TET2 mutations in acute myeloid leukemia: Results from a comprehensive genetic and clinical analysis of the AML Study Group (AMLSG)
ABSTRACT: Purpose: The tet oncogene family member 2 (TET2) gene was recently identified mutated in myeloid disorders including acute myeloid leukemia (AML). To date, there is increasing evidence for a functional role of TET2 mutations (TET2mut) in AML. Thus, we explored frequency, gene expression pattern, and clinical impact of TET2mut in a large cohort of AML patients, in the context of other AML-associated aberrations. Patients and Methods: Samples from 783 younger adult AML patients were analyzed for the presence of TET2mut (coding exons 3-11), and results were correlated with data from molecular genetic analyses, gene expression profiling, and clinical outcome. Results: In total, 66 TET2mut were found in 60 (60/783; 7.6%) patients, including missense (n=37), frameshift (n=16), and nonsense (n=13) mutations, which with one exception were all heterozygous. TET2mut were not correlated with distinct clinical features or genetic alterations, except for isocitrate dehydrogenase mutations (IDHmut) that were almost mutually exclusive with TET2mut (p<0.001). TET2mut were characterized by only a weak gene expression pattern, which nevertheless reflected TET2mut-associated biology. TET2mut did not impact response to induction therapy and clinical outcome; combining patients exhibiting TET2mut and/or IDHmut revealed shorter overall survival (p=0.03), although this association was not independent from known risk factors. Conclusion: TET2mut were identified in 7.6% of younger adult AML patients and did not impact response to therapy and survival. Mutations were mutually exclusive with IDHmut, thereby supporting recent data on a common mechanism of action, which might obscure the impact of TET2mut if compared against all other AML cases. We performed a supervised class comparison analysis comparing 31 TET-mutated AML cases (TET2 mut) vs. 302 TET2-wildtype AML cases (TET wt) to see if a specific gene expression pattern associated with the presence of the identified TET2 mutations could be determined. No technical replicates were performed.
Project description:ABSTRACT Background. Acute Kawasaki disease (KD) is difficult to distinguish from other acute rash/fever illnesses, in part because the etiologic agent(s) and pathophysiology remain poorly characterized. As a result, diagnosis and critical therapies may be delayed. Methods. We used DNA microarrays to identify possible diagnostic features of KD. We compared gene expression patterns in the blood of 23 children with acute KD and 18 age-matched febrile children with three illnesses that resemble KD. Results. Genes associated with platelet and neutrophil activation were expressed at higher levels in KD patients than in patients with acute adenovirus infections or systemic adverse drug reactions but not in patients with scarlet fever; genes associated with B cell activation were also expressed at higher levels in KD patients than in controls. A striking absence of interferon-stimulated gene expression in the KD patients was confirmed in an independent cohort of KD subjects. We successfully predicted the diagnosis in 21 of 23 KD patients and 7 of 8 adenovirus patients using a set of 38 gene transcripts. Conclusions. These findings provide insight into the molecular features that distinguish KD from other febrile illnesses, and support the feasibility of developing novel diagnostic reagents for KD based on the host response. A disease state experiment design type is where the state of some disease such as infection, pathology, syndrome, etc is studied. Disease State: One of Kawasaki Disease (KD) or control (C) of Scarlet fever (C-sf), adenovirus infection (C-ai) or drug reaction (C-dr) disease_state_design
Project description:5 arrays per condition (covering 3 biological replicate experiments) were performed on Human Foreskin Fibroblasts (HFFs) at 44 hours post infection. The four experimental conditions include uninfected "standard", uninfected "stress", tachyzoite-infected "standard+TZ", and bradyzoite-infected "stress+BZ". Bradyzoite conversion is induced at 4 hours post infection with replacement of standard DMEM+10% FCS with RPMI+1%FCS buffered with 50mM Hepes to pH 8.15. Approximately 20% of cells are infected and bradyzoite conversion is >90% in these experiments. These data are normalized using 2-D loess (span factor .4). The calculations in the manuscript are based on are log2 ratios of normalized channel 2/channel 1 medians. A development or differentiation experiment design type assays events associated with development or differentiation or moving through a life cycle. Development applies to organism(s) acquiring a mature state, and differentiation applies to cells acquiring specialized functions. Developmental Stage: Uninfected (standard or stress medium), or Tachyzoite-infected (standard medium) or Bradyzoite-infected (stress medium) Complex
