Expression data from macrophage maturation and polarization c-Myc in alternative macrophage activation experiments
ABSTRACT: In response to microenvironmental signals macrophages undergo different activation, indicated as classic/M1 and alternative/M2 polarization. C-Myc transcription factor could be an essential player in M2 polarization. Functional relevance of c-Myc in M2 macrophage biology is investigated by evaluating the effect of 100-58F4, on the transcriptional profile induced on human macrophages by IL-4. Human monocytes were obtained from normal donor buffy coats by two-step gradient centrifugation using Ficoll (Biochrom) and Percoll (Amersham). Non-adherent cells were discarded, and the purified monocytes were incubated for 7 days in RPMI 1640 (Biochom) supplemented with 10% FCS (HyClone) and 100 ng/mL M-CSF to obtain resting macrophages. Macrophage polarization was obtained by removing the culture medium and culturing cells in RPMI 1640 supplemented with 10% FCS and 100 ng/mL LPS plus 20 ng/mL IFN-gamma (M1 polarization) or 20 ng/mL IL-4 (M2 polarization) for 24 h. When needed, chemical inhibitors were added with IL-4.
Project description:Human monocyte THP-1 cells obtained from ATCC were cultured in RPMI 1640 (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA) containing 10% FBS and supplemented with 10 mM Hepes (Gibco BRL). THP-1 was differentiated into macrophages by 24-h incubation with 160 nM phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA; Sigma, St. Louis, MO) followed by 24-h incubation in RPMI medium. Macrophages were further polarized to M1 macrophages by incubation with 10 pg/ml of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; Sigma) and 20 ng/ml of interferon (IFN)-γ (R&D Systems, MN) and are referred to as M(LPS+IFN-γ) cells. M2 macrophages were obtained by incubation with 20 ng/ml of interleukin (IL)-4 (R&D Systems) and are referred to as M(IL4) cells. To test the represented polarization marker of PMA differentiated-THP-1 macrophages stimulated with 20 ng ml(-1) IFNγ + 10 pg ml(-1) LPS and 20 ng ml(-1) IL-4, which are known to influence macrophage polarization in vetro into the M1 and M2 state, respectively. We used microarrays to detail the gene expression pools to identify distinct M1 and M2 state during this process. Overall design: To test the polarization of macrophage. PMA differentiated-THP-1 macrophages were stimulated with IFNγ+LPS and IL-4. THP-1 derived macrophages, including M(LPS+INFγ) and M(IL4) cells, were processed in Trizol and then analyzed using the Affymetrix U133 Array platform.
Project description:Bone marrow derived macrophages from C57BL/6 mice were stimulated into M1 and M2 polarization state. Analysis of BMDMs from LysMcre;FoxO1Fl/FL mice and control littermates. Results provide insight into the regulatory role of FoxO1 during macrophage polarization. BMDMs were stimulated with 100ng/ml LPS plus 20ng/ml IFN-γ into M1 polarization, and stimulated with 10ng/ml IL-4 plus 10ng/ml IL-13 into M2 polarization. Both for 24 hours. Unstimulated cells as M0 state. Overall design: Six samples, including 3 polarization state from FoxO1 deficient BMDMs and WT BMDMs, separately.
Project description:Macrophages are important effector cells of the immune system and play an important role in mounting inflammatory responses. Macrophages can be activated by different stimuli in the tissue, either by cytokines produced by T helper cells (M1 or M2 polarization) or by the pathogens they encounter. Macrophages are also important target cells of HIV-1 and are preferentially infected by CCR5-using viruses. In this study, we investigated the ability of HIV-1 to induce changes in gene expression in unpolarized macrophages as well as in M1 or M2 polarized cells. We observed that CCR5-using HIV-1 regulates the expression of genes that are also regulated by IL-4 in macrophages. Genes regulated by HIV-1 infection and IL-4 polarization are involved in dampening pro-inflammatory responses in macrophages, which may facilitate HIV-1 to escape from detection by other immune cells. We also observed that changes in macrophage gene expression triggered by CCR5-using HIV-1 differed from those regulated by a CXCR4-using virus. This indicates that CCR5-using HIV-1 may be able to modulate macrophage gene expression to achieve successful replication. Our results provide insight in the complex interplay between HIV-1 and cells of the immune system. Polarized macrophages were obtained by stimulation of primary human monocytes with IFN-gamma (250 U/ml) in combination with TNF-alpha (12.5 ng/ml) (M1), IL-4 (50 ng/ml) (M2a), IL-10 (50 ng/ml) (M2c) for 5 days. Cells were inoculated for 24 hours with one of two HIV-1 strains (CCR5 or CXCR4 using HIV1) or their non replicating counterparts (heat inactivated virus). Macrophages that were not stimulated wiht cyokines or inoculates with HIV-1 were used as control. A total of 16 treatment conditions were tested in triplicate, for a total of 48 samples analysed.
