DNA methylation data from nasal epithelial cells of human smokers and nonsmokers
ABSTRACT: We are investigating the methylation profiles associated with cigarette smoke exposure. We used arrays to compare the DNA methylation profiles in healthy human smokers and nonsmokers. Nasal epithelial cells were extracted from 12 volunteers (6 smokers, 6 nonsmokers), and grown until fully differentiated. DNA was extracted from samples, and bisulfite converted, hybridized, and scanned to IlluminaMethylation27 BeadChip arrays.
Project description:Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer death, although only a small percentage of smokers develop the disease. Cigarette smoke exposure is known to cause a field of injury in cells throughout the respiratory tract, and while these airway epithelial cells are morphologically normal, they can undergo genetic alterations in response to cigarette smoke exposure. We used microarrays to analyze the gene expression of epithelial cells in the extrathoracic epithelium, specifically nasal and buccal epithelium, to see if these cells underwent similar genetic alterations in response to tobacco exposure as seen in bronchial epithelial cells as has been previously reported. Experiment Overall Design: Buccal and nasal epithelial cell samples were collected from healthy current and never smokers. RNA was isolated from these samples and hybridized to Affymetrix microarrays. Gene expression from never smokers was compared to never smoker gene expression from bronchial epithelium as well as expression data from other tissues to determine commonalities in expression patterns in normal extra- and intra-thoracic samples. In addition, gene expression from smokers and nonsmokers was compared in bronchial, nasal, and buccal epithelium to determine similarities in gene expression in these tissues in response to cigarette smoker exposure.
Project description:We are investigating the methylation profiles associated with cigarette smoke exposure. We used arrays to compare the DNA methylation profiles in healthy human smokers and nonsmokers. Overall design: Nasal epithelial cells were extracted from 12 volunteers (6 smokers, 6 nonsmokers), and grown until fully differentiated. DNA was extracted from samples, and bisulfite converted, hybridized, and scanned to IlluminaMethylation27 BeadChip arrays.
Project description:mRNA expression was assayed from bronchial epithelial cells collected via bronchoscopy and nasal epithelial cells collected by brushing the inferior turbinate from healthy current and never smoker volunteers in order to determine the relationship between smoking-related gene expression changes in bronchial and nasal epithelium within the same individual. Bronchial epithelial cells were collected from current and never smokers via bronchoscopy, and nasal epithelial cells were collected by brushing the inferior turbinate during the same clinic visit. 1ug of RNA was isolated and hybridized to Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST microarrays to obtain mRNA expression. The genome build upon which transcript assignments are based is hg18 (HuEx-1_0-st-v2.na27.hg18.transcript.csv).
Project description:Upregulation of Expression of the Ubiquitin Carboxyl Terminal Hydrolase L1 Gene in Human Airway Epithelium of Cigarette Smokers; The microarray data deposited here is from 44 HuGeneFL GeneChips, from 9 normal non-smokers and 13 phenotypic normal smokers, large airways, 2 samples per individual, one from the right lung and one from the left lung. These samples were previously described in Hackett NR, Heguy A, Harvey BG, O'Connor TP, Luettich K, Flieder DB, Kaplan R, Crystal RG. Variability of antioxidant-related gene expression in the airway epithelium of cigarette smokers. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2003 29:331-43 and in Heguy A, Harvey BG, O'Connor TP, Hackett NR, Crystal RG. Sampling-dependent up-regulation of gene expression in sequential samples of human airway epithelial cells. Mol Med. 2003 9:200-8. These data are part of a study aimed at understanding how cigarette smoking modifies neuroendocrine cells, in which microarray analysis with TaqMan confirmation was used to assess airway epithelial samples obtained by fiberoptic bronchoscopy from 81 individuals (normal nonsmokers, normal smokers, smokers with early COPD and smokers with established COPD). Of 11 genes considered to be neuroendocrine cell-specific, only ubiquitin C-terminal hydrolase L1(UCHL1), a member of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway, was consistently upregulated in smokers compared to nonsmokers. Up-regulation of UCHL1 at the protein level was observed with immunohistochemistry of bronchial biopsies of smokers compared to nonsmokers. Interestingly, however, while UCHL1 expression was present only in neuroendocrine cells of the airway epithelium in nonsmokers, UCHL1 expression was also expressed in ciliated epithelial cells in smokers, an intriguing observation in light of recent observations that ciliated cells can are capable of transdifferentiating to other airway epithelium. In the context that UCHL1 is involved in the degradation of unwanted, misfolded or damaged proteins within the cell and is overexpressed in >50% of lung cancers, its overexpression in chronic smokers may represent an early event in the complex transformation from normal epithelium to overt malignancy. Experiment Overall Design: comparison of gene expression in airway epithelial cells of the large airways of phenotypic normal smokers vs normal non-smokers
