Profiling of differential allelic expression in horse, donkey, mule and hinny placental tissue
ABSTRACT: The discovery of genomic imprinting through studies of manipulated mouse embryos indicated that the paternal genome has a major influence on placental development. However, previous research has not demonstrated paternal bias in imprinted genes. We applied RNA sequencing to trophoblast tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey, where genotypic differences allowed parent-of-origin identification of most expressed genes. Using this approach, we identified a core group of 15 ancient imprinted genes of which 10 were paternally expressed. An additional 78 candidate novel imprinted genes identified by RNA-seq also showed paternal bias. Pyrosequencing was used to confirm the imprinting status of six of the novel genes, including the insulin receptor (INSR), which may play a role in growth regulation with its reciprocally imprinted ligand, histone acetyltransferase (HAT1), the first example of an imprinted gene involved in chromatin modification, and LY6G6C, the first imprinted gene to be identified in the major histocompatibility complex. The 78 novel candidate imprinted genes displayed parent-of-origin expression bias in placenta but not fetus, and most showed less than 100% silencing of the imprinted allele. Some displayed variability in imprinting status among individuals. This results in a unique epigenetic signature for each placenta that contributes to variation in the intrauterine environment and thus presents the opportunity for natural selection to operate on parent-of-origin differential regulation. Taken together, these features highlight the plasticity of imprinting in mammals and the central importance of the placenta as a target tissue for genomic imprinting. Examine allelic expression from four individual samples of invasive trophoblast tissue of the chorionic girdle from gestation day 33 conceptuses of horse, donkey, mule and hinny.
Project description:In eutherian mammals, dosage compensation of X-linked genes is achieved by X chromosome inactivation. X inactivation is random in embryonic and adult tissues, but imprinted X inactivation (paternal X silencing) has been identified in the extraembryonic membranes of the mouse, rat, and cow. Few other species have been studied for this trait, and the data from studies of the human placenta have been discordant or inconclusive. Here, we quantify X inactivation using RNA sequencing of placental tissue from reciprocal hybrids of horse and donkey (mule and hinny). In placental tissue from the equid hybrids and the horse parent the allelic expression pattern was consistent with random X inactivation, and imprinted X inactivation can clearly be excluded. We characterized horse and donkey XIST gene, and demonstrated that XIST allelic expression in female hybrid placental and fetal tissues is negatively correlated with the other X-linked genes chromosome-wide, which is consistent with the XIST-mediated mechanism of X inactivation discovered previously in mice. As the most structurally and morphologically diverse organ in mammals, the placenta also appears to show diverse mechanisms for dosage compensation that may result in differences in conceptus development across species. Examine allelic expression from individual samples of invasive trophoblast tissue of the chorionic girdle from gestation day 33-34 conceptuses of 5 horses, 3 donkeys, 6 mules, and 1 hinny.
Project description:The maternal and paternal copies of the genome are both required for mammalian development and this is primarily due to imprinted genes, those that are mono-allelically expressed based on parent-of-origin. Typically, this pattern of expression is regulated by differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that are established in the germline and maintained after fertilisation. There are a large number of germline DMRs that have not yet been associated with imprinting and their function in development is unknown. In this study, we developed a genome-wide approach to identify novel imprinted DMRs, specifically in the human placenta, and investigated the dynamics of imprinted DMRs during development in somatic and extra-embryonic tissues. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array in 116 human tissue samples, publically available reduced representation bisulfite sequencing in the human embryo and germ cells, and targeted bisulfite sequencing in term placentas. 43 known and 101 novel imprinted DMRs were identified in the human placenta, by comparing methylation between diandric and digynic triploids and female and male gametes. 72 novel DMRs showed a pattern consistent with placental-specific imprinting and this monoallelic methylation was entirely maternal in origin. Strikingly, these DMRs exhibited polymorphic imprinted methylation specifically in placenta. These data suggest that imprinting in human development is far more extensive and dynamic than previously reported and that the placenta preferentially maintains maternal germline-derived DNA methylation. Overall design: Multiplexed targeted bisulfite seequencing of 151 assays for imprinted differentially methylated regions in human placental villous, trophoblast and whole blood samples
Project description:Many questions about the regulation, functional specialization, computational prediction, and evolution of genomic imprinting would be better addressed by having an exhaustive genome-wide catalog of genes that display parent-of-origin differential expression. As a first-pass scan for novel imprinted genes, we performed mRNA-seq experiments on E17.5 mouse placenta cDNA samples from reciprocal cross F1 progeny of AKR and PWD mouse strains, and quantified the allele-specific expression and the degree of parent-of-origin effect transcriptome-wide. We confirmed the imprinting status of 23 known imprinted genes in the placenta, and found that 12 genes reported previously to be imprinted in other tissues are also imprinted in mouse placenta. Through a well-replicated design using an orthogonal technology, we verified five novel imprinted genes that are not known to be imprinted in mouse. It appears that most of the strongly imprinted genes have already been identified, at least in the placenta, and that evidence supports perhaps 100 additional weakly imprinted genes. Despite previous appearance that the placenta tends to display an excess of maternally-expressed imprinted genes, when the full set of genes is uniformly scored as in this study, this maternal bias disappeared. Examine allelic expression in E17.5 placenta tissues from two individual samples, one from each of the two reciprocal crosses.
