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Omics score: 8
Bacillus subtilis CU1065: fur vs fur fsrA, fur vs fur fbpAB, fur vs fur fbpC, and fur vs fur fbpABC
ABSTRACT: Global transcriptional profiling of Bacillus subtilis cells comparing fur mutant to mutants of the iron-sparing response: fur fsrA double mutant, fur fbpAB triple mutant, fur fbpC double mutant, and fur fbpABC quadruple mutant fur vs fur fsrA (fsrA), fur vs fur fbpAB (AB), fur vs fur fbpC (C), and fur vs fur fbpABC (ABC). Each experiemnt (fur vs mutant) was conducted three times using three independent total RNA preparations (2 independent experiement + 1 independent dye swap).
Project description:Global tranascriptional profiling of Bacillus subtilis cells comparing fur mutant to mutants of the iron-sparing response: fur fsrA double mutant, fur fbpAB triple mutant, fur fbpC double mutant, and fur fbpABC quadruple mutant Abstract of associated manuscript: The Bacillus subtilis ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein is the major sensor of cellular iron status. When iron is limiting for growth, derepression of the Fur regulon increases the cellular capacity for iron uptake and mobilizes an iron-sparing response mediated, in large part, by a small non-coding RNA named FsrA. FsrA functions together with three small, basic proteins (FbpABC) to repress many "low-priority" iron-containing enzymes. We have used transcriptome analyses to define the scope of the iron-sparing response and to define subsets of genes dependent on either FbpAB or FbpC for their repression. Enzymes of the tricarboxylic acid cycle, including both aconitase and succinate dehydrogenase, are major targets of FsrA-mediated repression and, as a consequence, flux through this pathway is significantly decreased under iron limitation. FsrA also mediates a physiologically significant repression of iron-sulfur containing enzymes required for ammonium assimilation (the GltAB glutamate synthase) and catabolism of lactic acid (LutABC). Repression of the lutABC operon requires both FsrA and FbpB which supports a model in which the Fbp proteins function to enable repression of subsets of the FsrA regulon. Overall design: WT vs fur (fur), fur vs fur fsrA (fsrA), fur vs fur fbpAB (AB), fur vs fur fbpC (C), and fur vs fur fbpABC (ABC). Each experiemnt (fur vs mutant) was conducted three times using three independent total RNA preparations (2 independent experiement + 1 independent dye swap).
Project description:Ferric uptake regulator (Fur) is the major regulator of iron acquisition in Escherichia coli and other bacteria. In the present study, the role of Fur in anaerobic S. enterica serovar Typhimurium was determined by transcriptome analysis, reporter assays, and enzymatic assays. In anaerobic Δfur, 298 genes were differentially expressed. In general, Fur repressed genes required for iron acquisition/storage, metabolism, electron transport, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and modulators of virulence. There were 73 genes whose expression required Fur, eleven of which contain a putative Fur box 5‟ of the gene. Transcription of sodA was >9-fold higher in Δfur but there was no corresponding increase in the activity of SodA. Anaerobic cultures of the fur mutant and the WT were used to inoculate two sets of three independent flasks each containing 150 ml of anoxic LB-MOPS-X. The three independent cultures were grown to an optical density at 600 nm (OD600) of 0.25 to 0.35, pooled, and treated with RNAlater (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA) to fix the cells and preserve the quality of the RNA. Total RNA was extracted with the RNeasy RNA extraction kit (QIAGEN), and the samples were treated with RNase-free DNase (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA). The absence of contaminating DNA and the quality of the RNA was confirmed by PCR amplification of known genes and by using agarose gel electrophoresis. Aliquots of the RNA samples were kept at –80°C for use in the microarray and quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) studies. The SuperScript Indirect cDNA labeling system (Invitrogen) was used to synthesize the cDNA for the hybridizations. Each experiment consisted of two hybridizations, on two slides, and was carried out in Corning Hybridization Chambers at 42°C overnight. Dye swapping was performed to avoid dye-associated effects on cDNA synthesis. The slides were washed at increasing stringencies (2x SSC [1x SSC is 0.15 M NaCl plus 0.015 M sodium citrate], 0.1% sodium dodecyl sulfate [SDS], 42°C; 0.1% SSC, 0.1% SDS, room temperature; 0.1% SSC, room temperature). Following hybridization, the microarrays were scanned for the Cy3 and Cy5 fluorescent signals with a ScanArray 4000 microarray scanner from GSI Lumonics (Watertown, MA). The intensity of every spot was codified as the sum of the intensities of all the pixels within a circle positioned over the spot itself and the background as the sum of the intensities of an identical number of pixels in the immediate surroundings of the circled spot. Cy3 and Cy5 values for each spot were normalized over the total intensity for each dye to account for differences in total intensity between the two scanned images. The consistency of the data obtained from the microarray analysis was evaluated by a pair-wise comparison, calculated with a two-tailed Student's t test and analyzed by the MEAN and TTEST procedures of SAS-STAT statistical software (SAS Institute, Cary, NC) . The signal intensity at each spot from the fur mutant and the WT were background subtracted, normalized, and used to calculate the ratio of gene expression between the two strains. All replicas were combined, and the median expression ratios and standard deviations were calculated for open reading frames (ORFs) showing 2.5-fold change.
