Dataset Information


Regulation of Anopheles gambiae male accessory gland genes influences post-mating response in female

ABSTRACT: In Drosophila, the accessory gland proteins (Acps) secreted from the male accessory glands (MAGs) and transferred along with sperm into the female reproductive tract have been implicated in triggering postmating behavioral changes, including refractoriness to subsequent mating and propensity to egg laying. Recently, Acps have been found also in Anopheles, suggesting similar functions. Understanding the mechanisms underlying transcriptional regulation of Acps and their functional role in modulating Anopheles postmating behavior may lead to the identification of novel vector control strategies to reduce mosquito populations. We identified heat-shock factor (HSF) binding sites within the Acp promoters of male Anopheles gambiae and discovered three distinct Hsf isoforms; one being significantly up-regulated in the MAGs after mating. Through genome-wide transcription analysis of Hsf-silenced males, we observed significant down-regulation in 50% of the Acp genes if compared to control males treated with a construct directed against an unrelated bacterial sequence. Treated males retained normal life span and reproductive behavior compared to control males. However, mated wild-type females showed a ∼46% reduction of egg deposition rate and a ∼23% reduction of hatching rate (∼58% combined reduction of progeny). Our results highlight an unsuspected role of HSF in regulating Acp transcription in A. gambiae and provide evidence that Acp down-regulation in males leads a significant reduction of progeny, thus opening new avenues toward the development of novel vector control strategies. Total RNA from 4-d-old dsLacZ-treated controls and HSF-silenced males was extracted using TRIzol reagent (Life Technologies), following protocols set according to manufacturer’s instructions. RNA preparation, labelling, hybridization and data analysis were performed by the Oxford Gene Technology (OGT) company. In particular, RNA was further cleaned up using the RNeasy Mini Kit (Qiagen) followed by ethanol precipitation. Sample passing the purity metrics (260/280 and 260/230 ratio) were considered for labeling and hybridization procedures. Labeling was done with cyanine 3 (dsHSF1 and dsHSF123) and cyanine 5 (control dsLacZ). Samples and controls were hybridized in triplicates to the Agilent Mosquito Gene expression arrays (4x44,000, Agilent Technologies, Santa Clara, CA, USA). Data analysis was performed by OGT according to a standardized procedure, as implemented by the software applications Feature Extraction (version, and Genespring GX (version 11.0). Expression data was first normalised using linear and loess normalization in Feature Extraction, then it was imported into Genespring where it was converted into normalised log ratios. The distribution of the data between and within the treatments was checked via boxplots and hierarchical clustering to confirm consistency. Intensity measures from spots flagged as being of poor quality were excluded. Then, the control probes were removed for the statistical analysis: t-tests were carried out for each condition with null hypothesis of log ratio being equal to zero. This was done on the normalised log ratios from the 3 technical replicates. Probes meeting a cut-off of p<0.05 with Benjamini-Hochberg multiple testing correction and with a fold change cutoff greater than 2 were considered statistically and biologically relevant and were used to generate lists of differentially expressed targets.

ORGANISM(S): Anopheles gambiae  

SUBMITTER: Tania Dottorini   Nicola Senin  tania dottorini  Pietro Palladino  Andrea Crisanti  Dean Baker  Roberta Spaccapelo  Tania Persampieri 

PROVIDER: E-GEOD-27233 | ArrayExpress | 2013-02-08



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