Expression data from murine Tet-off MLL-AF9/Ras acute myeloid leukemia cell lines following withdrawal of MLL-AF9
ABSTRACT: To explore oncogene addiction programs in a genetically defined leukemia context we developed an AML mouse model driven by a conditional MLL-AF9 allele together with oncogenic Ras, which enabled us to examine the consequences of MLL-AF9 inhibition in established disease. In order to produce a tightly regulated system that was easy to monitor, we constructed two retroviral vectors containing dsRed-linked MLL-AF9 under control of a tetracycline response element promoter, and KrasG12D or NrasG12D linked to the “Tet-off” tet-transactivator, which activates TRE expression in a doxycycline repressible manner. Leukemias were generated by retroviral cotransduction of both vectors into hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells, which were transplanted into syngeneic mice. Cells harboring both constructs induced aggressive myelomonocytic leukemia. Five independent primary leukemia cell lines were established from bone marrow of terminal mice. Treatment of these lines with doxycycline rapidly turned off MLL-AF9 expression, and induced terminal myeloid differentiation and complete disease remission in vivo. To identify molecular mechanisms underlying addiction to MLL-AF9, we analyzed global gene expression changes following doxycycline-induced suppression of MLL-AF9. Independent primary acute myeloid leukemia lines induced by cotransduction of Tet-off MLL-AF9 together with either KrasG12D or NrasG12D were grown in culture and treated with doxycycline for 6 days to inactivate MLL-AF9 expression. In addition, primary acute myeloid leukemia lines with constitutive MLL-AF9 and KrasG12D were included to control for the effects of doxycycline. Untreated and treated cells were harvested for RNA extraction and hybridization to Affymetrix arrays.
Project description:We investigated the role of the transcriptional regulator Id2 in the context of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using an AML mouse model driven by tet-regulated MLL-AF9 co-expressed with oncogenic NRASG12D (Tet-off MLL-AF9), we demonstrated that MLL-AF9 regulates the E protein pathway by suppressing Id2, while activating the expression of its target E2-2. Moreover, we found that Id2 over-expression in Tet-Off MLL-AF9 AML cells in vitro partially phenocopies MLL-AF9 depletion and results inhibition of leukemia growth, loss of leukemia stem cell-associated gene expression pattern and induction of differentiation. To compare gene expression changes associated with enforced Id2 expression and MLL-AF9 withdrawal, RNA sequencing analysis was performed on Tet-off MLL-AF9 cells transduced with an Id2 over-expressing or a control vector, or upon MLL-AF9 dox-inducible knock-down. Primary AMLs driven by Tet-off inducible MLL/AF9 expression linked to dsRED reporter, in association with oncogenic NRASG12D (Tet-off MLL-AF9) were generated by reconstituting lethally irradiated congenic mice with foetal liver cells co-transduced with a Tet-Off-MLL-AF9-dRED retroviral vector and a second vector co-expressing NRASG12D together with the Tet-Off responsive transcriptional activator. RNA sequencing analysis sequencing analysis was performed on Tet-Off MLL-AF9/dsRED+ AML cells treated in vitro with doxycycline (DOX) for 4 days to inactivate MLL-AF9 expression or left untreated (UT). For the Id2 over-expression experiment, Tet-Off MLL-AF9/dsRED+ AML cells were transduced in vitro with an Id2-GFP or a control-GFP retroviral vector. Viable GFP-positive cells were FACS-sorted 2 days after transduction and used for RNA sequencing analysis.
Project description:Using an integrative approach combining a Tet-off conditional AML mouse model, global expression profiling following suppression of the driving MLL-AF9 oncogene, and a new Tet-on conditional shRNA expression system we have identified Myb as critical mediator of addiction to MLL-AF9. Suppression of Myb in established AML in vivo terminates aberrant self-renewal and triggers a terminal myeloid differentiation program that precisely phenocopies the effects of suppressing MLL-AF9. Remarkably, suppressing Myb effectively eradicates aggressive and chemotherapy resistant AML. To further investigate Myb dependent transcriptional programs involved in mediating aberrant self-renewal in leukemia, we globally surveyed gene expression changes following acute shRNA-induced suppression of Myb in an established Tet-on competent model of MLL-AF9;NrasG12D-induced AML. To enable regulatable suppression of Myb in AML, we retrovirally transduced established Tet-on competent MLL-AF9;NrasG12D induced AML cells with TRMPV-Neo vectors (Zuber et al., Nature Biotech, 2010) harboring shRNAs targeting Myb (shMyb.2572 and shMyb.2652), a control shRNA targeting Renilla Luciferase (shRen.713), or an empty miR30 cassette of the recipient cloning vector (Rec). Following drug selection, shRNA expression was induced by doxycycline treatment and total RNA was isolated from sorted shRNA expressing (Venus+/dsRed+) leukemia cells after 3 days of dox treatment, and subjected to Affymetrix microarray expression analysis. Expression profiles following expression of two independent Myb shRNAs were compared to those observed after induction in shRen.713- and Rec-expressing control samples (each in 3 biological replicates).
