Impaired endosomal recycling in proximal tubules is mechanistically linked to proteinuria
ABSTRACT: Through substitution mapping studies, we previously identified that a <330kb region from a rat strain with no renal pathology (the Lewis rat), which when introgressed onto the genetic background of a rat with renal disease (the Dahl Salt-sensitive (S) rat), caused an increase rather than the expected decrease in proteinuria. The purpose of this study was to prioritize a candidate gene and further delineate the mechanism underlying the observed increased in proteinuria. A higher level of proteinuria independent of dietary salt was observed in the congenic rat at a very young age (50-52 day old). The critical congenic segment was further mapped to <42.5kb containing a single candidate gene, rififylin. Rififylin was expressed 1.59 fold higher in the congenic strain compared with S. Overexpression of rififylin is known to delay recycling of endosomes. Renal transcriptome analysis indicated that Atp1a1 one of the most highly differentially expressed genes. Atp1a1 was 5.33 fold higher in the congenic strain compared with S. The protein product of Atp1a1, the alpha subunit of Na+K+ATPase, was also significantly higher in the endosomes of proximal tubules from the congenic strain compared with S. To determine whether the higher amounts of this protein in the endosomes is due to a delay in recycling of endosomes caused by the overexpression of rififylin in the congenic strain, recycling of exogenously labeled-transferrin by single cell cultures of proximal tubules was monitored by confocal microscopy. Recycling of transferrin was significantly delayed in the congenic strain compared with S. These results suggest that impaired endosomal recycling in the proximal tubules from the congenic strain caused by the overexpression of rififylin is a novel molecular mechanism linked to the observed increase in proteinuria of the congenic strain. Three male S control and 3 male congenic S.LEW(10)x12x2x3x5 rats born on the same day were selected, weaned at 30 days of age, and caged with 1 congenic and 1 S rat per cage. They were raised on a low-salt (0.3%) diet (Harlan Teklad diet TD 7034; Harlan–Sprague-Dawley) and sacrificed at 53 days of age and total RNAs were isolated from the kidney. The isolated RNA from each animal was used for the cRNA preparation. cRNA was prepared and fragmented as suggested by Affymetrix technical manual, and simultaneously hybridized (15 µg adjusted cRNA for each chip) to Rat Expression Array 230 2.0 (3' IVT Expression Analysis). Statistical analyses of the microarray data were performed with BH adjustment using R statistical package (version 2.8.1).
Project description:Cell surface proteins are internalized into the cell through endocytosis and either degraded within lysosomes or recycled back to the plasma membrane. While perturbations in endosomal internalization are known to modulate renal function, it is not known whether similar alterations in recycling affect renal function. Rififylin is a known regulator of endocytic recycling with E3 ubiquitin protein ligase activity. In this study, using two genetically similar strains, the Dahl Salt-sensitive rat and an S.LEW congenic strain, which had allelic variants within a < 330 kb segment containing rififylin, we tested the hypothesis that alterations in endosomal recycling affect renal function. The congenic strain had 1.59-fold higher renal expression of rififylin. Transcriptome analysis indicated that components of both endocytosis and recycling were upregulated in the congenic strain. Transcription of Atp1a1 and cell surface content of the protein product of Atp1a1, the alpha subunit of Na(+)K(+)ATPase were increased in the proximal tubules from the congenic strain. Because rififylin does not directly regulate endocytosis and it is also a differentially expressed gene within the congenic segment, we reasoned that the observed alterations in the transcriptome of the congenic strain constitute a feedback response to the primary functional alteration of recycling caused by rififylin. To test this, recycling of transferrin was studied in isolated proximal tubules. Recycling was significantly delayed within isolated proximal tubules of the congenic strain, which also had a higher level of polyubiquitinated proteins and proteinuria compared with S. These data provide evidence to suggest that delayed endosomal recycling caused by excess of rififylin indirectly affects endocytosis, enhances intracellular protein polyubiquitination and contributes to proteinuria.
Project description:Using congenic strains of the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat introgressed with genomic segments from the normotensive Lewis rat, a blood pressure quantitative trait locus was previously mapped within 104 kb on chromosome 10. The goal of the current study was to conduct extensive phenotypic studies and to further fine-map this locus. At 14 weeks of age, the blood pressure of the congenic rats fed a low-salt diet was significantly higher by 47 mm Hg (P<0.001) compared with that of the S rat. A time-course study showed that the blood pressure effect was significant from very young ages of 50 to 52 days (13 mm Hg; P<0.01). The congenic strain implanted with electrocardiography transmitters demonstrated shorter-QT intervals and increased heart rate compared with S rats (P<0.01). The average survival of the congenic strain was shorter (134 days) compared with the S rat (175 days; P<0.0007). The critical region was narrowed to <42.5 kb containing 171 variants and a single gene, rififylin. Both the mRNA and protein levels of rififylin were significantly higher in the hearts of the congenic strain. Overexpression of rififylin is known to delay endocytic recycling. Endocytic recycling of fluorescently labeled holotransferrin from cardiomyocytes of the congenic strain was slower than that of S rats (P<0.01). Frequency of cardiomyocyte beats in the congenic strain (62±9 bpm) was significantly higher than that of the S rat (24±6 bpm; P<0.001). Taken together, our study provides evidence to suggest that early perturbations in endocytic recycling caused by the overexpression of Rffl is a novel physiological mechanism potentially underlying the development of hypertension.
