Cell type specific gene expression map of Arabidopsis thaliana SAM.
ABSTRACT: Shoot apical meristem (SAM) of higher plant composed of a few distinct cell types. All the cells in a mature plant’s SAM derived from 30~35 stem cells reservoir which are located at the tip of the apex. Plants ability to give rise diverse cell types from a pool of pluripotent stem cells requires orchestrated gene network that controls the cell fate commitment during the meristem development. To understand, how gene regulatory networks control cell identities switches during cell differentiation requires resolution in recording their gene expression pattern at single cell resolution. An earlier expression map involving three-cell population of stem cell niche revealed complex expression pattern among the cell types1. We developed this approach further and report here a gene expression map using cell-sorting methods for fluorescent protein marked cells in Arabidopsis shoot. The map covered 10 cell populations. This gene expression map represents data from 10 different cell types from Arabidopsis SAM. It will be first step in defining the function of many unknown genes in model plant Arabidopsis. Based on the in situ hybridization we identified 7 new cell types specific gene expression patterns. The promoters of these genes were used to generate fluorescent reporters. After treating the SAM with protoplasting cocktail, we sorted the fluorescent protein tagged cells using fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS). The purified cell population was used to isolate RNA. Two round of RNA amplification was performed before microarray hybridization.
Project description:Shoot apical meristem (SAM) of higher plant composed of a few distinct cell types. All the cells in a mature plant’s SAM derived from 30~35 stem cells reservoir which are located at the tip of the apex. Plants ability to give rise diverse cell types from a pool of pluripotent stem cells requires orchestrated gene network that controls the cell fate commitment during the meristem development. To understand, how gene regulatory networks control cell identities switches during cell differentiation requires resolution in recording their gene expression pattern at single cell resolution. An earlier expression map involving three-cell population of stem cell niche revealed complex expression pattern among the cell types1. We developed this approach further and report here a gene expression map using cell-sorting methods for fluorescent protein marked cells in Arabidopsis shoot. The map covered 10 cell populations. This gene expression map represents data from 10 different cell types from Arabidopsis SAM. It will be first step in defining the function of many unknown genes in model plant Arabidopsis. Overall design: Based on the in situ hybridization we identified 7 new cell types specific gene expression patterns. The promoters of these genes were used to generate fluorescent reporters. After treating the SAM with protoplasting cocktail, we sorted the fluorescent protein tagged cells using fluorescent activated cell sorter (FACS). The purified cell population was used to isolate RNA. Two round of RNA amplification was performed before microarray hybridization.
Project description:Plant stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) and root apical meristem are necessary for postembryonic development of aboveground tissues and roots, respectively, while secondary vascular stem cells sustain vascular development. WUSCHEL (WUS), a homeodomain transcription factor expressed in the rib meristem of the Arabidopsis SAM, is a key regulatory factor controlling SAM stem cell populations, and is thought to establish the shoot stem cell niche through a feedback circuit involving the CLAVATA3 (CLV3) peptide signalling pathway. WUSCHEL-RELATED HOMEOBOX 5 (WOX5), which is specifically expressed in the root quiescent centre, defines quiescent centre identity and functions interchangeably with WUS in the control of shoot and root stem cell niches. WOX4, expressed in Arabidopsis procambial cells, defines the vascular stem cell niche. WUS/WOX family proteins are evolutionarily and functionally conserved throughout the plant kingdom and emerge as key actors in the specification and maintenance of stem cells within all meristems. However, the nature of the genetic regime in stem cell niches that centre on WOX gene function has been elusive, and molecular links underlying conserved WUS/WOX function in stem cell niches remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that the Arabidopsis HAIRY MERISTEM (HAM) family of transcription regulators act as conserved interacting cofactors with WUS/WOX proteins. HAM and WUS share common targets in vivo and their physical interaction is important in driving downstream transcriptional programs and in promoting shoot stem cell proliferation. Differences in the overlapping expression patterns of WOX and HAM family members underlie the formation of diverse stem cell niche locations, and the HAM family is essential for all of these stem cell niches. These findings establish a new framework for the control of stem cell production during plant development.
