-induced IL-6 and TNF-? production following PEITC treatment compared with that following CUR in Nrf2(+/+) macrophages, whereas no change was observed in the macrophages from knockout animals. The results from qPCR, western blot, and ELISA analyses in macrophages from Nrf2(+/+) and Nrf2 (-/-) mice indicate that Nrf2 plays an important role in the anti-inflammatory and antioxidative effects of PEITC and CUR, as observed by their decreased activities in Nrf2(-/-) macrophages.
Project description:Despite widespread use of annual influenza vaccines, seasonal influenza-associated deaths number in the thousands each year, in part because of exacerbating bacterial superinfections. Therefore, discovering additional therapeutic options would be a valuable aid to public health. Recently, TLR4 inhibition has emerged as a possible mechanism for protection against influenza-associated lethality and acute lung injury. Based on recent data showing that rhesus macaque ?-defensins could inhibit TLR4-dependent gene expression, we tested the hypothesis that a novel ?-defensin, retrocyclin (RC)-101, could disrupt TLR4-dependent signaling and protect against viral infection. In this study, RC-101, a variant of the humanized ?-defensin RC-1, blocked TLR4-mediated gene expression in mouse and human macrophages in response to LPS, targeting both MyD88- and TRIF-dependent pathways. In a cell-free assay, RC-101 neutralized the biologic activity of LPS at doses ranging from 0.5 to 50 EU/ml, consistent with data showing that RC-101 binds biotinylated LPS. The action of RC-101 was not limited to the TLR4 pathway because RC-101 treatment of macrophages also inhibited gene expression in response to a TLR2 agonist, Pam3CSK4, but failed to bind that biotinylated agonist. Mouse macrophages infected in vitro with mouse-adapted A/PR/8/34 influenza A virus (PR8) also produced lower levels of proinflammatory cytokine gene products in a TLR4-independent fashion when treated with RC-101. Finally, RC-101 decreased both the lethality and clinical severity associated with PR8 infection in mice. Cumulatively, our data demonstrate that RC-101 exhibits therapeutic potential for the mitigation of influenza-related morbidity and mortality, potentially acting through TLR-dependent and TLR-independent mechanisms.
Project description:Several members of the NLR family of sensors activate innate immunity. In contrast, we found here that NLRC3 inhibited Toll-like receptor (TLR)-dependent activation of the transcription factor NF-?B by interacting with the TLR signaling adaptor TRAF6 to attenuate Lys63 (K63)-linked ubiquitination of TRAF6 and activation of NF-?B. We used bioinformatics to predict interactions between NLR and TRAF proteins, including interactions of TRAF with NLRC3. In vivo, macrophage expression of Nlrc3 mRNA was diminished by the administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) but was restored when cellular activation subsided. To assess biologic relevance, we generated Nlrc3(-/-) mice. LPS-treated Nlrc3(-/-) macrophages had more K63-ubiquitinated TRAF6, nuclear NF-?B and proinflammatory cytokines. Finally, LPS-treated Nlrc3(-/-) mice had more signs of inflammation. Thus, signaling via NLRC3 and TLR constitutes a negative feedback loop. Furthermore, prevalent NLR-TRAF interactions suggest the formation of a 'TRAFasome' complex.