Project description:Analysis of the effects of CNI-1493 treatment on M1 and M2 polarized macrophages. The purpose of this microarray is to identify genes that may be differentially expressed in M1 or M2 macrophages after treatment with CNI-1493. CNI-1493 is a known inhibitor of M1 macrophages but details of its molecular mechanism are unknown. The effect of CNI-1493 on M2 macrophages has yet to be explored, but we hypothesize that CNI-1493 treatment will attenuate pro-tumor properties of M2 macrophages. We demonstrate with this array that known macrophage markers are unchanged after treatment with CNI-1493, indicating that CNI-1493 does not change the macrophage phenotype on a transcriptional level. Additionally, no candidate genes to suggest how CNI-1493 may attenuate the pro-tumor effects of M2 macrophages are readily identifiable. Total RNA extracted from M1 or M2 macrophages after polarization with GM-CSF (25ng/ml) or M-CSF (25ng/ml) for 7 days, followed by addition of IFN-γ (20ng/ml) and LPS (100ng/ml) or IL-4 (40ng/ml) for 18 hours, respectively, from CD14+ human PBMCs, and treated with CNI-1493 (200nM)
Project description:Macrophages are known to be polarized into inflammatory (M1) and immunoregulatory (M2) cells when they are stimulated by agonists such as IFN-gamma and IL-4, respectively. If circulating monocytes may be polarized in response to T cell signals is often misguidedly deduced from macrophage results. Here the transcriptional responses of human CD14+ monocytes to IFN-gamma and IL-4 were analyzed using whole genome microarrays. A principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering showed that monocyte and macrophage responses were distinct. Monocytes stimulated with IFN-gamma and IL-4 for 6 hours exhibited some features of macrophage polarization. Indeed, when 80 genes considered as M1 and M2 genes were analyzed, we found that M1 genes were modulated in response to IFN-gamma and that M2 genes were modulated in response to IL-4. The M1 polarization of monocytes was transient because only M2 genes were modulated when monocytes were stimulated with IFN-gamma and IL-4 for 18 hours. However, the activation of monocytes by IFN-gamma and IL-4 could not be reduced to M1/M2 polarization status. Indeed, monocytes exhibited early specific signatures composed of 46 and 39 up-regulated genes in response to IFN-gamma and IL-4, respectively, and a late signature common to both molecules that consisted of 57 up-regulated genes. Taken together, these results demonstrated the extreme plasticity of human monocytes and suggested the existence of a core transcriptional termination program. Using early and late signatures might be pertinent to investigate monocyte activation in inflammatory or infectious diseases. Monocytes were stimulated with IFN-gamma (20ng/mL) or IL-4 (20ng/mL) for 6 and 18 hours or culture for 6 and 18 hours without agonist (Unstimulated samples). Monocytes-derived-macrophages (MDM) stimulated with IFN-gamma and IL-4 for 18 hours were used as controls. Each microarray is derived from a single biological sample.
Project description:We showed that co-culture with TAMs triggered Bmi1 expression in gastrointestinal cancer cell lines. miRNAs have been found to target various oncogenes and tumor suppressors. We therefore hypothesized that the regulation of Bmi1 expression in gastrointestinal cancer cells may be mediated by miRNAs using miRNA microarray analysis. THP-1 cells were seeded in the transwell inserts (3540, Corning) for 6-well plates (1 × 106 cells/well). For preparation of M1-polarized THP-1 macrophages, 320 nM phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was added to THP-1 cells for 6 h, followed by PMA plus 20 ng/ml interferon (IFN)-γ and 100 ng/ml lipopolysaccharide for the following 18 h. For preparation of M2-polarized THP-1 macrophages, 320 nM PMA was added to THP-1 cells for 6 h, followed by PMA plus 20 ng/ml interleukin (IL)-4/IL-13 for the following 18 h. After three washes to remove cytokines, M1- or M2-polarized THP-1 macrophages were co-cultured in upper inserts with AGS cells in 6-well plates (1 × 105 cells/well) without direct contact, in each medium without 10% FBS as described above. After 24 h of co-culture, the upper inserts containing macrophages were discarded. AGS cells were collected and analyzed to identify downregulated microRNA in a gastric cancer cell line co-cultured with M1- or M2-polarized macrophage.
