The human Ewing's Sarcoma oncoprotein EWS-FLI1 causes Ewing's-type tumors in zebrafish
ABSTRACT: The fusion oncoprotein EWS-FLI1 arises from a t(11;22)(q24;q12) chromosomal translocation and causes Ewing's Sarcoma, a malignant bone tumor. The mechanism whereby EWS-FLI1 transforms cells is unknown. Somatic, mosaic expression of human EWS-FLI1 in zebrafish from the heat shock promoter [Tg(HSP:EWS-FLI1)] caused small round blue cell tumors (SRBCTs) similar to human Ewing's sarcoma. We performed microarray studies comparing zebrafish SRBCTs to another tumor type, zebrafish malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (MPNSTs). The results identify a conserved set of EWS-FLI1-regulated genes,and provide insight into the pathogenesis of Ewing's Sarcoma tumors. Zebrafish SRBCTs arising from somatic insertions of the EWS-FLI1 transgene were collected. MPNSTs from non-transgenic fish of the same genetic background were collected in parallel. RNA was prepared from all samples and hybridized to zebrafish-specific Affymetrix arrays.
Project description:This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE31185: The human Ewing's Sarcoma oncoprotein EWS-FLI1 causes developmental defects in zebrafish embryos GSE31186: The human Ewing's Sarcoma oncoprotein EWS-FLI1 causes Ewing's-type tumors in zebrafish Refer to individual Series
Project description:The fusion oncoprotein EWS-FLI1 arises from a t(11;22)(q24;q12) chromosomal translocation and causes Ewing's Sarcoma, a malignant bone tumor. The mechanism whereby EWS-FLI1 transforms cells is unknown. We made germline transgenic zebrafish expressing human EWS-FLI1 under the control of the heat shock promoter. Induction of EWS-FLI1 expression causes multiple defects in embryonic development. We compared gene expression in control and transgenic EWS-FLI1 zebrafish. The results identify a conserved set of EWS-FLI1-regulated genes, and provide insight into the pathogenesis of Ewing's Sarcoma tumors. We performed heat shock and isolated total RNA for microarray studies comparing wildtype AB strain zebrafish with transgenic zebrafish expressing human EWS-FLI1 [Tg(HSP:EWS-FLI1)]. RNA was biotin-lableled and hybridized to zebrafish-specific Affymetrix arrays.
Project description:The synthesis and processing of mRNA, from transcription to translation initiation, often requires splicing of intragenic material. The final mRNA composition varies based upon proteins that modulate splice site selection. EWS-FLI1 is an Ewing sarcoma (ES) oncogene with an interactome that we demonstrate to have multiple partners in spliceosomal complexes. We evaluate EWS-FLI1 upon post-transcriptional gene regulation using both exon array and RNA-seq. Genes that potentially regulate oncogenesis including CLK1, CASP3, PPFIBP1, and TERT validate as alternatively spliced by EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 also alters splicing by directly binding to known splicing factors including DDX5, hnRNPK, and PRPF6. Reduction of EWS-FLI1 produces an isoform of g-TERT that has increased telomerase activity compared to WT TERT. The small molecule YK-4-279 is an inhibitor of EWS-FLI1 oncogenic function that disrupts specific protein interactions including DDX5 and RNA helicase A (RHA) that alters RNA splicing ratios. As such, YK-4-279 validates the splicing mechanism of EWS-FLI1 showing alternatively spliced gene patterns that significantly overlap with EWS-FLI1 reduction and WT human mesenchymal stem cells. Exon array analysis of 75 ES patient samples show similar isoform expression patterns to cell line models expressing EWS-FLI1, supporting the clinical relevance of our findings. These experiments establish systemic alternative splicing as an oncogenic process modulated by EWS-FLI1. EWS-FLI1 modulation of mRNA splicing may provide insight into the contribution of splicing towards oncogenesis, and reciprocally, EWS-FLI1 interactions with splicing proteins may inform the splicing code. Alternative splicing of RNA allows a limited number of coding regions in the human genome to produce proteins with diverse functionality. Alternative splicing has also been implicated as an oncogenic process. Identifying aspects of cancer cells that differentiate them from non-cancer cells remains an ongoing challenge and our research suggests that alternatively spliced mRNA and subsequent protein isoforms will provide new anti-cancer targets. We determined that the key oncogene of Ewing sarcoma (ES), EWS-FLI1, regulates alternative splicing in multiple cell line models. These experiments establish oncogenic aspects of splicing which are specific to cancer cells and thereby illuminate potentially oncogenic splicing shifts as well as provide a useful stratification mechanism for ES patients. We analyzed three models of EWS-FLI1 using Affymetrix GeneChip Human Exon 1.0 ST microarray: (i) Ewing's sarcoma TC32 wild-type cells expressing EWS-FLI1, and TC32 cells where EWS-FLI1 was reduced with a lentiviral shRNA; (ii) A673i, which has a doxycycline-inducible shRNA to reduce EWS-FLI1 expression, and wild-type EWS-FLI1 to screen for alternative splicing as measured by exon-specific expression changes; and (iii) human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC), a putative cell of origin of Ewing's sarcoma, exogenously expressing EWS-FLI1, and hMSC wild-type cells without EWS-FLI1. Three biological replicates were included for each condition. The Bioconductor package "oligo" in the R programming language was used for normalization and background correction. Analysis was carried out using only core probesets, as defined by the manufacturer.
