Characterization of transcriptional and fitness effects of a loss of function mutation in rho
ABSTRACT: In order to study the effects of a mutation to the transcriptional termination regulator Rho (referred to as rho*), we made use of expression microarrays to observe the direct and indirect effects of rho* on gene expression. In addition, we used arrays to map the fitness of strains from transposon mutagenized libraries under four conditions, showing that in each case the majority of genes with significant fitness effects were dependent on the genotype at rho. For expression arrays, we performed two-color microarrays comparing transcript levels in rho* and wild type cells during exponential growth in glucose minimal media. For selection experiments, transposon insertions were mapped through selective amplification of genomic regions adjacent to them. We then measured the fitness effects of insertions throughout the genome using two-color microarrays, comparing amplified DNA from a population grown under a selective condition of interest to an isogenic control population grown under a reference condition (glucose minimal media). All arrays were performed in duplicate, and the source material for the duplicates came from separate biological replicates.
ORGANISM(S): Escherichia Coli Str. K-12 Substr. Mg1655
Project description:In order to study the effects of a mutation to the transcriptional termination regulator Rho (referred to as rho*), we made use of expression microarrays to observe the direct and indirect effects of rho* on gene expression. In addition, we used arrays to map the fitness of strains from transposon mutagenized libraries under four conditions, showing that in each case the majority of genes with significant fitness effects were dependent on the genotype at rho. Overall design: For expression arrays, we performed two-color microarrays comparing transcript levels in rho* and wild type cells during exponential growth in glucose minimal media. For selection experiments, transposon insertions were mapped through selective amplification of genomic regions adjacent to them. We then measured the fitness effects of insertions throughout the genome using two-color microarrays, comparing amplified DNA from a population grown under a selective condition of interest to an isogenic control population grown under a reference condition (glucose minimal media). All arrays were performed in duplicate, and the source material for the duplicates came from separate biological replicates.
Project description:In order to study the effects of a mutation to the transcriptional termination regulator Rho (referred to as rho*), we made use of expression microarrays to observe the direct and indirect effects of rho* on gene expression. In addition, we used arrays to map the fitness of strains from transposon mutagenized libraries under four conditions, showing that in each case the majority of genes with significant fitness effects were dependent on the genotype at rho. For expression arrays, we performed two-color microarrays comparing transcript levels in rho* and wild type cells during exponential growth in glucose minimal media. For selection experiments, transposon insertions were mapped through selective amplification of genomic regions adjacent to them. We then measured the fitness effects of insertions throughout the genome using two-color microarrays, comparing amplified DNA from a population grown under a selective condition of interest to an isogenic control population grown under a reference condition (glucose minimal media). All arrays were performed in duplicate, and the source material for the duplicates came from separate biological replicates.
Project description:Bacterial genomes evolve in complex ecosystems and are best understood in this natural context, but replicating such conditions in the lab is challenging. We used transposon sequencing to define the fitness consequences of gene disruption in the bacterium Caulobacter crescentus grown in natural freshwater, compared with axenic growth in common laboratory media. Gene disruptions in amino-acid and nucleotide sugar biosynthesis pathways and in metabolic substrate transport machinery impaired fitness in both lake water and defined minimal medium relative to complex peptone broth. Fitness in lake water was enhanced by insertions in genes required for flagellum biosynthesis and reduced by insertions in genes involved in biosynthesis of the holdfast surface adhesin. We further uncovered numerous hypothetical and uncharacterized genes for which disruption impaired fitness in lake water, defined minimal medium, or both. At the genome scale, the fitness profile of mutants cultivated in lake water was more similar to that in complex peptone broth than in defined minimal medium. Microfiltration of lake water did not significantly affect the terminal cell density or the fitness profile of the transposon mutant pool, suggesting that Caulobacter does not strongly interact with other microbes in this ecosystem on the measured timescale. Fitness of select mutants with defects in cell surface biosynthesis and environmental sensing were significantly more variable across days in lake water than in defined medium, presumably owing to day-to-day heterogeneity in the lake environment. This study reveals genetic interactions between Caulobacter and a natural freshwater environment, and provides a new avenue to study gene function in complex ecosystems.