Project description:To investigate the epigenetic landscape at the interface between mother and fetus, we provide a comprehensive analysis of parent of origin bias in the placenta. Using F1 interspecies hybrids, we sequenced RNA from 23 individual midgestation placentas, five late stage placentas, and two yolk sac samples and then used SNPs to determine whether transcripts were preferentially generated from the maternal or paternal allele. In the placenta, we find 103 genes that show significant and reproducible parent-of-origin bias, of which 78 are novel candidates. Most (96%) show a strong maternal bias which, using multiple models, we demonstrate is not due to maternal decidual contamination. Analysis of the X chromosome also reveals paternal expression of Xist and several genes that escape inactivation, most significantly Rps4x, Fhl1, and Slc38a5. Finally, sequencing individual placentas allowed us to reveal notable expression similarity between littermates. In all, we observe a striking preference for maternal transcription in the midgestation mouse placenta and a dynamic imprinting landscape in extraembryonic tissues, reflecting the complex nature of epigenetic pathways in the placenta. 3'-end Sequencing for Expression Quantification (3SEQ) and SNP Analysis to observe parent-of-origin bias in 28 placental samples at two time points and 2 yolk sac samples
Project description:Genomic imprinting is a mechanism in which gene expression varies depending on parental origin. Imprinting occurs through differential epigenetic marks on the two parental alleles, with most imprinted loci marked by the presence of differentially methylated regions (DMRs). To identify sites of parental epigenetic bias, here we have profiled DNA methylation patterns in a cohort of 57 individuals with uniparental disomy (UPD) for 19 different chromosomes, defining imprinted DMRs as sites where the maternal and paternal methylation levels diverge significantly from the biparental mean. Using this approach we identified 77 DMRs, including nearly all those described in previous studies, in addition to 34 DMRs not previously reported. These include a DMR at TUBGCP5 within the recurrent 15q11.2 microdeletion region, suggesting potential parent-of-origin effects associated with this genomic disorder. We also observed a modest parental bias in DNA methylation levels at every CpG analyzed across ∼1.9 Mb of the 15q11-q13 Prader-Willi/Angelman syndrome region, demonstrating that the influence of imprinting is not limited to individual regulatory elements such as CpG islands, but can extend across entire chromosomal domains. Using RNA-seq data, we detected signatures consistent with imprinted expression associated with nine novel DMRs. Finally, using a population sample of 4,004 blood methylomes, we define patterns of epigenetic variation at DMRs, identifying rare individuals with global gain or loss of methylation across multiple imprinted loci. Our data provide a detailed map of parental epigenetic bias in the human genome, providing insights into potential parent-of-origin effects. Overall design: 66 UPD samples analyzed in total, From each individual, whole bllod DNA was extracted and global DNA methylation levels were assessed using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip.