Project description:In plants, the shoot apical meristem (SAM) serves as a reservoir of pluripotent stem cells from which all above ground organs originate. To sustain proper growth, the SAM must maintain homeostasis between the self-renewal of pluripotent stem cells and cell recruitment for lateral organ formation. At the core of the network that regulates this homeostasis in Arabidopsis are the WUSCHEL (WUS) transcription factor specifying stem cell fate and the CLAVATA (CLV) ligand-receptor system limiting WUS expression. In this study, we identified the ERECTA (ER) pathway as a second receptor kinase signaling pathway that regulates WUS expression, and therefore shoot apical and floral meristem size, independently of the CLV pathway. We demonstrate that reduction in class III HD-ZIP and ER function together leads to a significant increase in WUS expression, resulting in extremely enlarged shoot meristems and a switch from spiral to whorled vegetative phyllotaxy. We further show that strong upregulation of WUS in the inflorescence meristem leads to ectopic expression of the AGAMOUS homeotic gene to a level that switches cell fate from floral meristem founder cell to carpel founder cell, suggesting an indirect role for ER in regulating floral meristem identity. This work illustrates the delicate balance between stem cell specification and differentiation in the meristem and shows that a shift in this balance leads to abnormal phyllotaxy and to altered reproductive cell fate.
Project description:In multicellular organisms, a long-standing question is how spatial patterns of distinct cell types are initiated and maintained during continuous cell division and proliferation. Along the vertical axis of plant shoot apical meristems (SAMs), stem cells are located at the top while cells specifying the stem cells are located more basally, forming a robust apical-basal pattern. We previously found that in Arabidopsis SAMs, the HAIRY MERISTEM (HAM) family transcription factors form a concentration gradient from the epidermis to the interior cell layers, and this gradient is essential for the stem cell specification and the apical-basal patterning of the SAMs. Here, we uncover that epidermis specific transcription factors, ARABIDOPSIS THALIANA MERISTEM LAYER 1 (ATML1) and its close homolog, define the concentration gradient of HAM in the SAM through activating a group of microRNAs. This study provides a molecular framework linking the epidermis-derived signal to the stem cell homeostasis in plants.
Project description:The transcription factor WUSCHEL (WUS) acts from a well-defined domain within the Arabidopsis thaliana shoot apical meristem (SAM) to maintain a stem cell niche. A negative-feedback loop involving the CLAVATA (CLV) signaling pathway regulates the number of WUS-expressing cells and provides the current paradigm for the homeostatic maintenance of stem cell numbers. Despite the continual turnover of cells in the SAM during development, the WUS domain remains patterned at a fixed distance below the shoot apex. Recent work has uncovered a positive-feedback loop between WUS function and the plant hormone cytokinin. Furthermore, loss of function of the cytokinin biosynthetic gene, LONELY GUY (LOG), results in a wus-like phenotype in rice. Herein, we find the Arabidopsis LOG4 gene is expressed in the SAM epidermis. We use this to develop a computational model representing a growing SAM to suggest the plausibility that apically derived cytokinin and CLV signaling, together, act as positional cues for patterning the WUS domain within the stem cell niche. Furthermore, model simulations backed by experimental data suggest a previously unknown negative feedback between WUS function and cytokinin biosynthesis in the Arabidopsis SAM epidermis. These results suggest a plausible dynamic feedback principle by which the SAM stem cell niche is patterned.
Project description:Plant shoot stem cell pool is constantly maintained by a negative feedback loop through peptide-receptor mediated signaling pathway. CLAVATA3 (CLV3) encode a 96 amino-acid protein which is processed to 12-amino-acid or arabinosylated 13-amino-acid peptides, acting as a ligand signal to regulate stem cell homeostasis in the shoot apical meristem (SAM). Although arabinosylated 13-amino-acid CLV3 peptide (CLV3p) shows more significant binding affinity to its receptors and biological activities in the SAM, the physiological function of two mature forms of CLV3p remained an unresolved puzzle in the past decade due to the technical difficulties of arabinosylation modification in the peptide synthesis. Here, we analyzed the role of two mature CLV3 peptides with newly synthesized arabinosylated peptide. Beside shoot meristem phenotypes, arabinosylated CLV3p showed the conventional trait of CLV2-dependent root growth inhibition. Moreover, both 12-amino-acid and arabinosylated 13-amino-acid CLV3 peptides have analogous activities in shoot stem cell signaling. Notably, we demonstrated that non-arabinosylated 12-amino acid CLV3p can affect shoot stem cell signaling at the physiological level unlike previously suggested (Ohyama et al., 2009; Shinohara and Matsubayashi, 2013; Shinohara and Matsubayashi, 2015). Therefore, these results support the physiological role of the 12-amino-acid CLV3p in shoot stem cell signaling in the deficient condition of arabinosylated 13-amino-acid CLV3p in Arabidopsis thaliana.