Project description:Bacillus subtilis encodes seven extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma factors. Three (sigma M, sigma W and simga X) mediate responses to cell envelope active antibiotics. The functions of sigma Y, sigma Z, sigma V, and YlaC remain largely unknown, and strong inducers of these sigma factors and their regulons have yet to be defined. Here, we define transcriptomic and phenotypic differences under non-stress conditions between strains carrying deletions in all seven ECF sigma factor genes (Δ7ECF), a sigMWX triple mutant (∆MWX), and the parental 168 strain. Our results identify >80 genes as at least partially dependent on ECF sigma factors and, as expected, most of these are dependent on sigma M, sigma W or sigma X which are active at a significant basal level during growth. Several genes, including the eps operon encoding enzymes for exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, were decreased in expression in Δ7ECF but affected little if at all in ΔMWX. Consistent with this observation, Δ7ECF (but not ∆MWX) showed reduced biofilm formation. Extending previous observations, we also note that ∆MWX is sensitive to a variety of antibiotics and Δ7ECF is either as sensitive as, or slightly more sensitive than, the ΔMWX strain to these stressors. These findings emphasize the overlapping nature of the seven ECF s factor regulons in B. subtilis, confirm that three of these (sigma M, W or X) play the dominant role in conferring intrinsic resistance to antibiotics, and provide initial insights into the roles of the remaining ECF sigma factors. Strains WT vs. ΔMWX, WT vs. Δ7ECF, Δ7ECF vs. ΔMWX. Each experiment was conducted three times using three independent total RNA preparations (biological triplicates). For each paried comparison, one sample was was labeled with Alexa Fluor 555 and the other was with Alexa Fluor 647. For each comparison, one replicate was performed with dyewap with the same RNA preparation.
Project description:To define the ECF sigma sigV - regulated genes during log growth phase in LB media under induction conditions for sigV The seven extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma (σ) factors of Bacillus subtilis are broadly implicated in resistance to antibiotics and other cell envelope stressors mediated, in part, by regulation of cell envelope synthesis and modification enzymes. We here define the regulon of σV as including at least 20 operons many of which are also regulated by σM, σX, or σW. The σV regulon is strongly and specifically induced by lysozyme and this induction is key to the intrinsic resistance of B. subtilis to lysozyme. Strains with null mutations in either sigV or in all seven ECF σ factor genes (Δ7ECF) have essentially equal increases in sensitivity to lysozyme. Induction of σV in the Δ7ECF background restores lysozyme resistance, whereas induction of σM, σX or σW does not. Lysozyme resistance results from the ability of σV to activate the transcription of two operons: the autoregulated sigV-rsiV-oatA-yrhK operon and dltABCDE. Genetic analyses reveal that oatA and dlt are largely redundant with respect to lysozyme sensitivity: single mutants are not affected in lysozyme sensitivity whereas a double oatA dltA mutant is as sensitive as a sigV null strain. Moreover, the triple sigV oatA dltA mutant is no more sensitive than the oatA dltA double mutant, indicating that there are no other σV-dependent genes necessary for lysozyme resistance. Thus, σV confers lysozyme resistance by activation of two cell wall modification pathways: O-acetylation of peptidoglycan catalyzed by OatA and D-alanylation of teichoic acids by DltABCDE. Strains Δ7Pxyl-sigV + xylose vs. Δ7Pxyl-sigV - xylose, 168 + lysozyme vs. 168 - lysozyme. Each experiment was conducted 6 times using three independent total RNA preparations (biologlical triplicates). For each paired comparison, one sample was labeled with Alexa Fluor 555 and the other was with Alexa Fluor 647. For each comparison, three replicates were performed with dyeswap with the same RNA preparation.