Project description:With the goal of identifying changes in gene expression in CD4(+) T cells during the development of diabetes in the nonobese diabetic (NOD) mouse, we used DNA microarrays to analyze gene expression in CD4(+) T cells from the pancreatic draining lymph nodes of NOD/BDC 2.5 T cell receptor transgenic and WT NOD mice at different ages. At 4 and 6 weeks of age, we found up-regulation of a number of genes that are known to be induced by IFN-alpha. IFN-alpha levels and IFN-alpha-producing plasmacytoid dendritic cells were increased in the PLNs of 3- to 4-week-old NOD mice. Moreover, blockade of IFN-alpha receptor 1 in NOD mice by a neutralizing antibody at 2-3 weeks of age significantly delayed the onset and decreased the incidence of type 1 diabetes, increased the relative number of immature dendritic cells in the PLNs, and enhanced the ability of spleen CD4(+) T cells to produce IL-4 and IL-10. These findings demonstrate that IFN-alpha in the PLNs is an essential initiator in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetes in NOD mice. An all pairs experiment design type is where all labeled extracts are compared to every other labeled extract.
Project description:This experiment set is used for the manuscript entitled: Pharmacogenomics of Interferon-b therapy in multiple sclerosis: Baseline IFN signature determines pharmacological differences between patients. In this study we generated and analyzed pre- and post- IFNb treatment gene expression patterns of RRMS patients with the aim of identifying pre-existing and/or drug-induced signatures that will allow us to make predictions on the expected pharmacological effects of IFNb treatment. We show that the expression level of IFN response genes prior to treatment, determines the pharmacological differences between patients with MS at the molecular level. A group of 16 Dutch patients (10 females and 6 males) with clinically definite relapsing-remitting MS was recruited from the outpatient clinic of the MS Centre Amsterdam. Mean age at start of IFNb therapy is 40.6 +/- 7.7, mean EDSS is 2.3 +/- 1.3 (range 1-6). Blood samples were obtained just before treatment and 1 month after start of the therapy. Patients received Avonex, Betaferon, Rebif 22 or Rebif 44. A compound treatment design type is where the response to administration of a compound or chemical (including biological compounds such as hormones) is assayed. Compound Based Treatment: Before and 1 month after IFNb therapy Keywords: compound_treatment_design Complex
Project description:This gene set contains skin fibroblasts from either labia majora of 46,XY sex reversed females having complete androgen insensitivity syndrome due to inactivation mutations of the androgen receptor gene and from the scrotum of normal males. Both, labia majora and scrotum origin from the same embryological anlagen, the labioscrotal swellings. The phenotypic difference is due to androgen dependent virilization in males. This is not possible in 46,XY patients with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome because the androgen receptor pathway is knocked out. A cell type comparison design experiment design type compares cells of different type for example different cell lines. Cell Line: genital skin fibroblasts from different locations mutant line: normal 46,XY male and 46,XY sex reversed female due to inactivating mutations of the androgen receptor gene Computed
Project description:Monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A), a mitochondrial enzyme that degrades monoamines including neurotransmitters, is highly expressed in basal cells of the normal human prostatic epithelium and in poorly differentiated (Gleason grades 4 and 5), aggressive prostate cancer (PCa). Clorgyline, an MAO-A inhibitor, induces secretory differentiation of normal prostate cells. We systematically assessed gene expression changes induced by clorgyline in E-CA cells using high-density oligonucleotide microarrays. Genes differentially expressed in treated and control cells were identified by Significance Analysis of Microarrays. Expression of genes of interest was validated by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. time series design
Project description:RNA was isolated from age-synchronous cultures of hermaphrodite worms grown at 25?C at 2, 5, 8, or 11 days of adulthood. We observed no deaths in the worm population at days 2 and 5 of adulthood, 30% at day 8 and 93% death at day 11. The aging time course was repeated four times. Groups of assays that are related as part of a time series. Age: Age of adult worms (days) Keywords: time_series_design User Defined