Project description:In this study we compared the response of human monocyte-derived macrophages differentiated with either granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) or macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) to the most common activation stimuli: LPS plus interferon-γ to induce macrophage polarization towards the M1 type or IL-4 to induce macrophage polarization towards the M2a type. Additionally, IL-10 was used to drive M-CSF-primed macrophages into the M2c state. We used the the whole-human genome microarray to determine genes that were up- or downregulated by the activation stimuli in both macrophage lineages, with focus on genes implicated in immune response. Overall design: We generated 7 different macrophage subtypes in three biological replicates: Isolated monocytes of three healthy donors (biological replicates) were differentiated with either 25ng/ml GM-CSF or 50ng/ml M-CSF for 7d. GM-CSF-differentiated macrophages were then either mock-activated with culture medium only (control; condition 1) or activated with 100 ng/ml LPS + 25ng/ml IFNγ (condition 2), or 20 ng/ml IL-4 (condition 3) for 2d (48 h). This activation regime was also used to activate M-CSF-differentiated macrophages, which were in additionally activated with 20 ng/ml IL-10 (condition 4) for 2d (48 h).
Project description:Macrophages acquire distinct phenotypes during tissue stress and inflammatory responses. Classically, macrophages are categorized into two different subsets named inflammatory M1 and anti-inflammatory M2 macrophages. We herein identified a unique pathogenic macrophage subpopulation, named M17, driven by IL-23 with a distinct gene expression profile including cytokines and membrane molecules. In contrast to M1 and M2-polarized macrophages, M17 macrophages express high levels of CXCR5 on the cell surface and produce large amounts of IL-17A, IL-22 and IFN-γ. IL-23 induces IL-17A expression in macrophages through the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3)-retinoid related orphan receptor-γ T (RORγT) pathway, while induces IFN-γ through T-bet. Importantly, IL-23-induced M17 macrophage polarization promotes the pathogenesis of psoriasis in vivo. The characteristics and significances of M17 macrophage subpopulation in the physiological status and pathogenesis caused by infections, tumors and graft rejection needs to be explored. Overall design: To further demonstrate whether M17 macrophage polarization represents a distinct polarization of macrophages, we detected gene expression profiles of M1, M2 and M17 polarized macrophages by microarray methods.
Project description:The proteasome is a central regulatory hub for intracellular signaling by degrading numerous signaling mediators. Immunoproteasomes are specialized types of proteasomes known to be involved in shaping adaptive immune responses, but their role for innate immune signaling is elusive. Here, we analyzed immunoproteasome function for polarization of alveolar macrophages which are highly specialized tissue macrophages of the alveolar surface of the lung. Classical activation (M1 polarization) of primary alveolar macrophages by LPS/IFNγ transcriptionally induced all three immunoproteasome subunits LMP2, LMP7, and MECL-1. In contrast, IL-4 triggered alternative (M2) activation was accompanied by posttranscriptional upregulation of LMP2 and LMP7. Accordingly, immunoproteasome activity increased in M1 cells, and to some extent under M2 conditions. Analyzing the polarization capability from LMP7 deficient mice revealed no effect on the LPS/IFNγ triggered M1 profile, but uncovered a distorted M2 profile for IL-4 stimulated LMP7-/- alveolar macrophages as characterized by increased M2 marker gene expression and CCL17 cytokine release. This shift in immunoproteasome-dependent M2 polarization was accompanied by amplified AKT/STAT6 activation and IRF4 expression in LMP7-/- alveolar macrophages. IL-13 stimulation of LMP7 deficient cells induced a similar M2 skewed profile and IL4Rα protein expression was generally elevated in LMP7-/- alveolar macrophages, indicating that amplified IL4R signaling in immunoproteasome defective cells may contribute to augmented M2 polarization. Importantly, treatment with an LMP7-specific proteasome inhibitor recapitulated the findings of genetic LMP7 inactivation. Our results thus suggest a novel role of immunoproteasome function for regulating innate immune function of macrophages by limiting IL4R expression and signaling. Expression data of M0 and M2 macrophages derived from Lmp7 k.o. and control animals
Project description:Hyperglycemia is an essential factor leading to micro- and macrovascular diabetic complications. Macrophages are key innate immune regulators of inflammation that undergo 2 major directions of functional polarization: classically (M1) and alternatively (M2) activated macrophages. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of hyperglycemia on transcriptional activation of M0, M1 and M2 human macrophages. Overall design: Monocytes were isolated from buffy coats by magnetic cell sorting using CD14 beads and cultivated in the presence of 5mM (NG) and 25mM (HG) glucose for 6 days under stimulation with IFNg (M1), IL4 (M2) or without cytokine (M0). M0, M1 and M2 macrophages from 4 individual donors were used