Project description:Transient transfection of a Ewing's Sarcoma cell line expressing type I EWS-FLI1 fusion and doxycycline-inducible short hairpin RNA against EWS-FLI1 (A673sh) In total, 7 samples were analysed: empty vector control and two nuclear directed AKT- and CDK2- phosphorylation resistant FOXO1 versions as well as sh-scrambled and sh-FOXO1, either in the presence (w.o. Doxy.) or absence of EWS-FLI1 (+ Doxy.) each 2 replicates
Project description:We show that EWS-FLI1, an aberrant transcription factor responsible for the pathogenesis of Ewing sarcoma, reprograms gene regulatory circuits by directly inducing or directly repressing enhancers. At GGAA repeats, which lack regulatory potential in other cell types and are not evolutionarily conserved, EWS- FLI1 multimers potently induce chromatin opening, recruit p300 and WDR5, and create de novo enhancers. GGAA repeat enhancers can loop to physically interact with target promoters, as demonstrated by chromosome conformation capture assays. Conversely, EWS-FLI1 inactivates conserved enhancers containing canonical ETS motifs by displacing wild-type ETS transcription factors and abrogating p300 recruitment. ChIP-seq for of 4 histone modifications (H3K27ac, H3K4me1, H3K4me3 and H3K27me3), FLI1, p300, WDR5, ELF1 and GABPA in primary Ewing sarcomas, Ewing sarcoma cell lines (A673 and SKMNC cells), and mesenchymal stem cells (MSC). EWS-FLI1 was knocked down in Ewing sarcoma cell lines with lentiviral shRNAs (shFLI1 and shGFP control). EWS-FLI1 was expressed in MSCs with lentiviral expression vectors (pLIV EWSFLI1 or pLIV empty vector control). * Raw data not provided for the MSC and Primary Ewing sarcoma samples. *
Project description:EWS-FLI1 is a chimeric ETS transcription factor that is, due to a chromosomal rearrangement, specifically expressed in Ewing’s sarcoma family tumors (ESFT) and is thought to be the initiating event in the development of the disease. Previous genomic profiling experiments have identified a number of EWS-FLI1 regulated genes and genes that discriminate ESFT from other sarcomas, but so far a comprehensive analysis of EWS-FLI1 dependent molecular functions characterizing this aggressive cancer is lacking. In this study a molecular function map of ESFT was constructed based on an integrative analysis of gene expression profiling experiments on a uniform microarray platform following EWS-FLI1 knockdown in a panel of five ESFT cell lines, and on gene expression data from the same platform of 59 primary ESFT tumors. Based on the assumption that EWS-FLI1 is the driving transcriptional force in ESFT pathogenesis, we predicted an inverse correlation of gene expression for EWS-FLI1 regulated genes between the putative tissue of origin and the cell lines under EWS-FLI1 knockdown conditions. Consistent with recent reports, mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPC) were found to fit this hypothesis best and were therefore used as the reference tissue for the construction of the molecular function map in ESFT. The interrelations of molecular pathways were visualized by measuring the similarity among annotated gene functions by gene sharing. The molecular function map highlighted distinct clusters of activities for EWS-FLI1 regulated genes in ESFT and revealed a striking difference between EWS-FLI1 up- and down-regulated genes: EWS-FLI1 induced genes mainly belong to cell cycle regulation, proliferation and response to DNA damage, while repressed genes were associated with differentiation and cell communication. This study revealed that EWS-FLI1 combines by distinct molecular mechanisms two important functions of cellular transformation in one protein, growth promotion and differentiation blockage. By taking MPC as a reference tissue a significant EWS-FLI1 signature was discovered in ESFT that only partially overlapped with previously published EWS-FLI1 dependent gene expression patterns, identifying a series of novel targets for the chimeric protein in ESFT. Our results may guide target selection for future ESFT specific therapies. Experiment Overall Design: EWS-FLI1 knock down was performed by expressing specific siRNAs against EWS-FLI1 as small hairpin (sh) RNAs from pSUPER-based retroviral expression constructs in 5 different Ewing's sarcoma cell lines (WE68, SK-N-MC, TC252, STA-ET-1, STA-ET-7.2). As a negative control in each cell line, pSTNeg (Ambion, Applied Biosystems, Brunn am Gebirge, Austria) encoding a scrambled shRNA with no significant similarity to human sequences was used.