Project description:We investigated the role of the transcriptional regulators Id2 and E2-2 (encoded by Tcf4) in the context of MLL-rearranged acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using an AML mouse model driven by a Tet-off inducible MLL-AF9 allele co-expressed with oncogenic NRASG12D, we demonstrated that MLL-AF9 regulates the E protein pathway by suppressing Id2, while activating the expression of its target E2-2. Moreover, we found that Id2 over-expression in MLL-AF9 AML cells results inhibition of leukemia growth, loss of leukemia stem cell-associated gene expression pattern and induction of differentiation. E2-2 silencing phenocopies Id2 overexpression in MLL-AF9-AML cells. To study the gene expression changes associated with E2-2 depletion in the context of MLL-rearranged AML, RNA sequencing analysis was performed on MLL-AF9;NRAS AML cells transduced with vectors expressing hairpins against E2-2 (shTcf4#654 and shTcf4#3646) or a control hairpin against Renilla luciferase (shRen). Primary AMLs driven by MLL/AF9 expression linked to cherry reporter, in association with oncogenic NRASG12D (MLL/AF9;NRAS) were generated by reconstituting lethally irradiated congenic mice with fetal liver cells co-transduced with the MSCV-MLL/AF9-IRES-cherry retroviral vector and a second vector co-expressing NRASG12D together with luciferase (MSCV-luciferase-IRES-NRASG12D). RNA sequencing analysis sequencing analysis was performed on MLL-AF9;NRAS AML cells transduced in vitro with vectors expressing hairpins against E2-2 (shTcf4#654 and shTcf4#3646) or a control hairpin against Renilla luciferase (shRen) linked to the reporter GFP. Viable GFP-positive cells were FACS-sorted 2 days after transduction and used for RNA sequencing analysis. Two independent biological replicates of the experiment were used for the RNA sequencing (9-5-14 and 14-4-14).
Project description:The transcriptional activating and repressive functions performed by Trithorax and Polycomb group complexes, respectively, are critical for to maintain cellular fates in ontogeny and in cancer. Here we report that leukemias initiated by a Trithorax-related oncogene, MLL-AF9, depend upon the Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2) to sustain a transformed cellular state. RNAi mediated suppression of PRC2 subunits is sufficient to inhibit proliferation of MLL-AF9 leukemias, with little impact on growth of non-transformed cells. This requirement is partly due to PRC2-mediated transcriptional repression of several anti-self-renewal regulators, including Cdkn2a. These results suggest that, unlike the classical antagonism generally observed between Polycomb and Trithorax group proteins during development, the activities of these two pathways can cooperate to promote myeloid neoplasia. In order to understand downstream targets of PRC2 complex in MLL-AF9 leukemia, we performed array in murine MLL-AF9/NrasG12D cell line under the condition that two subunits of PRC2(Eed and Suz12) were suppressed by using shRNAs.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE30745: Expression data from murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells following shRNA-mediated suppression of Myb GSE30746: Expression data from murine Tet-off MLL-AF9/Ras acute myeloid leukemia cell lines following withdrawal of MLL-AF9 Refer to individual Series
Project description:Chromosomal translocations encoding the MLL-AF9 and MLL-ENL fusion transcription factors are prevalent in infant acute leukaemia and therapy-related leukaemia. In order to conditionally express the MLL-fusion oncogene in primary haematopoietic progenitor cells (HPC), retroviral delivery of the Tet-off expression system was used (Horton et al., Cancer Res, 2005). Treatment of the conditional cells with Doxycycline caused a decrease in MLL-AF9/ENL mRNA and protein expression, and resulted in terminal differentiation of the cells. By analysing global changes in gene expression after treatment of cells with Doxycycline we were able to identify a number of potential transcriptional target genes of the MLL-AF9 and MLL-ENL fusion oncogenes. Overall design: Lineage negative progenitors were purified from murine bone marrow and co-transduced with MSCV-TRE-MLL-AF9 or MSCV-TRE-MLL-ENL and MSCV-tTA retroviral supernatants. Six independent cell lines (MA1, MA3, MA4, ME4, ME5, ME7) with conditional expression of the MLL-AF9 or MLL-ENL oncogene and two independent cell lines (cMA3, cME3) with constitutive MLL-fusion oncogene expression were generated. The immortalised cell lines were characterised to determine their tTA dependent MLL-fusion oncogene expression, morphology, immunophenotype, and cytokine requirements. Total RNA was extracted, using TRIzol reagent, from the cell lines, each of them cultured without or with 2µg/ml Doxycycline for 48 hours and used for hybridisation on Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:The pathways by which oncogenes, such as MLL-AF9, initiate transformation and leukemia in humans and mice are incompletely defined. In a study of target cells and oncogene dosage, we found that Mll-AF9, when under endogenous regulatory control, efficiently transformed LSK (Lin- Sca1+ c-kit+) stem cells while committed granulocyte-monocyte progenitors (GMPs) were transformation-resistant and did not cause leukemia. Mll-AF9 was expressed at higher levels in hematopoietic stem (HSC) than GMP cells. Mll- AF9 gene dosage effects were directly shown in experiments where GMPs were efficiently transformed by the high dosage of Mll-AF9 resulting from retroviral transduction. Mll-AF9 up-regulated expression of 196 genes in both LSK and progenitor cells, but to higher levels in LSKs than in committed myeloid progenitors. Keywords: mutant hematopoietic cells Overall design: Comparison of gene expression profiles among four types of hematopoietic cells (GMP, CMP, CLP and HSC), FACS sorted from wild type and Mll-AF9 knock-in mice. The goal was to identify genes differentially expressed in each Mll-AF9 cell type compared to the corresponding wild type cells.
Project description:The goals of this study aim to reveal functional and phenotypic diversity of leukemia-associated macrophages in response to the microenvironmental cues in mouse MLL-AF9 AML leukemia Overall design: Compare transcriptomes of macrophages in mouse MLL-AF9 AML leukemia which are suggested as leukemia-associated macrophages (LAMs) with homeostasis and LAMs from mouse acute Myeloid leukemia.
Project description:How the stemness of adult stem cells and cancer stem cells is regulated by environmental cues through surface receptors is poorly understood. In this gene expression analysis, we found that, in the mouse MLL-AF9 acute myeloid leukemia (AML) model, a deficiency in intracellular signaling of inhibitory receptor PIR-B resulted in increased differentiation and decreased stemness of leukemia stem cells, revealing that PIR-B supports leukemia development. Our study indicates unexpected functional significance of a classical immune inhibitory receptor in the maintenance of stemness of cancer stem cells. Total RNA obtained from wild-type MLL-AF9 LSCs compared to PirBTM MLL-AF9 LSCs
Project description:The translocation t(9;11)(p22;q23) leading to the leukemogenic fusion gene MLL-AF9 is a frequent translocation in infant acute myeloid leukemia (AML). This study aimed to identify genes and molecular processes downstream of MLL-AF9 (alias MLL-MLLT3) which could assist to develop new targeted therapies for such leukemia with unfavorable prognosis. In the AML cell line THP1 which harbors this t(9;11) translocation, endogenous MLL-AF9 was silenced via siRNA while ensuring specificity of the knockdown and its efficiency on functional protein level. The differential gene expression profile was validated for leukemia-association by gene set enrichment analysis of published gene sets from patient studies and MLL-AF9 overexpression studies and revealed 425 differentially expressed genes. Gene ontology analysis was consistent with a more differentiated state of MLL-AF9 depleted cells, with involvement of a wide range of downstream transcriptional regulators and with defined functional processes such as ribosomal biogenesis, chaperone binding, calcium homeostasis and estrogen response. Besides potential new therapeutic targets, the described transcription profile shaped by MLL-AF9 provides an information source into the molecular processes altered in MLL aberrant leukemia. Overall design: 4 samples were analyzed, each corresponding to a pool of five independent replicate experiments. MLL-AF9 knockdown treatments are represented by 2 pooled samples employing two distinct siRNAs, each targeting MLL-AF9 breakpoint of THP1 cells. Control treatments are represented by 2 pooled samples employing two distinct non-targeting control siRNAs. siRNA-3 = siRNA-A in publication siRNA-4 = siRNA-B in publication