Whole mouse genome analysis of LCMV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells throughout acute and chronic LCMV infection.
ABSTRACT: CD4 and CD8 T cells display functional defects during chronic infection such as loss of certain cytokines. Recent studies have suggested that CD4 T cells may actually gain other functions, however. Here, we analyzed gene expression profiles from LCMV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells throughout the response to either acute LCMV or chronic LCMV infection. This alllowed us to identify CD4-specific changes during chronic infection compared to acute infection but also revealed shared core regulators between CD4 and CD8 T cells. LCMV-specific CD4 and CD8 T cells were isolated 6, 8, 15 and 30 days post infection with LCMV Armstrong or LCMV clone 13. Naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells were also isolated from naïve mice as comparisons. Four replicates of each sample were hybridized. The only exception is LCMV-specific CD4 T cells isolated 6 days post infection with LCMV-Arm where only three replicates were hybridized.
Project description:CD4 T cells promote innate and adaptive immune responses, but how vaccine-elicited CD4 T cells contribute to immune protection remains unclear. Here we evaluated whether induction of virus-specific CD4 T cells by vaccination would protect mice against infection with chronic lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). Immunization with vaccines that selectively induced CD4 T cell responses resulted in catastrophic inflammation and mortality following challenge with a persistent form of LCMV. Immunopathology required antigen-specific CD4 T cells and was associated with a cytokine storm, generalized inflammation, and multi-organ system failure. Virus-specific CD8 T cells or antibodies abrogated the pathology. These data demonstrate that vaccine-elicited CD4 T cells in the absence of effective antiviral immune responses can trigger lethal immunopathology. Splenic GP66-specific CD4 T cells from mice immunized with either a LMwt vaccine (sham) or LMgp61 vaccine (CD4 vaccine) were purified by FACS on day 8 post-infection with LCMV clone 13
Project description:During acute viral infections, naïve CD4+ T cells differentiate into effector CD4+ T cells and, after viral control, into memory CD4+ T cells. Memory CD4+ T cells are highly functional, proliferate rapidly upon reinfection and persist long-term without antigen. In contrast, during chronic infections, CD4+ T cells become less functional. To compare the development of functional memory T cells with poorly functional T cells from chronic viral infection, we generated longitudinal transcriptional profiles for each. Naive CD44Lo CD4+ T cells were isolated and sorted from uninfected C57BL/6 mice and H2-IAb GP66-specific CD4+ T cells were sorted using MHC-II tetramers at d6, 8, 15, and 30 p.i. with either LCMV Arm or LCMV clone 13. RNA from these CD4+ T cells was processed, amplified, labeled, and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip MoGene 1.0 st microarrays.
Project description:Chronic viral infections are characterized by a state of CD8 T cell dysfunction termed exhaustion. A better understanding of the mechanisms that regulate CD8 T cell responses during chronic infection is required to improve immunotherapies that restore function in exhausted CD8 T cells. Here we identify a novel population of virus-specific CD8 T cells with a T follicular helper (Tfh)-like signature in mice chronically infected with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV). These Tfh-like CD8 T cells expressed the programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitory receptor but at the same time also expressed co-stimulatory molecules and had a gene signature that was related to CD8 T cell memory precursor cells and hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). These Tfh-like CD8 T cells acted as stem cells during chronic infection undergoing self-renewal and also differentiating into the terminally exhausted CD8 T cells that were present in both lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues. The Tfh-like CD8 T cells were found only in lymphoid tissues and resided predominantly in the T cell zones along with naïve CD8 T cells. Interestingly, the proliferative burst after PD-1 blockade came almost exclusively from this Tfh-like CD8 T cell subset. Importantly, the transcription factor TCF1 played a cell intrinsic and essential role in the generation of Tfh-like CD8 T cells. Taken together, our study identifies Tfh-like CD8 T cells as the critical subset for maintaining the pool of virus-specific CD8 T cells during chronic infection and as the cells that proliferate after PD-1 blockade. These findings provide a better understanding of T cell exhaustion and have implications towards optimizing PD-1 directed immunotherapy. 8 samples isolated from CD8 T-cells in LCMV clone 13 GK1.5 infected mice (2 naïve, 3 CXCR5+Tim3-, 3 CXCR5-Tim3+) cells were analyzed
Project description:During acute viral infections, naïve CD8+ T cells differentiate into effector CD8+ T cells and, after viral control, into memory CD8+ T cells. Memory CD8+ T cells are highly functional, proliferate rapidly upon reinfection and persist long-term without antigen. In contrast, during chronic infections, CD8+ T cells become “exhausted” and have poor effector function, express multiple inhibitory receptors, possess low proliferative capacity, and cannot persist without antigen. To compare the development of functional memory T cells with poorly functional exhausted T cells, we generated longitudinal transcriptional profiles for each. Naive CD44Lo CD8+ T cells were isolated and sorted from uninfected C57BL/6 mice and H2-Db GP33-specific CD8+ T cells were sorted using MHC-I tetramers at d6, 8, 15, and 30 p.i. with either LCMV Arm or LCMV clone 13. RNA from these CD8+ T cells was processed, amplified, labeled, and hybridized to Affymetrix GeneChip MoGene 1.0 st microarrays
Project description:CD4 T follicular helper (Tfh) cells provide the required signals to B cells for germinal center reactions that are necessary for longlived antibody responses. However, it remains unclear whether there are CD4+ memory T cells committed to the Tfh lineage after antigen clearance. Using adoptive transfer of antigen-specific memory CD4+ subpopulations (based on CXCR5 and Ly6c expression)in the LCMV infection model, we found that there are distinct memory CD4+ T cell populations with commitment to the Tfh and Th1 lineages. Our conclusions are based on gene expression profiles, epigenetic studies and phenotypic and functional analysis. The gene expression profiles of virus-specific CD4 T cell subets at effector and memory stages is presented here. The SMARTA TCR transgenic / adptive transfer system was used to identify and sort subsets of antigen-specific CD4 T cells (based on their expression of Ly6c and CXCR5) elicited after acute infection with LCMV (Arm).