Project description:Chromosome 13 consomic and congenic rat strains were analyzed to investigate the pattern of genomic pathway utilization involved in protection against salt-sensitive hypertension and renal injury. Introgression of the entire Brown-Norway chromosome 13 (consomic SS-13(BN)) or nonoverlapping segments of this chromosome (congenic strains, 16 Mbp in D13Rat151-D13Rat197 or 14 Mbp in D13Rat111-D13Got22) into the genome of the Dahl salt-sensitive rat attenuated salt-induced hypertension and proteinuria. mRNA abundance profiles in the renal cortex and the renal medulla from rats receiving 0.4% or 8% NaCl diets revealed two important features of pathway recruitment in these rat strains. First, the two congenic strains shared alterations in several pathways compared with Dahl salt-sensitive rats, despite the fact that the genomic segments introgressed in the two congenic strains did not overlap. Second, even though the genomic segment introgressed in each congenic strain was a part of the chromosome introgressed in the consomic strain, pathways altered in each congenic strain were not simply a subset of those altered in the consomic. Supporting the relevance of the mRNA data, differential expression of oxidative stress-related genes among the four strains of rats was associated with differences in urinary excretion of lipid peroxidation products. The findings suggest that different genetic alterations might converge to influence shared pathways in protection from hypertension, and that, depending on the genomic context, the same genetic alteration might diverge to affect different pathways.
Project description:A previous genetic analysis comparing the Dahl salt-sensitive (S) rat with the spontaneously hypertensive rat identified a major locus on chromosome 2 that influences proteinuria in the S rat. In the present study, blood pressure, proteinuria, and renal hemodynamics were evaluated in congenic strains with small segments of the protective spontaneously hypertensive rat genome on the S background. Proteinuria and renal function were significantly improved in the congenic strains compared with the S. The causative locus interval was narrowed to <375 kb on the basis of congenic strains, haplotype data, comparative mapping, and concordance with human genetic studies. Sequencing of the coding region of genes in this region identified 36 single nucleotide polymorphisms (13 nonsynonymous and 23 synonymous). Gene expression profiling indicated that only a few genes exhibited differential expression. Arhgef11, Pear1, and Sh2d2 were identified as important candidate genes that may be linked to kidney injury in the S rat. In particular, Arhgef11 plays an important role in the activation of the Rho-ROCK signaling pathway. Inhibition of this pathway using fasudil resulted in a significant reduction of proteinuria in treated S rats (compared with untreated S). However, no difference was observed between treated or untreated spontaneously hypertensive rat or congenic strains. The homologous region in humans was found to be associated with estimated glomerular filtration rate in the Candidate Gene Association Resource population. In summary, these findings demonstrate that allelic variants in Arhgef11, acting through the Rho-ROCK pathway, could influence kidney injury in the S as well as provide insight into human kidney disease.
Project description:We have previously confirmed the importance of rat chromosome 3 (RNO3) genetic loci on blood pressure elevation, pulse pressure (PP) variability and renal pathology during salt challenge in the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive (SHRSP) rat. The aims of this study were to generate a panel of RNO3 congenic sub-strains to genetically dissect the implicated loci and identify positional candidate genes by microarray expression profiling and analysis of next-generation sequencing data.A panel of congenic sub-strains were generated containing Wistar-Kyoto (WKY)-introgressed segments of varying size on the SHRSP genetic background, focused within the first 50 Mbp of RNO3. Haemodynamic profiling during salt challenge demonstrated significantly reduced systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and PP variability in SP.WKYGla3a, SP.WKYGla3c, SP.WKYGla3d and SP.WKYGla3e sub-strains. Only SBP and DBP were significantly reduced during salt challenge in SP.WKYGla3b and SP.WKYGla3f sub-strains, whereas SP.WKYGla3g rats did not differ in haemodynamic response to SHRSP. Those sub-strains demonstrating significantly reduced PP variability during salt challenge also demonstrated significantly reduced renal pathology and proteinuria. Microarray expression profiling prioritized two candidate genes for blood pressure regulation (Dnm1, Tor1b), localized within the common congenic interval shared by SP.WKYGla3d and SP.WKYGla3f strains, and one candidate gene for salt-induced PP variability and renal pathology (Rabgap1), located within the region unique to the SP.WKYGla3d strain. Comparison of next-generation sequencing data identified variants within additional positional genes that are likely to affect protein function.This study has identified distinct intervals on RNO3-containing genes that may be important for blood pressure regulation and renal pathology during salt challenge.
