Quantification of allele-specific expression patterns in Arabidopsis by tag profiling
ABSTRACT: we demonstrate that 3' end tag profiling vi deep sequencing is a powerful approach to mesure allele-specific expression genome-wide. examination of gene expression in A. thaliana, A. lyrata and the F1 hybrid
Project description:we demonstrate that 3' end tag profiling vi deep sequencing is a powerful approach to mesure allele-specific expression genome-wide. Overall design: examination of gene expression in A. thaliana, A. lyrata and the F1 hybrid
Project description:We analyzed allele-specific expression (ASE) in leaf and floral tissues of F1 interspecific hybrids generated between the two closely related species of Arabidopsis thaliana and Arabidopsis lyrata with a whole-genome SNP tiling array (AtSNPtile1). 24 sampes, 12 DNA samples from parents and hybrids, 12 RNA sample from leaf and flowers of hybrids
Project description:In this study we performed a genotype-phenotype association analysis of meiotic stability in 10 autotetraploid Arabidopsis lyrata and A. lyrata/A. arenosa hybrid populations collected from the Wachau region and East Austrian Forealps. The aim was to determine the effect of eight meiosis genes under extreme selection upon adaptation to whole genome duplication. Individual plants were genotyped by high-throughput sequencing of the eight meiosis genes (ASY1, ASY3, PDS5b, PRD3, REC8, SMC3, ZYP1a/b) implicated in synaptonemal complex formation and phenotyped by assessing meiotic metaphase I chromosome configurations. Our results reveal that meiotic stability varied greatly (20-100%) between individual tetraploid plants and associated with segregation of a novel ASYNAPSIS3 (ASY3) allele derived from A. lyrata. The ASY3 allele that associates with meiotic stability possesses a putative in-frame tandem duplication (TD) of a serine-rich region upstream of the coiled-coil domain that appears to have arisen at sites of DNA microhomology. The frequency of multivalents observed in plants homozygous for the ASY3 TD haplotype was significantly lower than in plants heterozygous for ASY3 TD/ND (non-duplicated) haplotypes. The chiasma distribution was significantly altered in the stable plants compared to the unstable plants with a shift from proximal and interstitial to predominantly distal locations. The number of HEI10 foci at pachytene that mark class I crossovers was significantly reduced in a plant homozygous for ASY3 TD compared to a plant heterozygous for ASY3 ND/TD. Fifty-eight alleles of the 8 meiosis genes were identified from the 10 populations analysed, demonstrating dynamic population variability at these loci. Widespread chimerism between alleles originating from A. lyrata/A. arenosa and diploid/tetraploids indicates that this group of rapidly evolving genes may provide precise adaptive control over meiotic recombination in the tetraploids, the very process that gave rise to them.
Project description:For heterozygous genes, alleles on the chromatin from two different parents exhibit histone modification variations known as allele-specific histone modifications (ASHMs). The regulation of allele-specific gene expression (ASE) by ASHMs has been reported in animals. However, to date, the regulation of ASE by ASHM genes remains poorly understood in higher plants.We used chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by next-generation sequencing (ChIP-seq) to investigate the global ASHM profiles of trimethylation on histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and histone H3 lysine 36 (H3K36me3) in two rice F1 hybrids. A total of 522 to 550 allele-specific H3K27me3 genes and 428 to 494 allele-specific H3K36me3 genes were detected in GL × 93-11 and GL × TQ, accounting for 11.09% and 26.13% of the total analyzed genes, respectively. The epialleles between parents were highly related to ASHMs. Further analysis indicated that 52.48% to 70.40% of the epialleles were faithfully inherited by the F1 hybrid and contributed to 33.18% to 46.55% of the ASHM genes. Importantly, 66.67% to 82.69% of monoallelic expression genes contained the H3K36me3 modification. Further studies demonstrated a significant positive correlation of ASE with allele-specific H3K36me3 but not with H3K27me3, indicating that ASHM-H3K36me3 primarily regulates ASE in this study.Our results demonstrate that epialleles from parents can be inherited by the F1 to produce ASHMs in the F1 hybrid. Our findings indicate that ASHM-H3K36me3, rather than H3K27me3, mainly regulates ASE in hybrid rice.
Project description:Genes that do not segregate in heterozygotes at Mendelian ratios are a potentially important evolutionary force in natural populations. Although the impacts of segregation distortion are widely appreciated, we have little quantitative understanding about how often these loci arise and fix within lineages. Here, we develop a statistical approach for detecting segregation distorting genes from the comprehensive comparison of whole genome sequence data obtained from bulk gamete versus somatic tissues. Our approach enables estimation of map positions and confidence intervals, and quantification of effect sizes of segregation distorters. We apply our method to the pollen of two interspecific F1 hybrids of Arabidopsis lyrata and A. halleri and we identify three loci across eight chromosomes showing significant evidence of segregation distortion in both pollen samples. Based on this, we estimate that novel segregation distortion elements evolve and achieve high frequencies within lineages at a rate of approximately one per 244,000 years. Furthermore, we estimate that haploid-acting segregation distortion may contribute between 10% and 30% of reduced pollen viability in F1 individuals. Our results indicate haploid acting factors evolve rapidly and dramatically influence segregation in F1 hybrid individuals.