Project description:At the peak of the CD8 T cell response to acture viral and bacterial infections, expression of the Interleukin-7 Receptor (IL-7R) marks Memory Precursor Effector CD8 T Cells (MPECs) from other Short-Lived Effector CD8 T cells (SLECs), which are IL-7Rlo. This study was designed to determine the gene expression differences between these two subsets of effector CD8 T cells. Experiment Overall Design: This study compared IL-7Rhi and IL-7Rlo LCMV-specific P14 Transgenic CD8 T cells, sorted from LCMV armstrong infected recipient mice 6/7 days after infection. Data includes 3 independent replicates for the IL-7Rhi and IL-7Rlo groups.
Project description:Antigen-specific effector CD8+ T cells deficient in Blimp-1 (Prdm1) do not acquire maximal effector functions, evade terminal differentiation, and more rapidly acquire some hallmark properties of memory CD8+ T cells. In this study, we compared the gene expression profiles of wildtype and Prdm1-/- LCMV-specific effector CD8+ T cells to better understand the molecular mechanisms underlying this striking phenotype. DNA microarray analysis was performed of DbGP33-41 and DbNP396-404 tetramer-positive effector CD8+ T cells FACS-sorted at day 8 post-LCMV infection from four independent samples of either Blimp-1 conditional knockout mice (CKO; Blimp-1flox/flox x GranzymeB-cre+) or wildtype (WT) littermate controls.
Project description:Understanding the response of memory CD8 T cells to persistent antigen re-stimulation and the role of CD4 T cell help is critical to the design of successful vaccines for chronic diseases. However, studies comparing the protective abilities and qualities of memory and naïve cells have been mostly performed in acute infections, and little is known about their roles during chronic infections. Herein, we show that memory cells dominate over naïve cells and are protective when present in large enough numbers to quickly reduce infection. In contrast, when infection is not rapidly reduced, memory cells are quickly lost, unlike naïve cells. This loss of memory cells is due to (i) an early block in cell proliferation, (ii) selective regulation by the inhibitory receptor 2B4, and (iii) increased reliance on CD4 T cell help. These findings have important implications towards the design of T cell vaccines against chronic infections and tumors. 16 samples are analyzed: 3 replicates of secondary effector CD8 P14 T cells at day 8 post-acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection; 4 replicates of secondary effector CD8 P14 T cells at day 8 post-chronic LCMV infection; 4 replicates of primary effector CD8 P14 T cells at day 8 post-acute LCMV infection; and 5 replicates of primary effector CD8 P14 T cells at day 8 post-chronic LCMV infection.
Project description:Analysis of in vivo antigen-specific (LCMV-specific, SMARTA TCR transgenic) follicular helper CD4 T cells (CXCR5high),versus non-follicular helper CD4 T cells (CXCR5low), eight days after viral infection. A paper including data analysis of these experiments has been accepted for publication (Robert J. Johnston et al. Bcl6 and Blimp-1 are reciprocal and antagonistic regulators of follicular helper CD4 T cell differentiation). Experiment Overall Design: Analysis of in vivo antigen-specific (LCMV-specific, SMARTA TCR transgenic) follicular helper CD4 T cells (CXCR5high), versus non-follicular helper CD4 T cells (CXCR5low), eight days after viral infection.
Project description:The PI3K/Akt signaling pathway impacts various aspects of CD8 T cell homeostasis, such as effect versus memory cell differentiation, during viral infection. We used microarrays to determine which downstream molecules were affected and what other signaling pathways were interconnected with the Akt pathway by constitutive activation of Akt in LCMV-infected CD8 T cells. Splenocytes from naive P14/WT or P14/Akt mice were stained with anti-CD8 and anti-Ly5.1, and CD8 T cells were sorted using a FACSAria II instrument. Purified Ly5.1+ CD8 T cells from P14/WT or P14/Akt mice were transferred into B6 mice, which were subsequently infected with LCMV Armstrong. At day 8 post infection, splenocytes were stained with anti-CD8, anti-Ly5.1, anti-KLRG1, and anti-CD127. Following staining, short-lived effector cells (SLECs) and memory precursor effector cells (MPECs) were sorted using the FACSAria II instrument; the purity of the sorted cells was >95%. A total of 5 samples were analyzed, including WT naive, WT SLEC, WT MPEC, Akt naive and Akt SLEC.