Project description:The maternal and paternal copies of the genome are both required for mammalian development and this is primarily due to imprinted genes, those that are mono-allelically expressed based on parent-of-origin. Typically, this pattern of expression is regulated by differentially methylated regions (DMRs) that are established in the germline and maintained after fertilisation. There are a large number of germline DMRs that have not yet been associated with imprinting and their function in development is unknown. In this study, we developed a genome-wide approach to identify novel imprinted DMRs, specifically in the human placenta, and investigated the dynamics of imprinted DMRs during development in somatic and extra-embryonic tissues. DNA methylation was evaluated using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 array in 116 human tissue samples, publically available reduced representation bisulfite sequencing in the human embryo and germ cells, and targeted bisulfite sequencing in term placentas. 43 known and 101 novel imprinted DMRs were identified in the human placenta, by comparing methylation between diandric and digynic triploids and female and male gametes. 72 novel DMRs showed a pattern consistent with placental-specific imprinting and this mono-allelic methylation was entirely maternal in origin. Strikingly, these DMRs exhibited polymorphic imprinted methylation specifically in placenta. These data suggest that imprinting in human development is far more extensive and dynamic than previously reported and that the placenta preferentially maintains maternal germline-derived DNA methylation For the identification of imprinted DMRs in the placenta, chorionic villous samples from 5 diandric and 5 digynic triploids pregnancies were assayed, along with a pooled sample of complete hydatiform moles (CHM). Placental chorionic villous samples (n=63) included 29 control pregnancies delivered at term, while the remaining 34 were delivered preterm or miscarried, or had abnormal MSS results, IUGR or LOPET. The preterm births were associated with one or more of: preterm labour, premature rupture of membranes (PROM), chorioamnionitis, placental abruption, and incompetent cervix. All samples were determined to be chromosomally normal using standard karyotyping or comparative genome hybridization, as previously described (Robinson et al. 2010). Two to four independent sites were taken from each placenta and after DNA extraction from chorionic villous, the DNA was pooled before being utilized in this study. Thirty-three fetal tissues, including brain (n=8), spinal cord (n=7), muscle (n=9), and kidney (n=9) were collected from second trimester foetuses, as previously described (Price et al. 2012). Adult female whole blood samples (n=10) were collected from control women. Extra-embryonic cell types (n=19), including cord blood (embryonic), cord, amniotic membrane, chorionic membrane, 1st, 2nd and 3rd trimester trophoblast and mesenchyme, and decidua (maternal), were isolated from control placental samples.
Project description:Genomic imprinting is a mechanism in which the expression of genes varies depending on their parent-of-origin. Imprinting occurs through differential DNA methylation and histone modifications on the two parental alleles, with most imprinted genes marked by CpG-rich differentially methylated regions (DMRs). DNA methylation profiling in cases of uniparental disomy (UPD) provides a unique system permitting the study of DNA derived from a single parent (PMID: 20631049). Approximately 70 human imprinted genes have been described, and imprinted loci have been associated with diseases such as diabetes and cancer. We profiled parent of origin DNA methylation marks to find novel imprinted loci. Methods: We have an unprecedented collection of whole blood DNA from XX patients with UPD covering 18 different chromosomes, allowing for the efficient detection of DMRs associated with imprinted genes for 84% of the human genome. Our study is complimented with Ovarian Teratoma DNA (maternal DNA) and Complete hydatidiform Mole (paternal DNA). DNA methylation was profiled using Illumina Infinium 450K Methylation BeadArrays. Imprinted DMRs were defined by sites at which the maternal and paternal methylation levels diverged significantly from the biparental average. We confirmed novel DMRs by bisulfite sequencing of informative trios and SequenomEpiTYPER assays. Allelic specific gene expression studies were also performed by RNA sequencing in independent biparental controls. Findings: Our results provide for the first comprehensive map of the human imprintome, doubling the number of known imprinted regions. We identified a total of 71 DMRs, 41 of which were novel. 27 novel DMRs were maternally methylated and 14 were paternally methylated. We identified DMRs on chromosomes 5, 21 and 22 previously considered devoid of imprinting, highlighting potential parent-of-origin effects in chromosomal aneuploidies such as Down syndrome. We also found DMRs in genes associated with Schizophrenia and epilepsy. Interpretation: Our data provide the first comprehensive genome-wide map of imprinted sites in the human genome, and provide novel insights into potential parent-of-origin effects in human disorders. 66 UPD samples analyzed in total, From each individual, whole bllod DNA was extracted and global DNA methylation levels were assessed using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip.