Project description:Using primary human bronchial epithelial cells collected at bronchoscopy, we have perturbed signaling pathways important in regulation of response to tobacco smoke exposure and cancer development: ATM, BCL2, GPX1, NOS2, IKBKB, and SIRT1 Using gene expression profiles generated for each pathway and four independent gene expression datasets, we show that SIRT1 activity is significantly up-regulated in cytologically normal airway epithelial cells from active smokers compared to non-smokers; and in contrast, this activity is strikingly down-regulated in non-small cell lung cancer. 52 samples were run on Affymetrix Human Exon 1.0 ST microarrays (n=7 for ATM, n=8 for GPX1, n=7 for SIRT1, n=7 for NOS2, n=7 for IKBKB, n=8 for BCL2, and n=8 for GFP). The CEL files were processed using RMA and the ENTREZ Gene CDF file. 13 samples were removed either because of a low Pearson correlation between samples (n=1 SIRT1 sample) or a strong batch effect (n=2 ATM, n=2 BCL2, n=2 GFP, n=2 GPX1, n=1 IKBKB, n=2 NOS2, n=1 SIRT1 samples) as determined by PCA.
Project description:A number of studies have shown that cigarette smoking produces a field defect, such that genetic mutations induced by smoking occur throughout the lung and its intra and extra-pulmonary airways. Based on this concept, we have begun this study, which has as its goal the definition of the normal airway transcriptome, an analysis of how that transcriptome is affected by cigarette smoke, and to explore the reversibility of altered gene expression when smoking has been discontinued. We have obtained brushings from intra-pulmonary airways (the right upper lobe carina) and scrapings from the buccal mucosa, from normal smoking and non-smoking volunteers (including 34 Current Smokers, 23 Never Smokers and 18 Former Smokers). RNA was isolated from these samples and gene expression profiles from intra-pulmonary airway epithelial cells were analyzed using Affymetrix U133A human gene expression arrays. All microarray data from the experiments described above have been stored, preprocessed and analyzed in a relational MySQL database that is accessible through our website at http://pulm.bumc.bu.edu/aged
Project description:Smoking is the leading cause of lung cancer death, although only a small percentage of smokers develop the disease. Cigarette smoke exposure is known to cause a field of injury in cells throughout the respiratory tract, and while these airway epithelial cells are morphologically normal, they can undergo genetic alterations in response to cigarette smoke exposure. We used microarrays to analyze the gene expression of epithelial cells in the extrathoracic epithelium, specifically nasal and buccal epithelium, to see if these cells underwent similar genetic alterations in response to tobacco exposure as seen in bronchial epithelial cells as has been previously reported. Keywords: cross sectional Overall design: Buccal and nasal epithelial cell samples were collected from healthy current and never smokers. RNA was isolated from these samples and hybridized to Affymetrix microarrays. Gene expression from never smokers was compared to never smoker gene expression from bronchial epithelium as well as expression data from other tissues to determine commonalities in expression patterns in normal extra- and intra-thoracic samples. In addition, gene expression from smokers and nonsmokers was compared in bronchial, nasal, and buccal epithelium to determine similarities in gene expression in these tissues in response to cigarette smoker exposure.
Project description:Study Smoking and COPD are associated with decreased mucociliary clearance and healthy smokers have shorter cilia in the large airway than nonsmokers. Intraflagellar transport (IFT) is the process by which cilia are produced and maintained. We assessed expression of IFT-related genes in smokers and nonsmokers and evaluated cilia length in the large and small airway of nonsmokers, healthy smokers, and smokers with COPD. Methods Airway epithelium was obtained via bronchoscopic brushing. Affymetrix microarrays were used to evaluate IFT gene expression in 2 independent data sets from large and small airway. Cilia length was assessed by measuring 100 cilia (10 cilia on each of 10 cells) per subject. Results All 40 IFT genes were expressed in the human large and small airway epithelium. In the large airway, 10 IFT genes were down-regulated and 1 up-regulated in smokers. In the small airway, 11 genes were down-regulated and 3 up-regulated in smokers. A set of 8 IFT genes was down-regulated in both data sets. In the large and small airway epithelium, cilia were significantly shorter in healthy smokers than nonsmokers, and significantly shorter in COPD smokers than in both healthy smokers and nonsmokers. Answer to the Question These results support the concept that loss of cilia length contributes to defective mucociliary clearance in COPD, and that smoking-induced changes in expression of IFT genes may be one mechanism of abnormally short cilia in smokers. Strategies to normalize cilia length may be an important avenue for novel COPD therapies. Gene expression was assessed for 40 intraflagellar transport related genes in the LAE of nonsmokers (n=21) and healthy smokers (n=31) and the SAE of an independent group of nonsmokers (n=28) and healthy smokers (n=69). Cilia length was assessed in a total of 228 airway epithelium samples, including 120 LAE samples and 108 SAE samples; a subset of the 228 samples is represented among the 149 samples in this Series.
