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Anaerobic Oxidation of Benzene by the Hyperthermophilic Archaeon Ferroglobus placidus (Benzene vs. Benzoate)

ABSTRACT: Anaerobic benzene oxidation coupled to the reduction of Fe(III) was studied in Ferroglobus placidus in order to learn more about how such a stable molecule could be metabolized under strict anaerobic conditions. F. placidus conserved energy to support growth at 85°C in a medium with benzene provided as the sole electron donor and Fe(III) as the sole electron acceptor. The stoichiometry of benzene loss and Fe(III) reduction, as well as the conversion of [14C]-benzene to [14C]-carbon dioxide, was consistent with complete oxidation of benzene to carbon dioxide with electron transfer to Fe(III). Benzoate, but not phenol or toluene, accumulated at low levels during benzene metabolism and [14C]-benzoate was produced from [14C]-benzene. Analysis of gene transcript levels revealed increased expression of genes encoding enzymes for anaerobic benzoate degradation during growth on benzene versus growth on acetate, but genes involved in phenol degradation were not up-regulated during growth on benzene. A gene for a putative carboxylase that was more highly expressed in benzene- versus benzoate-grown cells was identified. These results suggest that benzene is carboxylated to benzoate and that phenol is not an important intermediate in the benzene metabolism of F. placidus. This is the first demonstration of a microorganism in pure culture that can grow on benzene under strict anaerobic conditions and for which there is strong evidence for degradation of benzene via clearly defined anaerobic metabolic pathways. Thus, F. placidus provides a much needed pure culture model for further studies on the anaerobic activation of benzene in microorganisms. A five-chip study using total RNA recovered from three separate cultures of Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642 grown with 1 mM benzene (experimental condition) and two separate cultures of Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642 grown on 1 mM benzoate (control condition). Each chip measures the expression level of 2,613 genes from Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642 with nine 45-60-mer probe pairs (PM/MM) per gene, with three-fold technical redundancy.

ORGANISM(S): Ferroglobus placidus DSM 10642  

SUBMITTER: Dawn E Holmes   Derek Lovley  Carla Risso  Dawn Holmes  Jessica Smith 

PROVIDER: E-GEOD-30801 | ArrayExpress | 2011-07-19



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E-GEOD-30801.README.txt Txt
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