Project description:Based on the biological species concept, two species are considered distinct if reproductive barriers prevent gene flow between them. In Central Europe, the diploid species Arabidopsis lyrata and Arabidopsis arenosa are genetically isolated, thus fitting this concept as "good species." Nonetheless, interspecific gene flow involving their tetraploid forms has been described. The reasons for this ploidy-dependent reproductive isolation remain unknown. Here, we show that hybridization between diploid A. lyrata and A. arenosa causes mainly inviable seed formation, revealing a strong postzygotic reproductive barrier separating these two species. Although viability of hybrid seeds was impaired in both directions of hybridization, the cause for seed arrest differed. Hybridization of A. lyrata seed parents with A. arenosa pollen donors resulted in failure of endosperm cellularization, whereas the endosperm of reciprocal hybrids cellularized precociously. Endosperm cellularization failure in both hybridization directions is likely causal for the embryo arrest. Importantly, natural tetraploid A. lyrata was able to form viable hybrid seeds with diploid and tetraploid A. arenosa, associated with the reestablishment of normal endosperm cellularization. Conversely, the defects of hybrid seeds between tetraploid A. arenosa and diploid A. lyrata were aggravated. According to these results, we hypothesize that a tetraploidization event in A. lyrata allowed the production of viable hybrid seeds with A. arenosa, enabling gene flow between the two species.
Project description:Col-0 and Van-0 total RNA were mixed at 1:1. Total RNA also extracted from F1 hybrid samples from Col x Van and Van x Col. PolyA RNA were purified and double-strand cDNA were synthesized, followed by bioprime random labeling. A total of 16ug labelled products were hybridized to AtSNPtile1. cis regulatory effect was identified as allele specific expression in F1 hybrids. Composite trans regulatory effect was detected as deviation between parental expression and F1 hybrids expression. Each sample type has four replicates. Single chanel. Three sample types (Col and Van RNA 1:1 mixture, Col x Van F1 hybrids, Van x Col F1 hybrids). Total 12 samples.
Project description:Here we describe protein-protein interactions between signaling components in the conserved self-incompatibility pathway from Brassica spp. and Arabidopsis lyrata. Previously, we had demonstrated that ARC1 is necessary in A. lyrata for the rejection of self-pollen by the self-incompatibility pathway. The results described here demonstrate that A. lyrata ARC1 interacts with A. lyrata S Receptor Kinase (SRK1) in the yeast 2-hybrid system. A. lyrata ARC1 also interacted with B. napus SRK910 illustrating that interactions in this pathway are conserved across species. Finally, we discuss how the more widely occurring interactions between SRK and ARC1-related family members may be modulated in vivo by expression and subcellular localization patterns resulting in a particular response.
Project description:Col-0 and Van-0 total RNA were mixed at 1:1. Total RNA also extracted from F1 hybrid samples from Col x Van and Van x Col. PolyA RNA were purified and double-strand cDNA were synthesized, followed by bioprime random labeling. A total of 16ug labelled products were hybridized to AtSNPtile1. cis regulatory effect was identified as allele specific expression in F1 hybrids. Composite trans regulatory effect was detected as deviation between parental expression and F1 hybrids expression. Overall design: Each sample type has four replicates. Single chanel. Three sample types (Col and Van RNA 1:1 mixture, Col x Van F1 hybrids, Van x Col F1 hybrids). Total 12 samples.
Project description:BACKGROUND:The genomes of higher plants are, on the majority, polyploid, and hybridisation is more frequent in plants than in animals. Both polyploidisation and hybridisation contribute to increased variability within species, and may transfer adaptations between species in a changing environment. Studying these aspects of evolution within a diversified species complex could help to clarify overall spatial and temporal patterns of plant speciation. The Arabidopsis lyrata complex, which is closely related to the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana, is a perennial, outcrossing, herbaceous species complex with a circumpolar distribution in the Northern Hemisphere as well as a disjunct Central European distribution in relictual habitats. This species complex comprises three species and four subspecies, mainly diploids but also several tetraploids, including one natural hybrid. The complex is ecologically, but not fully geographically, separated from members of the closely related species complex of Arabidopsis halleri, and the evolutionary histories of both species compexes have largely been influenced by Pleistocene climate oscillations. RESULTS:Using DNA sequence data from the nuclear encoded cytosolic phosphoglucoisomerase and Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 of the ribosomal DNA, as well as the trnL/F region from the chloroplast genome, we unravelled the phylogeography of the various taxonomic units of the A. lyrata complex. We demonstrate the existence of two major gene pools in Central Europe and Northern America. These two major gene pools are constructed from different taxonomic units. We also confirmed that A. kamchatica is the allotetraploid hybrid between A. lyrata and A. halleri, occupying the amphi-Beringian area in Eastern Asia and Northern America. This species closes the large distribution gap of the various other A. lyrata segregates. Furthermore, we revealed a threefold independent allopolyploid origin of this hybrid species in Japan, China, and Kamchatka. CONCLUSIONS:Unglaciated parts of the Eastern Austrian Alps and arctic Eurasia, including Beringia, served as major glacial refugia of the Eurasian A. lyrata lineage, whereas A. halleri and its various subspecies probably survived in refuges in Central Europe and Eastern Asia with a large distribution gap in between. The North American A. lyrata lineage probably survived the glaciation in the southeast of North America. The dramatic climatic changes during glaciation and deglaciation cycles promoted not only secondary contact and formation of the allopolyploid hybrid A. kamchatica, but also provided the environment that allowed this species to fill a large geographic gap separating the two genetically different A. lyrata lineages from Eurasia and North America. With our example focusing on the evolutionary history of the A. lyrata species complex, we add substantial information to a broad evolutionary framework for future investigations within this emerging model system in molecular and evolutionary biology.