Somatic mosaic IDH1 and IDH2 mutations are associated with enchondroma and spindle cell haemangioma in Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome
ABSTRACT: This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE30354: Examination of Ollier Disease and Maffucci Syndrome using IDH Tiling Array GSE30835: mRNA expression data of tumor samples with/without IDH1/2 mutations GSE31337: Methylation profiling of enchondromas with and without IDH1 mutations Refer to individual Series
Project description:Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome are non-hereditary skeletal disorders characterized by multiple enchondromas (Ollier disease) combined with spindle cell hemangiomas (Maffucci syndrome). We report somatic heterozygous mutations in IDH1 (c.394C>T encoding an R132C substitution and c.395G>A encoding an R132H substitution) or IDH2 (c.516G>C encoding R172S) in 87% of enchondromas (benign cartilage tumors) and in 70% of spindle cell hemangiomas (benign vascular lesions). In total, 35 of 43 (81%) subjects with Ollier disease and 10 of 13 (77%) with Maffucci syndrome carried IDH1 (98%) or IDH2 (2%) mutations in their tumors. Fourteen of 16 subjects had identical mutations in separate lesions. Immunohistochemistry to detect mutant IDH1 R132H protein suggested intraneoplastic and somatic mosaicism. IDH1 mutations in cartilage tumors were associated with hypermethylation and downregulated expression of several genes. Mutations were also found in 40% of solitary central cartilaginous tumors and in four chondrosarcoma cell lines, which will enable functional studies to assess the role of IDH1 and IDH2 mutations in tumor formation.
Project description:We did whole genome analysis of enchondromas and chondrosarcomas of Maffucci patients. Since the disease is very rare, we had only three frozen tumour samples were available to continue with the expression array. Enchondromas of Maffucci syndrome did not show any loss of heterozygosity (LOH) or common copy number alterations (CNA) and we looked at the differentially expressed genes between Ollier high grade and Maffucci high grade tumours. There were no significant differentially expressed genes were found between these two groups. This might be due to the small sample size. We used Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array on enchondromas (n=4) and chondrosarcomas (n=2) and compared the results to a previously studied cohort of patients with Ollier disease (n = 37). We used Illumina expression array v3 chip on enchondroma (n=1) and chondrosarcomas (n=2) from Maffucci patients.
Project description:Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome are non-hereditary skeletal disorders characterized by multiple enchondromas (Ollier) combined with spindle cell hemangiomas (Maffucci). We found somatic heterozygous IDH1 mutations (R132C and R132H) in 83% of enchondromas, benign cartilage tumors, as well as in 40% of spindle cell hemangiomas, benign vascular lesions. In total, 33 of 42 (78%) patients with Ollier disease and 7 of 13 (54%) patients with Maffucci syndrome carried a mutation in at least one of their tumors. Twelve patients with multiple tumors at different locations displayed identical mutations in separate lesions. Immunohistochemical staining for the R132H IDH1 mutant protein suggested intraneoplastic as well as somatic mosaicism. IDH1 mutations were less frequent (63%) in high grade malignant cartilage tumors in Ollier disease, suggesting that IDH1 is less important for malignant transformation. IDH1 and IDH2 mutations were found in 36% of sporadic cartilage tumors and in four cell lines derived from sporadic chondrosarcomas. 16 samples were analyzed in two color experiment, using normal male or female as a reference sample (gender mismatched)
Project description:We report on a 24-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having Maffucci syndrome with anaplastic astrocytoma. We analyzed the IDH1 and IDH2 mutations of enchondroma, hemangioma and anaplastic astrocytoma tissues and the same somatic mosaic mutation in IDH2 gene was identified in all these tissues. In addition, we identified additional mutation of the TP53 gene in anaplastic astrocytoma tissue but not in other benign tumors. This is the first report of the detection of an identical IDH2 mutation in multiple tissues and TP53 mutation in anaplastic astrocytoma in a patient with Maffucci syndrome. This case is unique and supports the IDH2-dependent genetic pathway and second-hit model for gliomagenesis.