Project description:CLAVATA3 (CLV3), a stem cell marker in Arabidopsis thaliana, encodes a secreted peptide that maintains the stem cell population within the shoot apical meristem. This work investigated the CLV3 orthologue in a major legume crop, soybean (GmCLV3). Instead of being expressed in the three outermost layers of the meristem as in Arabidopsis, GmCLV3 was expressed deeper in the central zone beneath the fourth layer (L4) of the meristem, overlapping with the expression of soybean WUSCHEL. Subsequent investigation using an alternative stem cell marker (GmLOG1) revealed its expression within layers L2-L4, indicating that GmCLV3 is not a stem cell marker. Overexpression studies of GmCLV3 in Arabidopsis and complementation of clv3-2 mutant suggest similar functional capacity to that of Arabidopsis CLV3. The expression of soybean CLV1, which encodes a receptor for CLV3 in Arabidopsis, was not detectable in the central zone of the meristem via reverse-transcription PCR analysis of amplified RNA from laser-microdissected samples or in situ, implicating a diverged pathway in soybean. This study also reports the novel expression of GmLOG1 in initials of axillary meristem in the boundary region between the SAM and developing leaf primordia, before the expression of GmWUS or GmCLV3, indicating cytokinin as one of the earliest signals in initiating and specifying the stem cell population.
Project description:Modern imaging approaches enable the acquisition of 3D and 4D datasets capturing plant organ development at cellular resolution. Computational analyses of these data enable the digitization and analysis of individual cells. In order to fully harness the information encoded within these datasets, annotation of the cell types within organs may be performed. This enables data points to be placed within the context of their position and identity, and for equivalent cell types to be compared between samples. The shoot apical meristem (SAM) in plants is the apical stem cell niche from which all above ground organs are derived. We developed 3DCellAtlas Meristem which enables the complete cellular annotation of all cells within the SAM with up to 96% accuracy across all cell types in Arabidopsis and 99% accuracy in tomato SAMs. Successive layers of cells are identified along with the central stem cells, boundary regions, and layers within developing primordia. Geometric analyses provide insight into the morphogenetic process that occurs during these developmental processes. Coupling these digital analyses with reporter expression will enable multidimensional analyses to be performed at single cell resolution. This provides a rapid and robust means to perform comprehensive cellular annotation of plant SAMs and digital single cell analyses, including cell geometry and gene expression. This fills a key gap in our ability to analyse and understand complex multicellular biology in the apical plant stem cell niche and paves the way for digital cellular atlases and analyses.
Project description:Gene regulatory networks control development via domain-specific gene expression. In seed plants, self-renewing stem cells located in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) produce leaves from the SAM peripheral zone. After initiation, leaves develop polarity patterns to form a planar shape. Here we compare translating RNAs among SAM and leaf domains. Using translating ribosome affinity purification and RNA sequencing to quantify gene expression in target domains, we generate a domain-specific translatome map covering representative vegetative stage SAM and leaf domains. We discuss the predicted cellular functions of these domains and provide evidence that dome seemingly unrelated domains, utilize common regulatory modules. Experimental follow up shows that the RABBIT EARS and HANABA TARANU transcription factors have roles in axillary meristem initiation. This dataset provides a community resource for further study of shoot development and response to internal and environmental signals.
Project description:The stem cells in the shoot apical meristem (SAM) are the origin of all above ground tissues in plants. In Arabidopsis thaliana, shoot meristem stem cells are maintained by the homeobox transcription factor gene WUS (WUSCHEL) that is expressed in cells of the organizing center underneath the stem cells. In order to identify factors that operate together with WUS in stem cell maintenance, we performed an EMS mutant screen for modifiers of the hypomorphic wus-6 allele. We isolated the oberon3-2 (obe3-2) mutant that enhances stem cell defects in wus-6, but does not affect the putative null allele wus-1. The OBE3 gene encodes a PHD (Plant Homeo Domain) protein that is thought to function in chromatin regulation. Single mutants of OBE3 or its closest homolog OBE4 do not display any defects, whereas the obe3-2 obe4-2 double mutant displays broad growth defects and developmental arrest of seedlings. Transcript levels of WUS and its target gene in the stem cells, CLAVATA3, are reduced in obe3-2. On the other hand, OBE3 and OBE4 transcripts are both indirectly upregulated by ectopic WUS expression. Our results suggest a positive feedback regulation between WUS and OBE3 that contributes to shoot meristem homeostasis.