Project description:Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen associated with the microbial biofilm-mediated disease chronic periodontitis. P. gingivalis has an obligate requirement for iron and protoporphyrin IX which it satisfies by transporting heme and iron liberated from the human host. The level of cellular iron in P. gingivalis affects the expression of a distinct iron-associated regulon of 64 genes and low iron invokes an iron sparing response. Iron homeostasis is usually mediated in Gram-negative bacteria at the transcriptional level by the Ferric Uptake Regulator (Fur). There is a single predicted P. gingivalis Fur superfamily orthologue named Har (heme associated regulator) that lacks the conserved metal binding residues found in other Fur orthologues. We show that Har binds both heme and ferrous iron resulting in a conformational change in the protein. Har was unable to complement the Escherichia coli H1780 fur mutant and there was no change in cellular metal content in a P. gingivalis Har mutant compared with the wild-type. The Har regulon of 44 genes is not predicted to play a role in iron homeostasis. Together these data indicated that Har does not regulate iron homeostasis in P. gingivalis. However, Har was required for heme-responsive biofilm development and its regulon overlapped P. gingivalis regulons previously identified after growth in heme limitation or as a homotypic biofilm. P. gingivalis is unique as an iron-dependent Gram-negative bacterium with a single heme-binding Fur superfamily orthologue, Har, that does not regulate iron homeostasis. Paired samples were compared on the same microarray using a two-colour system. A total of 6 paired microarray hybridizations were performed representing 6 biological replicates, where a balanced dye design was used, with the overall analysis including three microarrays where P. gingivalis 33277 samples were labeled with Cy3 and the paired ECR455 samples were labeled with Cy5 and three other microarrays where samples were labeled with the opposite combination of fluorophores.
Project description:Abstract of associated manuscript: The Bacillus subtilis extracytoplasmic function (ECF) sigma(M) factor is activated by cell envelope stress elicited by antibiotics, and by acid, heat, ethanol and superoxide stresses. Here, we have used several complementary approaches to identify genes controlled by sigma(M). In many cases, expression is only partially dependent on sigma(M) because of both overlapping promoter recognition with other ECF sigma factors and the presence of additional promoter elements. Genes regulated by sigma(M) have a characteristic pattern of induction in response to cell envelope-acting antibiotics as evidenced by hierarchical clustering analysis. sigma(M) also contributes to the expression of the Spx transcription factor and thereby indirectly regulates genes of the Spx regulon. Cell envelope stress responses also include regulons controlled by sigma(W), sigma(B) and several two-component regulatory systems (e.g. LiaRS, YycFG, BceRS). Activation of the sigma(M) regulon increases expression of proteins functioning in transcriptional control, cell wall synthesis and shape determination, cell division, DNA damage monitoring, recombinational repair and detoxification. WT (-van) vs. WT (+van), sigM (-van) vs. sigM (+van), WT (-van) vs. sigM (-van), WT (+van) vs. sigM (+van), WT (-van) vs. spx (-van), WT (+van) vs. spx (+van). Each experiment was conducted at least twice using two independent total RNA preparations. For vancomycin untreated and treated experiments, untreated samples were labeled with Alexa Fluor 555 and treated samples with Alexa Fluor 647. For WT vs. mutant experiments, wild type was labeled with Alexa Fluor 555 and mutants with Alexa Fluor 647. For dye swap experiment, wild-type was labeled with Alexa Fluor 647 and mutant with Alexa Fluor 555. Bacillus subtilis CU1065, WT (-van) vs. WT (+van), sigM (-van) vs. sigM (+van), WT (-van) vs. sigM (-van), WT (+van) vs. sigM (+van), WT (-van) vs. spx (-van), WT (+van) vs. spx (+van)
Project description:The Bacillus subtilis membrane contains diacylglycerol-based lipids with at least five distinct headgroups that impart distinct physical and chemical properties to the lipid bilayer. Here, we describe the phenotypic characterization of mutant strains lacking one or more of the following lipids: glycolipids (ugtP mutants), phosphatidylethanolamine (pssA and psd mutants), lysylphosphatidylglycerol (mprF), and cardiolipin (ywnE and ywjE). Alterations of membrane lipid headgroup composition are generally well tolerated by the cell and even severe alterations lead to only modest effects on growth proficiency. Mutants with decreased levels of positively charged lipids display an increased sensitivity to a cationic antimicrobial compounds and cells lacking glycolipids are sensitive to the lantibiotic sublancin and are defective in swarming motility. A quadruple mutant strain (ugtP pssA mprF ywnE), with a membrane comprised predominantly of phosphatidylglycerol, is viable and grows at near wild-type rates, although it forms long, coiled filaments. Transcriptome comparisons identify numerous regulons with altered expression in ugtP mutant cells, the pssA mprF ywnE triple mutant, and the uptP pssA mprF ywnE quadruple mutant. These effects include a general decrease in expression of the SigD and FapR regulons, and increased expression of cell envelope stress responses mediated by ?M and the YvrGHb two-component system. WT vs.ugtP single mutant (U), WT vs. mprFpssAywnE triple mutant (T) or WT vs. ugtPmprFpssAywnE quadruple mutant (Q). Each experiment (WT vs. mutant) was conducted four times using three independent total RNA preparations (3 independent experiement + dye swap). For the 3 datasets used for final analysis wild-type was labeled with Alexa Fluor 555 and mutants with Alexa Fluor 647. For dye swap experiments wild-type was labeled with Alexa Fluor 647 and mutants with Alexa Fluor 555.