Project description:Maffucci syndrome (MS) is a rare congenital disorder characterized by multiple central cartilaginous tumors (enchondromas) in association with cutaneous spindle cell hemangiomas. These patients have a high incidence of malignant transformation. No familial case is known and the etiopathogenic cause remains unknown. In enchondromatosis (Ollier disease, OD), which is comprised of enchondromas only, 4 mutations in the PTHR1 gene have been identified in 4 patients; 3 were somatic and 1 was germline. No PTHR1 mutations have been detected in MS, whereas somatic IDH1 and, more rarely, IDH2 mutations have been observed in 77% of patients with MS and 81% of patients with OD. These genetic alterations are shared with other tumors, including glioma, leukemia and carcinoma. To search for underlying somatic genomic causes, we screened MS tissues using Affymetrix SNP-chips. We looked for CNVs, LOH and uniparental isodisomy (UPID) by performing pairwise analyses between allelic intensities in tumoral DNA versus the corresponding blood-extracted DNA. While common chromosomal anomalies were absent in constitutional DNA, several shared CNVs were identified in MS-associated tumors. The most frequently encountered somatic alterations were localized in 2p22.3, 2q24.3 and 14q11.2, implicating these chromosomal rearrangements in the formation of enchondromas and spindle cell hemangiomas in MS. In one chondrosarcoma specimen, large amplifications and/or deletions were observed in chromosomes 3, 6, 9, 10, 12, 13, and 19. Some of these genetic changes have been reported in other chondrosarcomas suggesting an etiopathogenic role. No LOH/UPID was observed in any Maffucci tissue. Our findings identify frequent somatic chromosomal rearrangements on 2p22.3, 2q24.3 and 14q11.2, which may unmask mutations leading to the lesions pathognomonic of MS.
Project description:Maffucci syndrome is a rare disease characterized by multiple enchondromas and soft-tissue hemangiomas. Additionally, neuroendocrine tumors including pituitary adenomas have been described in these patients. The underlying genetic etiology lies in somatic mosaicism of mutations in isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) or isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (IDH2). This report describes a patient with Maffucci syndrome who presented with intracranial tumors of the skull base and suprasellar region. The patient underwent resection of both intracranial tumors, revealing histopathological diagnoses of chondrosarcoma and pituitary adenoma. DNA sequencing of the tumors was performed to identify common IDH1/2 mutations. Clinical, radiological, and biochemical assessments were performed. Genotypic studies used standard Sanger sequencing in conjunction with a target-specific peptide nucleic acid to detect IDH1 mutations in tumor tissues. DNA sequencing demonstrated identical IDH1 mutations (c.394C > T) in both tumors. To the authors' knowledge, this report provides the first genetic evidence for the inclusion of pituitary adenomas among tumors characterizing Maffucci syndrome. In patients who are newly diagnosed with Maffucci syndrome, it is appropriate to monitor for development of pituitary pathology and neuroendocrine dysfunction.
Project description:Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome are non-hereditary skeletal disorderscharacterized by multiple enchondromas (Ollier disease) combined with spindle cellhemangiomas (Maffucci syndrome). Somatic heterozygous IDH1 (R132C and R132H) orIDH2 (R172S) mutations were found in 87% of enchondromas, benign cartilage tumors,as well as in 70% of spindle cell hemangiomas, benign vascular lesions. In total, 35 of 43(81%) patients with Ollier disease and 10 of 13 (77%) patients with Maffucci syndromecarried IDH1 (98%) or rarely IDH2 (2%) mutations in their tumors. Fourteen patientswith multiple tumors at different anatomic locations displayed identical mutations inseparate lesions. Since in other tumor types the presence of an IDH1 mutation is strongly associated withhypermethylation 26, 27, we assessed whether there was a difference in methylation patternof enchondromas with (n = 8) and without (n = 4) IDH1 mutations detactable at Sangersequencing. Methylation and expressionprofiling showed that IDH1 mutations in cartilage tumors are associated withhypermethylation and downregulation of the expression of several genes. Total 12 samples which includes 8 enchondromas with IDH1 mutation (4 Ollier enchondromas, 2 Maffucci enchondromas and 2 solitary enchondromas) and 4 enchondromas (1 Ollier enchondroma, 3 solitary enchondromas) without IDH1 or IDH2 mutations were used. Of these 4 enchondromas without IDH1 mutation, one had R132G IDH1 mutated cells present in the subpopulation, below the threshold level of Sanger sequencing. Bisulfite treatment was performed using EZ DNA Methylation™ Kit (ZymoResearch, Orange, CA). Bisulphite converted DNA was then hybridized to IlluminaHumanMethylation27 BeadChip (Illumina Inc., San Diego, CA) by followingmanufacturer’s instructions. Infinium Unsupervised clustering analysis was performed 25 using the Ward’s clustering algorithm based on Euclidian distance. The 2000 most variable CpG sites (excluding those on the X and Y chromosomes) were used in the clustering analysis.