Project description:Whereas DNA methylation is essential for genomic imprinting, the importance of histone methylation in the allelic repression of imprinted genes is unclear. ‘Imprinting control regions’ (ICRs), however, are consistently marked by histone H3 K9 methylation on their DNA-methylated allele. In the placenta, the paternal silencing along the Kcnq1 domain on distal chromosome 7 also correlates with the presence of H3-K9 methylation, but imprinted repression at these genes is maintained independently of DNA methylation. To explore which histone methyltransferase (HMT) could mediate the allelic H3-K9 methylation on distal chromosome 7, and at ICRs, we generated mouse conceptuses deficient for the SET-domain protein G9a. We find that in the embryo and placenta, the differential DNA methylation at ICRs and imprinted genes is maintained in the absence of G9a. Accordingly, in embryos, imprinted gene expression is unchanged at the domains analysed, in spite of a global loss of H3-K9 di-methylation (H3K9me2). In contrast, the placenta-specific imprinting of genes on distal chromosome 7 is lost in the absence of G9, and this correlates with a loss of H3K9me2 and H3K9me3. These findings provide the first in vivo evidence for the involvement of a SET domain protein in imprinting and highlight the importance of histone lysine methylation rather than DNA methylation in the maintenance of imprinting in the trophoblast lineage. Experiment Overall Design: Number of samples: four (two biologically replicate G9a-/- pooled placentae samples, and two biologically replicate wildtype pooled placentae samples). The first G9a-/- and wildtype replicates were used to hybridize Affymetrix MOE430A and MOE430B arrays (four arrays total). The second replicates were used to hybridize Affymetrix Mouse430_2 arrays (two arrays total).
Project description:In many eukaryotes, reproduction involves contributions of genetic material from two parents. At some genes there are parent-of-origin differences in the expression of the maternal and paternal alleles of a gene and this is referred to as imprinting. The analysis of allele-specific expression in several maize hybrids allowed the comprehensive detection of imprinted genes. By comparing allelic expression patterns in multiple crosses, it was possible to observe allelic variation for imprinting in maize. The comparison of genes subject to imprinting in multiple plant species reveals limited conservation for imprinting. The subset of genes that exhibit conserved imprinting in maize and rice may play important, dosage-dependent roles in regulation of seed development. In this study, deep sequencing of RNA isolated from 14 days-after-pollination (DAP) endosperm tissue of five reciprocal hybrid pairs was performed to identify imprinted genes.
Project description:In plants, imprinted gene expression occurs in endosperm seed tissue and can be associated with differential DNA methylation between maternal and paternal alleles. Imprinting is theorized to have been selected for because of conflict between parental genomes in offspring, but most studies of imprinting have been conducted in Arabidopsis thaliana, an inbred primarily self-fertilizing species that should have limited parental conflict. We examined embryo and endosperm allele-specific expression and DNA methylation genome-wide in the wild outcrossing species Arabidopsis lyrata. Here we show that the majority of A. lyrata imprinted genes exhibit parentally-biased expression in A. thaliana, suggesting that there is evolutionary conservation in gene imprinting. Surprisingly, we discovered substantial interspecies differences in methylation features associated with paternally expressed imprinted genes (PEGs). Unlike A. thaliana, the maternal allele of many A. lyrata PEGs was hypermethylated in the CHG context. Increased maternal allele CHG methylation was associated with increased expression bias in favor of the paternal allele. We propose that CHG methylation maintains or reinforces repression of maternal alleles of PEGs. These data suggest that while the genes subject to imprinting are largely conserved, there is flexibility in the epigenetic mechanisms employed between closely related species to maintain monoallelic expression. This supports the idea that imprinting of specific genes is a functional phenomenon, and not simply a byproduct of seed epigenomic reprogramming. Examination of total gene expression, parent-of-origin specific allelic bias, or DNA methylation in embryo, endosperm, flower bud or seedcoat tissue from Arabidopsis lyrata accessions MN47 (MN), Karhumaki (Kar or KA), and crosses between them. High-throughput Illumina poly-A-selected mRNA-seq was used to identify imprinted genes in A. lyrata, and high-throughput Illumina whole genome bisulfite-sequencing was used to examine DNA methylation. mRNA-seq samples are designated MMxFF_T# where MM is the mother of the cross (either MN for MN47 or KA for Kar), FF is the father, T is the tissue (E for embryo, N for endosperm, S for seedcoat, b for buds), and # is the replicate numbers. Samples obtained from bisulfite sequencing follow the same naming but have suffix _BS and indicate cytosine methylation context (CpG, CHG, or CHH). For KAxMN bisulfite sequencing, additional files MMxFF_T#_BS_P_C.txt follow the same naming scheme but contain context-specific methylation data (C) from reads that mapped preferentially to one parent strain (P).