Project description:Ewing’s sarcoma is highly malignant bone tumor that involves childhood and adolescent, and its nature has not been well understood. To clarify its cellular origin and the mechanisms of tumorigenesis, we used ex vivo approach to create a murine model for Ewing’s sarcoma. The osteochondrogenic progenitors derived from the facial zone (FZ) of murine long bones at late gestation were purified by microdissection, introduced with EWS-FLI1 or EWS-ERG retroviruses and transplanted into nude mice. Ewing’s sarcoma-like small round cell sarcoma developed at 100% penetrance, whereas tumor induction was less effective when growth place (GP)-derived cells were used. The different response of gene expression to EWS-FLI1 between FZ and GP cells suggests importance of the specific cellular context for EWS-FLI1 to induce Ewing’s sarcoma. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway was involved in close relationship to the cellular context, with Dkk2 and Wipf1 as important downstream modulators. Furthermore, gene expression profiling revealed similarity between our models and human Ewing’s sarcoma. These results indicate that Ewing’s sarcoma originates from the embryonic osteochondrogenic progenitor. Overall design: Ewing's sarcoma was induced by introduction of EWS-FLI1 into murine FZ cell followed by transplantation into nude mice. Ten sarcoma samples were analyzed. No controls are part of this experiment For comparing with human Ewing's sarcoma, we used expression databases E-MEXP-533 (Henderson SR et al, Genome Biol 6:R76, 2005) and E-MEXP-1142 (Schaefer KL et al, Eur J Cancer 44:699, 2008). In addition, the data sets for other sarcomas that include GSE6481 (Nakayama R et al, Mod Pathol 20:749, 2007), GSE7529 (Albino D et al, Cancer 113:1412, 2008) and GSE21122 (Barretina J et al, Nat Genet 42:715, 2010) were used for clustering analysis.
Project description:Translocations of ETS transcription factors are driver mutations in diverse cancers. We investigated the genomic network of the ETS fusion EWS/FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma (ESFT) as a model of ETS-driven tumorigenesis. ChIP-Seq and transcriptional analysis identified E2F3 as a principle co-factor of EWSFLI1 defining functionally distinct gene sets. While EWS/FLI1 binding independent of E2F3 predominantly associated with repressed differentiation genes, significant co-localization with E2F3 was discovered at proximal promoters of activated growth-related genes. Thus, EWS/FLI1 promotes oncogenesis by simultaneously perturbing differentiation state and augmenting the expression of genes co-regulated by E2F3. Integration of additional E2F3 and ERG localization data from prostate cancer containing TMPRSS2/ERG verified that the ETS-E2F module is also found in prostate cancer and may be of general relevance to ETS driven cancers. Overall design: Timecourse with 6 timepoints of a doxicyclin inducible EWS-FLI1 knockdown in the A673 Ewing's Sarcoma celline
Project description:We report here the DNA-binding profiles for all human and mouse ETS factors, which we generated using two different methods: a high-throughput microwell-based transcription factor DNA-binding specificity assay, and protein binding microarrays (PBMs). Both approaches reveal that the ETS binding profiles cluster into four distinct classes, and that all ETS factors linked to cancer, ERG, ETV1, ETV4 and FLI1, fall into just one of these classes. We identify amino acid residues that are critical for the differences in specificity between all the classes, and confirm the specificities in vivo using chromatin immunoprecipitation followed by sequencing (ChIP-seq) for a member of each class. To determine whether the ChIP-seq peaks were near genes regulated by the respective ETS-factors, we used RNAi to downregulate EWS-FLI1 in SK-N-MC Ewing's sarcoma cells. The results indicate that even relatively small differences in in vitro binding specificity of a TF contribute to site selectivity in vivo.
Project description:Translocations of ETS transcription factors are driver mutations in diverse cancers. We investigated the genomic network of the ETS fusion EWS/FLI1 in Ewing's sarcoma (ESFT) as a model of ETS-driven tumorigenesis. ChIP-Seq and transcriptional analysis identified E2F3 as a principle co-factor of EWSFLI1 defining functionally distinct gene sets. While EWS/FLI1 binding independent of E2F3 predominantly associated with repressed differentiation genes, significant co-localization with E2F3 was discovered at proximal promoters of activated growth-related genes. Thus, EWS/FLI1 promotes oncogenesis by simultaneously perturbing differentiation state and augmenting the expression of genes co-regulated by E2F3. Integration of additional E2F3 and ERG localization data from prostate cancer containing TMPRSS2/ERG verified that the ETS-E2F module is also found in prostate cancer and may be of general relevance to ETS driven cancers. Timecourse with 6 timepoints of a doxicyclin inducible EWS-FLI1 knockdown in the A673 Ewing's Sarcoma celline