Project description:Metachondromatosis (MC) is a rare, autosomal dominant, incompletely penetrant combined exostosis and enchondromatosis tumor syndrome. MC is clinically distinct from other multiple exostosis or multiple enchondromatosis syndromes and is unlinked to EXT1 and EXT2, the genes responsible for autosomal dominant multiple osteochondromas (MO). To identify a gene for MC, we performed linkage analysis with high-density SNP arrays in a single family, used a targeted array to capture exons and promoter sequences from the linked interval in 16 participants from 11 MC families, and sequenced the captured DNA using high-throughput parallel sequencing technologies. DNA capture and parallel sequencing identified heterozygous putative loss-of-function mutations in PTPN11 in 4 of the 11 families. Sanger sequence analysis of PTPN11 coding regions in a total of 17 MC families identified mutations in 10 of them (5 frameshift, 2 nonsense, and 3 splice-site mutations). Copy number analysis of sequencing reads from a second targeted capture that included the entire PTPN11 gene identified an additional family with a 15 kb deletion spanning exon 7 of PTPN11. Microdissected MC lesions from two patients with PTPN11 mutations demonstrated loss-of-heterozygosity for the wild-type allele. We next sequenced PTPN11 in DNA samples from 54 patients with the multiple enchondromatosis disorders Ollier disease or Maffucci syndrome, but found no coding sequence PTPN11 mutations. We conclude that heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in PTPN11 are a frequent cause of MC, that lesions in patients with MC appear to arise following a "second hit," that MC may be locus heterogeneous since 1 familial and 5 sporadically occurring cases lacked obvious disease-causing PTPN11 mutations, and that PTPN11 mutations are not a common cause of Ollier disease or Maffucci syndrome.
Project description:Anaplastic astrocytomas are aggressive glial cancers that present poor prognosis and high recurrence. Heterozygous IDH1 R132H mutations are common in adolescent and young adult anaplastic astrocytomas. In a majority of cases, the IDH1 R132H mutation is unique to the tumor, although rare cases of anaplastic astrocytoma have been described in patients with mosaic IDH1 mutations (Ollier disease or Maffucci syndrome). Here, we present two siblings with IDH1 R132H mutant high grade astrocytomas diagnosed at 14 and 26 years of age. Analysis of IDHR132H mutations in the siblings' tumors and non-neoplastic tissues, including healthy regions of the brain, cheek cells, and primary teeth indicate mosaicism of IDHR132H. Whole exome sequencing of the tumor tissue did not reveal any other common mutations between the two siblings. This study demonstrates the first example of IDH1 R132H mosaicism, acquired during early development, that provides an alternative mechanism of cancer predisposition.
Project description:PTHR1-signaling pathway is critical for the regulation of endochondral ossification. Thus, abnormalities in genes belonging to this pathway could potentially participate in the pathogenesis of Ollier disease/Maffucci syndrome, two developmental disorders defined by the presence of multiple enchondromas. In agreement, a functionally deleterious mutation in PTHR1 (p.R150C) was identified in enchondromas from two of six unrelated patients with enchondromatosis. However, neither the p.R150C mutation (26 tumors) nor any other mutation in the PTHR1 gene (11 patients) could be identified in another study. To further define the role of PTHR1-signaling pathway in Ollier disease and Maffucci syndrome, we analyzed the coding sequences of four genes (PTHR1, IHH, PTHrP and GNAS1) in leucocyte and/or tumor DNA from 61 and 23 patients affected with Ollier disease or Maffucci syndrome, respectively. We identified three previously undescribed missense mutations in PTHR1 in patients with Ollier disease at the heterozygous state. Two mutations (p.G121E, p.A122T) were present only in enchondromas, and one (p.R255H) in both enchondroma and leukocyte DNA. Assessment of receptor function demonstrated that these three mutations impair PTHR1 function by reducing either the affinity of the receptor for PTH or the receptor expression at the cell surface. These mutations were not found in DNA from 222 controls. Including our data, PTHR1 functionally deleterious mutations have now been identified in five out 31 enchondromas from Ollier patients. These findings provide further support for the idea that heterozygous mutations in PTHR1 that impair receptor function participate in the pathogenesis of Ollier disease in some patients.