Project description:Identifying targets of antibacterial compounds remains a challenging step in the development of antibiotics. We have developed a two-pronged functional genomics approach to predict mechanism of action that uses mutant fitness data from antibiotic-treated transposon libraries containing both upregulation and inactivation mutants. We treated a Staphylococcus aureus transposon library containing 690,000 unique insertions with 32 antibiotics. Upregulation signatures identified from directional biases in insertions revealed known molecular targets and resistance mechanisms for the majority of these. Because single-gene upregulation does not always confer resistance, we used a complementary machine-learning approach to predict the mechanism from inactivation mutant fitness profiles. This approach suggested the cell wall precursor Lipid II as the molecular target of the lysocins, a mechanism we have confirmed. We conclude that docking to membrane-anchored Lipid II precedes the selective bacteriolysis that distinguishes these lytic natural products, showing the utility of our approach for nominating the antibiotic mechanism of action.
Project description:The relationship between DNA sequence, biochemical function, and molecular evolution is relatively well-described for protein-coding regions of genomes, but far less clear in noncoding regions, particularly, in eukaryote genomes. In part, this is because we lack a complete description of the essential noncoding elements in a eukaryote genome. To contribute to this challenge, we used saturating transposon mutagenesis to interrogate the Schizosaccharomyces pombe genome. We generated 31 million transposon insertions, a theoretical coverage of 2.4 insertions per genomic site. We applied a five-state hidden Markov model (HMM) to distinguish insertion-depleted regions from insertion biases. Both raw insertion-density and HMM-defined fitness estimates showed significant quantitative relationships to gene knockout fitness, genetic diversity, divergence, and expected functional regions based on transcription and gene annotations. Through several analyses, we conclude that transposon insertions produced fitness effects in 66-90% of the genome, including substantial portions of the noncoding regions. Based on the HMM, we estimate that 10% of the insertion depleted sites in the genome showed no signal of conservation between species and were weakly transcribed, demonstrating limitations of comparative genomics and transcriptomics to detect functional units. In this species, 3'- and 5'-untranslated regions were the most prominent insertion-depleted regions that were not represented in measures of constraint from comparative genomics. We conclude that the combination of transposon mutagenesis, evolutionary, and biochemical data can provide new insights into the relationship between genome function and molecular evolution.
Project description:<h4>Background</h4>The contribution of a gene to the fitness of a bacterium can be assayed by whether and to what degree the bacterium tolerates transposon insertions in that gene. We use this fact to compare the fitness of syntenic homologous genes among related Salmonella strains and thereby reveal differences not apparent at the gene sequence level.<h4>Results</h4>A transposon Tn5 derivative was used to construct mutants in Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC14028 (STM1) and Salmonella Typhi Ty2 (STY1), which were then grown in rich media. The locations of 234,152 and 53,556 integration sites, respectively, were mapped by sequencing. These data were compared to similar data available for a different Ty2 isolate (STY2) and essential genes identified in E. coli K-12 (ECO). Of 277 genes considered essential in ECO, all had syntenic homologs in STM1, STY1, and STY2, and all but nine genes were either devoid of transposon insertions or had very few. For three of these nine genes, part of the annotated gene lacked transposon integrations (yejM, ftsN and murB). At least one of the other six genes, trpS, had a potentially functionally redundant gene encoded elsewhere in Salmonella but not in ECO. An additional 165 genes were almost entirely devoid of transposon integrations in all three Salmonella strains examined, including many genes associated with protein and DNA synthesis. Four of these genes (STM14_1498, STM14_2872, STM14_3360, and STM14_5442) are not found in E. coli. Notable differences in the extent of gene selection were also observed among the three different Salmonella isolates. Mutations in hns, for example, were selected against in STM1 but not in the two STY strains, which have a defect in rpoS rendering hns nonessential.<h4>Conclusions</h4>Comparisons among transposon integration profiles from different members of a species and among related species, all grown in similar conditions, identify differences in gene contributions to fitness among syntenic homologs. Further differences in fitness profiles among shared genes can be expected in other selective environments, with potential relevance for comparative systems biology.