Project description:Early endosomes consist of vacuolar sorting and tubular recycling domains that segregate components fated for degradation in lysosomes or reuse by recycling to the plasma membrane or Golgi. The tubular transport intermediates that constitute recycling endosomes function in cell polarity, migration, and cytokinesis. Endosomal tubulation and fission require both actin and intact microtubules, but although factors that stabilize recycling endosomal tubules have been identified, those required for tubule generation from vacuolar sorting endosomes (SEs) remain unknown. We show that the microtubule motor KIF13A associates with recycling endosome tubules and controls their morphogenesis. Interfering with KIF13A function impairs the formation of endosomal tubules from SEs with consequent defects in endosome homeostasis and cargo recycling. Moreover, KIF13A interacts and cooperates with RAB11 to generate endosomal tubules. Our data illustrate how a microtubule motor couples early endosome morphogenesis to its motility and function.
Project description:This study is focused on a translationally significant, genome-wide-association-study (GWAS) locus for cardiovascular disease (QT-interval) on human chromosome 17. We have previously validated and high resolution mapped the homologous genomic segment of this human locus to <42.5 kb on rat chromosome 10. This <42.5 kb segment in rats regulates both QT-interval and blood pressure and contains a single protein-coding gene, rififylin (Rffl). The expression of Rffl in the hearts and kidneys is differential between Dahl S and S.LEW congenic rats, which are the strains used for mapping this locus. Our previous study points to altered rate of endocytic recycling as the underlying mechanism, through which Rffl operates to control both QT-interval and blood pressure. Interestingly, Rffl also contributes to tumorigenesis by repressing caspases and tumor suppressor genes. Moreover, the expression of Methyl-CpG Binding Domain Protein 2 (Mbd2) in the hearts and kidneys is also higher in the S.LEW congenic strain than the background (control) Dahl S strain. Mbd2 can repress methylated tumor suppressor genes. These data suggest that the S.LEW congenic strain could be more susceptible to tumorigenesis. To test this hypothesis, the S and S.LEW strains were compared for susceptibility to azoxymethane-induced colon tumors. The number of colon tumors was significantly higher in the S.LEW congenic strain compared with the S rat. Transcriptomic analysis confirmed that the chemical carcinogenesis pathway was significantly up-regulated in the congenic strain. These studies provide evidence for a GWAS-validated genomic segment on rat chromosome 10 as being important for the regulation of cardiovascular function and tumorigenesis.
Project description:Dent disease has multiple defects attributed to proximal tubule malfunction including low molecular weight proteinuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia and glycosuria. In order to understand the changes in kidney function of the Clc5 transporter gene knockout mouse model of Dent disease, we examined gene expression profiles from proximal tubules of mouse kidneys. Overall 720 genes are expressed differentially in the proximal tubules of the Dent Clcn5 knockout mouse model compared to those of control wild type mice. The fingerprint of these gene changes may help us to understand the phenotype of Dent disease. Keywords: gene knockout, mouse, Clcn5, Dent's disease Overall design: Renal proximal tubules were dissected from wild type and Clcn5 knockout mice. Mice were anesthetized with halothane, the abdominal aorta of each animal was accessed and the left kidney was perfused with an ice-cold salt. Proximal tubule dissection was performed in an ice-cold salt solution. After dissection of approximately 80-100 segments of 2 mm in length per kidney, the RNA for 3-4 mice was combined to have enough RNA per chip. 3 microarrays each of wild type and knockout mouse proximal tubule were processed
Project description:Dent disease has multiple defects attributed to proximal tubule malfunction including low molecular weight proteinuria, aminoaciduria, phosphaturia and glycosuria. In order to understand the changes in kidney function of the Clc5 transporter gene knockout mouse model of Dent disease, we examined gene expression profiles from proximal tubules of mouse kidneys. Overall 720 genes are expressed differentially in the proximal tubules of the Dent Clcn5 knockout mouse model compared to those of control wild type mice. The fingerprint of these gene changes may help us to understand the phenotype of Dent disease. Experiment Overall Design: Renal proximal tubules were dissected from wild type and Clcn5 knockout mice. Mice were anesthetized with halothane, the abdominal aorta of each animal was accessed and the left kidney was perfused with an ice-cold salt. Proximal tubule dissection was performed in an ice-cold salt solution. After dissection of approximately 80-100 segments of 2 mm in length per kidney, the RNA for 3-4 mice was combined to have enough RNA per chip. Experiment Overall Design: 3 microarrays each of wild type and knockout mouse proximal tubule were processed