ABSTRACT: We performed gene-expression analysis of mouse Purkinje cells as a model “single-type neuron”. DNA microarray analysis detected at least 7,055 genes in Purkinje cells, most of which are classified into functional molecule categories. Our comparative analysis between Purkinje cells and the granule cell layer showed that the characteristic expression pattern in Purkinje cells was particularly represented by “the neural communication system” components. Pukinje cells and granule cell layer of the mouse cerebellum were collected by laser microdissection for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:We performed gene-expression analysis of mouse cerebellar granule cell layer as compared to that of Purkinje cells. DNA microarray analysis detected genes in cerebellar granule cell layer, most of which are classified into functional molecule categories. Our comparative analysis between Purkinje cells and the granule cell layer showed that the characteristic expression pattern in Purkinje cells was particularly represented by “the neural communication system” components. Pukinje cells and granule cell layer of the mouse cerebellum were collected by laser microdissection for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:We performed gene-expression analysis of mouse Purkinje cells as a model “single-type neuron”. DNA microarray analysis detected at least 7,055 genes in Purkinje cells, most of which are classified into functional molecule categories. Our comparative analysis between Purkinje cells and the granule cell layer showed that the characteristic expression pattern in Purkinje cells was particularly represented by “the neural communication system” components. Overall design: Pukinje cells and granule cell layer of the mouse cerebellum were collected by laser microdissection for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Inhibition of granule cells plays a key role in gating the flow of signals into the cerebellum, and it is thought that Golgi cells are the only interneurons that inhibit granule cells. Here we show that Purkinje cells, the sole output neurons of the cerebellar cortex, also directly inhibit granule cells via their axon collaterals. Anatomical and optogenetic studies indicate that this non-canonical feedback is region specific: it is most prominent in lobules that regulate eye movement and process vestibular information. Collaterals provide fast, slow, and tonic inhibition to granule cells, and thus allow Purkinje cells to regulate granule cell excitability on multiple timescales. We propose that this feedback mechanism could regulate excitability of the input layer, contribute to sparse coding, and mediate temporal integration.
Project description:Despite the importance of epigenetic regulation in neurological disorders, little is known about neuronal chromatin. Cerebellar Purkinje neurons have large and euchromatic nuclei, whereas granule cell nuclei are small and have a more typical heterochromatin distribution. While comparing the abundance of 5-methylcytosine in Purkinje and granule cell nuclei, we detected the presence of an unusual DNA nucleotide. Using thin-layer chromatography, high-pressure liquid chromatography, and mass spectrometry, we identified the nucleotide as 5-hydroxymethyl-2'-deoxycytidine (hmdC). hmdC constitutes 0.6% of total nucleotides in Purkinje cells, 0.2% in granule cells, and is not present in cancer cell lines. hmdC is a constituent of nuclear DNA that is highly abundant in the brain, suggesting a role in epigenetic control of neuronal function.
Project description:Nuclear receptors and their coregulators play a critical role in brain development by regulating the spatiotemporal expression of their target genes. The arginine-glutamic acid dipeptide repeats gene (Rere) encodes a nuclear receptor coregulator previously known as Atrophin 2. In the developing cerebellum, RERE is expressed in the molecular layer, the Purkinje cell layer and the granule cell layer but not in granule cell precursors. To study RERE's role in cerebellar development, we used RERE-deficient embryos bearing a null allele (om) and a hypomorphic allele (eyes3) of Rere (Rere(om/eyes3)). In contrast to wild-type embryos, formation of the principal fissures in these RERE-deficient embryos was delayed and the proliferative activity of granule cell precursors (GCPs) was reduced at E18.5. This reduction in proliferation was accompanied by a decrease in the expression of sonic hedgehog (SHH), which is secreted from Purkinje cells and is required for normal GCP proliferation. The maturation and migration of Purkinje cells in Rere(om/eyes3) embryos was also delayed with decreased numbers of post-migratory Purkinje cells in the cerebellum. During the postnatal period, RERE depletion caused incomplete division of lobules I/II and III due to truncated development of the precentral fissure in the cerebellar vermis, abnormal development of lobule crus I and lobule crus II in the cerebellar hemispheres due to attenuation of the intercrural fissure, and decreased levels of Purkinje cell dendritic branching. We conclude that RERE-deficiency leads to delayed development of the principal fissures and delayed maturation and migration of Purkinje cells during prenatal cerebellar development and abnormal cerebellar foliation and Purkinje cell maturation during postnatal cerebellar development.