Project description:Transcriptional response of Bacillus subtilis to daptomycin in wild-type and in a daptomycin resistant mutant. Bacillus subtilis 168, WT (-DAP) vs. DapR1 (-DAP), WT (+DAP) vs. DapR1 (+DAP), DapR1 (+DAP) vs. DapR1 (-DAP). Each experiment was conducted at least twice using two independent total RNA preparations. For daptomycin untreated comparison between 168 WT and DapR1 mutant, DapR1 was labeled with Alexa Fluor 647 and WT was labeled with Alexa Fluor 555. For daptomycin treated experiments between WT and DapR1, DapR1 was labeled with Alexa Fluor 647 and WT with Alexa Fluor 555. For treated vs. untreated DapR1, the DAP treated samples were labeled with Alexa Fluor 647 and the untreated with Alexa Fluor 555. For dye swap, untreated DapR1 was labeled with Alexa Fluor 647 and DAP treated with Alexa Fluor 555.
Project description:In many bacteria, the ferric uptake regulator (Fur) protein plays a central role in the regulation of iron uptake genes. Because iron figures prominently in the agriculturally important symbiosis between soybean and its nitrogen-fixing endosymbiont Bradyrhizobium japonicum, we wanted to assess the role of Fur in the interaction. We identified a fur mutant by selecting for manganese resistance. Manganese interacts with the Fur protein and represses iron uptake genes. In the presence of high levels of manganese, bacteria with a wild-type copy of the fur gene repress iron uptake systems and starve for iron, whereas fur mutants fail to repress iron uptake systems and survive. The B. japonicum fur mutant, as expected, fails to repress iron-regulated outer membrane proteins in the presence of iron. Unexpectedly, a wild-type copy of the fur gene cannot complement the fur mutant. Expression of the fur mutant allele in wild-type cells leads to a fur phenotype. Unlike a B. japonicum fur-null mutant, the strain carrying the dominant-negative fur mutation is unable to form functional, nitrogen-fixing nodules on soybean, mung bean, or cowpea, suggesting a role for a Fur-regulated protein or proteins in the symbiosis.
Project description:In Helicobacter pylori, iron balance is controlled by the Ferric uptake regulator (Fur), an iron-sensing repressor protein that typically regulates expression of genes implicated in iron transport and storage. Herein, we carried out extensive analysis of Fur-regulated promoters and identified a 7-1-7 motif with dyad symmetry (5'-TAATAATnATTATTA-3'), which functions as the Fur box core sequence of H. pylori. Addition of this sequence to the promoter region of a typically non-Fur regulated gene was sufficient to impose Fur-dependent regulation in vivo. Moreover, mutation of this sequence within Fur-controlled promoters negated regulation. Analysis of the H. pylori chromosome for the occurrence of the Fur box established the existence of well-conserved Fur boxes in the promoters of numerous known Fur-regulated genes, and revealed novel putative Fur targets. Transcriptional analysis of the new candidate genes demonstrated Fur-dependent repression of HPG27_51, HPG27_52, HPG27_199, HPG27_445, HPG27_825 and HPG27_1063, as well as Fur-mediated activation of the cytotoxin associated gene A, cagA (HPG27_507). Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays confirmed specific binding of Fur to the promoters of each of these genes. Future experiments will determine whether loss of Fur regulation of any of these particular genes contributes to the defects in colonization exhibited by the H. pylori fur mutant.