Project description:Background: Mechanisms underlying the development of virus-induced asthma exacerbations remain unclear. Objective: To investigate if epigenetic mechanisms could be involved in virus-induced asthma exacerbations, we undertook DNA methylation profiling in asthmatic and healthy nasal epithelial cells (NECs) during Human Rhinovirus (HRV) infection in vitro. Methods: Global and loci-specific methylation profiles were determined via Alu element and Infinium Human Methylation 450K microarray respectively. Principal components analysis identified the genomic loci influenced the most by disease-status and infection. Real-time PCR and pyrosequencing was used to confirm gene expression and DNA methylation respectively. Results: Global methylation was increased in Asthmatics during infection. Disease status and virus infection influenced the methylation of 389 loci. Healthy and asthmatic NECs were characterized predominately by methylation profiles and patterns in loci that were not influenced by virus infection. However, both groups also exhibited distinct DNA methylation profiles in response to infection. Despite these differences, we found that the methylation of small nucleolar RNA, H/ACA box 12 (SNORA12) was common during infection. Further analysis indicated a relationship existed between SNORA12 DNA methylation and gene expression in response to infection. Conclusions: Findings from our study indicate that in addition to the well described phenotypic and genomic differences, the airway epithelium of asthmatics is characterized by a distinct methylome and that epigenetic mechanism may contribute to the development of virus-induced asthma exacerbations. Bisulphite converted DNA from matched mock and human rhinovirus-16 infected nasal epithelial cells from Healthy (n=3) and Asthmatics (n=6) adults were hybridized to the Illumina DNA methylation 450K Bead Array.
Project description:Lectins are proteins present on cell surfaces or as shed extracellular proteins that function in innate immune defense as phagocytic receptors to recognize specific bacterial cell wall components. Based on the knowledge that cigarette smoking is associated with increased risk of bacterial infection, we hypothesized that cigarette smoking may modulate the expression of lectin genes in the airway epithelium. Affymetrix HG U133 Plus 2.0 microarrays were used to survey expression of lectin genes in large (3rd to 4th order bronchi) airway epithelium from 9 normal nonsmokers and 20 phenotypic normal smokers and small (10th to 12th order bronchi) airway epithelium from 13 normal nonsmokers and 20 phenotypic normal smokers. From the 72 lectin genes that were surveyed, there were no changes (>2-fold change, p<0.05) in gene expression in either large or small airway epithelium among normal smokers compared to nonsmokers except for a striking down regulation in both large and small airway epithelium of normal smokers of intelectin 1, a recently described lectin that participates in the innate immune response by recognizing and binding to galactofuranosyl residues in the cell walls of bacteria (large airway epithelium, p<0.003; small airway epithelium, p<0.002). TaqMan RT-PCR confirmed the observation that intelectin 1 was down-regulated in both large (p<0.05) and small airway epithelium (p<0.02) of normal smokers compared to normal nonsmokers. Immunohistochemistry assessment of biopsies of the large airway epithelium of normal nonsmokers demonstrated intelectin 1 was expressed in secretory cells, with qualitatively decreased expression in biopsies from normal smokers. Western analysis confirmed the decreased expression of intelectin 1 in airway epithelium of normal smokers compared to normal nonsmokers (p<0.02). Finally, compared to normal nonsmokers, intelectin 1 expression was decreased in small airway epithelium of smokers with early COPD (n= 13, p<0.001) and smokers with established COPD (n= 14, p<0.001), in a fashion similar to that of normal smokers. In the context that intelectin 1 is an epithelial molecule that likely plays a role in defense against bacteria, the down regulation of expression of intelectin 1 in response to cigarette smoking may contribute to the increase in susceptibility to infections observed in smokers, including those with COPD. Keywords: COPD Overall design: Comparison of gene expression in airway epithelial cells of normal non-smokers, phenotypic normal smokers, smokers with early COPD, and smokers with COPD.