Project description:Dendrite arborization patterns are critical determinants of neuronal connectivity and integration. Planar and highly branched dendrites of the cerebellar Purkinje cell receive specific topographical projections from two major afferent pathways; a single climbing fiber axon from the inferior olive that extend along Purkinje dendrites, and parallel fiber axons of granule cells that contact vertically to the plane of dendrites. It has been believed that murine Purkinje cell dendrites extend in a single parasagittal plane in the molecular layer after the cell polarity is determined during the early postnatal development. By three-dimensional confocal analysis of growing Purkinje cells, we observed that mouse Purkinje cells underwent dynamic dendritic remodeling during circuit maturation in the third postnatal week. After dendrites were polarized and flattened in the early second postnatal week, dendritic arbors gradually expanded in multiple sagittal planes in the molecular layer by intensive growth and branching by the third postnatal week. Dendrites then became confined to a single plane in the fourth postnatal week. Multiplanar Purkinje cells in the third week were often associated by ectopic climbing fibers innervating nearby Purkinje cells in distinct sagittal planes. The mature monoplanar arborization was disrupted in mutant mice with abnormal Purkinje cell connectivity and motor discoordination. The dendrite remodeling was also impaired by pharmacological disruption of normal afferent activity during the second or third postnatal week. Our results suggest that the monoplanar arborization of Purkinje cells is coupled with functional development of the cerebellar circuitry.
Project description:In therian mammals, the cerebellum is one of the late developing structures in the brain. Specifically, the proliferation of cerebellar granule cells occurs after birth, and even in humans, the generation of these cells continues during the first year of life. The main difference between marsupials and eutherians is that the majority of the brain structures in marsupials develop after birth. Herein, we report that in the newborn laboratory opossum (Monodelphis domestica), the cerebellar primordium is distinguishable in Nissl-stained sections. Additionally, bromodeoxyuridine birthdating experiments revealed that the first neurons form the deep cerebellar nuclei (DCN) and Purkinje cells, and are generated within postnatal days (P) 1 and 5. Three weeks after birth, progenitors of granule cells in the external germinal layer (EGL) proliferate, producing granule cells. These progenitor cells persist for a long time, approximately 5 months. Furthermore, to study the effects of neurotrophic tropomyosin receptor kinase C (TrkC) during cerebellar development, cells were obtained from P3 opossums and cultured for 8 days. We found that TrkC downregulation stimulates dendritic branching of Purkinje neurons, which was surprising. The number of dendritic branches was higher in Purkinje cells transfected with the shRNA TrkC plasmid. However, there was no morphological change in the number of dendritic branches of granule cells transfected with either control or shRNA TrkC plasmids. We suggest that inhibition of TrkC activity enables NT3 binding to the neurotrophic receptor p75NTR that promotes dendritic arborization of Purkinje cells. This effect of TrkC receptors on dendritic branching is cell type specific, which could be explained by the strong expression of TrkC in Purkinje cells but not in granule cells. The data indicate a new role for TrkC receptors in Monodelphis opossum.
Project description:The functional impact of single interneurons on neuronal output in vivo and how interneurons are recruited by physiological activity patterns remain poorly understood. In the cerebellar cortex, molecular layer interneurons and their targets, Purkinje cells, receive excitatory inputs from granule cells and climbing fibers. Using dual patch-clamp recordings from interneurons and Purkinje cells in vivo, we probe the spatiotemporal interactions between these circuit elements. We show that single interneuron spikes can potently inhibit Purkinje cell output, depending on interneuron location. Climbing fiber input activates many interneurons via glutamate spillover but results in inhibition of those interneurons that inhibit the same Purkinje cell receiving the climbing fiber input, forming a disinhibitory motif. These interneuron circuits are engaged during sensory processing, creating diverse pathway-specific response functions. These findings demonstrate how the powerful effect of single interneurons on Purkinje cell output can be sculpted by various interneuron circuit motifs to diversify cerebellar computations.
Project description:Reelin is an extracellular matrix protein synthesized in cerebellar granule cells that plays an important role in Purkinje cell positioning during cerebellar development and in modulating adult synaptic function. In the cerebellum of schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar (BP) disorder patients, there is a marked decrease ( approximately 50%) of reelin expression. In this study we measured Purkinje neuron density in the Purkinje cell layer of cerebella of 13 SZ and 17 BP disorder patients from the McLean 66 Cohort Collection, Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center. The mean number of Purkinje neurons (linear density, neurons per millimeter) was 20% lower in SZ and BP disorder patients compared with nonpsychiatric subjects (NPS; n = 24). This decrease of Purkinje neuron linear density was unrelated to postmortem interval, pH, drugs of abuse, or to the presence, dose, or duration of antipsychotic medications. A comparative study in the cerebella of heterozygous reeler mice (HRM), in which reelin expression is down-regulated by approximately 50%, showed a significant loss in the number of Purkinje cells in HRM (10-15%) compared with age-matched (3-9 months) wild-type mice. This finding suggests that lack of reelin impairs GABAergic Purkinje neuron expression and/or positioning during cerebellar development.