Project description:We have used a transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) approach to establish the fitness landscape of the African Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium ST313 strain D23580, to complement our previous comparative genomic and functional transcriptomic studies. We used a genome-wide transposon library with insertions every 10 nucleotides to identify genes required for survival and growth in vitro and during infection of murine macrophages. The analysis revealed genomic regions important for fitness under two in vitro growth conditions. Overall, 724 coding genes were required for optimal growth in LB medium, and 851 coding genes were required for growth in SPI-2-inducing minimal medium. These findings were consistent with the essentiality analyses of other S. Typhimurium ST19 and S. Typhi strains. The global mutagenesis approach also identified 60 sRNAs and 413 intergenic regions required for growth in at least one in vitro growth condition. By infecting murine macrophages with the transposon library, we identified 68 genes that were required for intra-macrophage replication but did not impact fitness in vitro. None of these genes were unique to S. Typhimurium D23580, consistent with a high conservation of gene function between S. Typhimurium ST313 and ST19 and suggesting that novel virulence factors are not involved in the interaction of strain D23580 with murine macrophages. We discovered that transposon insertions rarely occurred in many pBT1 plasmid-encoded genes (36), compared with genes carried by the pSLT-BT virulence plasmid and other bacterial plasmids. The key essential protein encoded by pBT1 is a cysteinyl-tRNA synthetase, and our enzymological analysis revealed that the plasmid-encoded CysRSpBT1 had a lower ability to charge tRNA than the chromosomally-encoded CysRSchr enzyme. The presence of aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases in plasmids from a range of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria suggests that plasmid-encoded essential genes are more common than had been appreciated.
Project description:Plant-pathogenic <i>Ralstonia</i> spp. colonize plant xylem and cause wilt diseases on a broad range of host plants. To identify genes that promote growth of diverse <i>Ralstonia</i> strains in xylem sap from tomato plants, we performed genome-scale genetic screens (random barcoded transposon mutant sequencing screens [RB-TnSeq]) in three strains spanning the genetic, geographical, and physiological range of plant-pathogenic <i>Ralstonia</i>: Ralstonia solanacearum IBSBF1503, Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum GMI1000, and Ralstonia syzygii PSI07. Contrasting mutant fitness phenotypes in culture media versus in xylem sap suggest that <i>Ralstonia</i> strains are adapted to <i>ex vivo</i> xylem sap and that culture media impose foreign selective pressures. Although wild-type <i>Ralstonia</i> grew in sap and in rich medium with similar doubling times and to a similar carrying capacity, more genes were essential for growth in sap than in rich medium. Each strain required many genes associated with envelope remodeling and repair processes for full fitness in xylem sap. These genes were associated with peptidoglycan peptide formation (<i>murI</i>), secretion of periplasmic proteins (<i>tatC</i>), periplasmic protein folding (<i>dsbA</i>), synthesis of osmoregulated periplasmic glucans (<i>mdoGH</i>), and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis. Mutant strains with mutations in four genes had strong, sap-specific fitness defects in all strain backgrounds: <i>murI</i>, <i>thiC</i>, <i>purU</i>, and a lipoprotein (RSc2007). Many amino acid biosynthesis genes were required for fitness in both minimal medium and xylem sap. Multiple mutants with insertions in virulence regulators had gains of fitness in culture media and neutral fitness in sap. Our genome-scale genetic screen identified <i>Ralstonia</i> fitness factors that promote growth in xylem sap, an ecologically relevant condition. <b>IMPORTANCE</b> Traditional transposon mutagenesis genetic screens pioneered molecular plant pathology and identified core virulence traits like the type III secretion system. TnSeq approaches that leverage next-generation sequencing to rapidly quantify transposon mutant phenotypes are ushering in a new wave of biological discovery. Here, we have adapted a genome-scale approach, random barcoded transposon mutant sequencing (RB-TnSeq), to discover fitness factors that promote growth of three related bacterial strains in a common niche, tomato xylem sap. Fitness of the wild type and mutants show that <i>Ralstonia</i> spp. are adapted to grow well in xylem sap from their natural host plant, tomato. Our screen identified multiple sap-specific fitness factors with roles in maintaining the bacterial envelope. These factors include putative adaptations to resist plant defenses that may include antimicrobial proteins and specialized metabolites that damage bacterial membranes.
Project description:UNLABELLED:Transposon insertion sequencing (TIS; also known as TnSeq) is a potent approach commonly used to comprehensively define the genetic loci that contribute to bacterial fitness in diverse environments. A key presumption underlying analyses of TIS datasets is that loci with a low frequency of transposon insertions contribute to fitness. However, it is not known whether factors such as nucleoid binding proteins can alter the frequency of transposon insertion and thus whether TIS output may systematically reflect factors that are independent of the role of the loci in fitness. Here, we investigated whether the histone-like nucleoid structuring (H-NS) protein, which preferentially associates with AT-rich sequences, modulates the frequency of Mariner transposon insertion in the Vibrio cholerae genome, using comparative analysis of TIS results from wild-type (wt) and ?hns V. cholerae strains. These analyses were overlaid on gene classification based on GC content as well as on extant genome-wide identification of H-NS binding loci. Our analyses revealed a significant dearth of insertions within AT-rich loci in wt V. cholerae that was not apparent in the ?hns insertion library. Additionally, we observed a striking correlation between genetic loci that are overrepresented in the ?hns insertion library relative to their insertion frequency in wt V. cholerae and loci previously found to physically interact with H-NS. Collectively, our findings reveal that factors other than genetic fitness can systematically modulate the frequency of transposon insertions in TIS studies and add a cautionary note to interpretation of TIS data, particularly for AT-rich sequences. IMPORTANCE:Transposon insertion sequencing (TIS) is often used to assess the relative frequency with which genetic loci can be disrupted, which is taken as an indicator of their importance for bacterial fitness. Here, we report that biological factors other than the relative levels of fitness of insertion mutants can influence TIS output. We found that the presence of the DNA binding protein H-NS, which preferentially recognizes AT-rich sequences, is linked to significant underrepresentation of mutations within AT-rich loci in transposon insertion libraries. Furthermore, there is a marked correspondence between loci bound by H-NS and loci with an increased frequency of disruption in a ?hns insertion library relative to a wt library. Our data suggest that factors other than genetic fitness (e.g., DNA binding proteins such as H-NS) can systematically modulate the frequency of transposon insertions in TIS studies and add a note of caution for interpretation of TIS data.
Project description:Global transposon mutagenesis is a valuable tool for identifying genes required for cell viability. Here we present a global analysis of the orientation of viable Tn5-Puror (Tn5-puromycin resistance) insertions into the near-minimal bacterial genome of JCVI-syn2.0. Sixteen of the 478 protein-coding genes show a noticeable asymmetry in the orientation of disrupting insertions of Tn5-Puror Ten of these are located in operons, upstream of essential or quasi-essential genes. Inserts transcribed in the same direction as the downstream gene are favored, permitting read-through transcription of the essential or quasi-essential gene. Some of these genes were classified as quasi-essential solely because of polar effects on the expression of downstream genes. Three genes showing asymmetry in Tn5-Puror insertion orientation prefer the orientation that avoids collisions between read-through transcription of Tn5-Puror and transcription of an adjacent gene. One gene (JCVISYN2_0132 [abbreviated here as "_0132"]) shows a strong preference for Tn5-Puror insertions transcribed upstream, away from the downstream nonessential gene _0133. This suggested that expression of _0133 due to read-through from Tn5-Puror is lethal when _0132 function is disrupted by transposon insertion. This led to the identification of genes _0133 and _0132 as a toxin-antitoxin pair. The three remaining genes show read-through transcription of Tn5-Puror directed downstream and away from sizable upstream intergenic regions (199 bp to 363 bp), for unknown reasons. In summary, polar effects of transposon insertion can, in a few cases, affect the classification of genes as essential, quasi-essential, or nonessential and sometimes can give clues to gene function.IMPORTANCE In studies of the minimal genetic requirements for life, we used global transposon mutagenesis to identify genes needed for a minimal bacterial genome. Transposon insertion can disrupt the function of a gene but can also have polar effects on the expression of adjacent genes. In the Tn5-Puror construct used in our studies, read-through transcription from Tn5-Puror can drive expression of downstream genes. This results in a preference for Tn5-Puror insertions transcribed toward a downstream essential or quasi-essential gene within the same operon. Such polar effects can have an impact on the classification of genes as essential, quasi-essential, or nonessential, but this has been observed in only a few cases. Also, polar effects of Tn5-Puror insertion can sometimes give clues to gene function.