Project description:These 12 arrays are the basis for Figure 1 of the "An interferon-response induced by tumor-stroma interaction in a subset of human breast cancers" manuscript. Figure 1: Effect of heterotypic interaction between breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 and CCL-171 fibroblast. Biologically independent replicates of the mono-cultured fibroblast CCL-171, the breast cancer cell line MDA-MB231 and the mixed co-culture of CCL-171 and MDA-MB231 were grown for 48h at low serum conditions and characterized by DNA microarray hybridization. Hierarchical clustering of a total of 4333 elements that display a greater than 3-fold variance in expression in more than 3 different experimental samples. Data from individual elements or genes are represented as single rows, and different experiments are shown as columns. Red and green denote expression levels of the samples. The intensity of the color reflects the magnitude of the deviation from baseline. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering of the experiments grouped the biological replicates together. Gene expression varied considerably between fibroblast and MDA-MB231 as expected for cells of mesenchymal or epithelial origin respectively. The co-culture profile showed mainly intermediate expression levels. However, the vertical black bar marks a cluster of genes induced in all co-cultures compared to both mono-cultures indicating that they are induced by heterotypic interaction Set of arrays organized by shared biological context, such as organism, tumors types, processes, etc. Computed
Project description:Human scrotum and labia majora samples treated with DHT and/or AZA A compound treatment design type is where the response to administration of a compound or chemical (including biological compounds such as hormones) is assayed. Compound Based Treatment: dihydrotestosterone (DHT), 5-aza-deoxy-cytidine (AZA), none or both Cell Line: normal scrotum or labia majora derived from complete androgen insensitivity syndrome due to inactivating mutation of the androgen receptor gene Computed
Project description:Treatment of PBMC with 0.6 pM cytokine from 0-24h Abstract: Background Interferons are key modulators of the immune system, and are central to the control of many diseases. The response of immune cells to stimuli in complex populations is the product of direct and indirect effects, homotypic and heterotypic cell interactions. Dissecting the global transcriptional profiles of immune cell populations may provide insights into this regulatory interplay. The host transcriptional response may also be useful in discriminating between disease states, and in understanding pathophysiology. The transcriptional programs of cell populations in health therefore provide a paradigm for deconvoluting disease-associated gene expression profiles. Results: We used human cDNA microarrays to (1) compare the gene expression programs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) elicited by 6 major mediators of the immune response: interferons a, b, w and g, IL12 and TNFa; and (2) characterise the transcriptional responses of purified immune cell populations (CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, B cells, NK cells and monocytes) to IFNg stimulation. We defined a highly stereotyped response to type I interferons, while responses to IFNg and IL12 were largely restricted to a subset of type I interferon-inducible genes. TNFa stimulation resulted in a distinct pattern of gene expression. Cell type-specific transcriptional programs were identified, highlighting the pronounced response of monocytes to IFNg, and emergent properties associated with IFN-mediated activation of mixed cell populations. Conclusions: This information provides a detailed view of cellular activation by immune mediators, and contributes an interpretive framework for the detection and definition of host immune responses in a variety of disease settings. PBMC extraction and stimulation Human primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were purified from whole blood of healthy donors using Ficoll-Paque PLUS (GE Healthcare) according to manufacturers instructions. PBMCs were incubated at 1.5-2.0 x 106 cells/well for 24 h before stimulation in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with 10% heat-inactivated foetal calf serum and 2 mM L-glutamine (Invitrogen) at 37C, 5% CO2. Cells were treated with 0.006 pM, 0.6 pM or 60 pM recombinant IFNg (R&D Systems), and sampled at time intervals from 0.5 h to 12 h after stimulation. Additionally, cells were treated with 0.1 % BSA/PBS alone and used for untreated (mock) control time courses. RNA extraction and amplification Total RNA was extracted in TRIzol LS (Invitrogen) followed by standard chloroform purification and isopropanol precipitation. RNA was resuspended in RNase-free water, quantitated on the NanoDrop ND-1000 spectrophotometer (NanoDrop Technologies) and stored at -80C. 500 ng total RNA was amplified using the MessageAmp modified Eberwine linear amplification procedure (Applied Biosystems). All samples to be compared were extracted and amplified together. Microarray analysis 4 ug amplified RNA was labelled with Cy5-dUTP (GE Healthcare) and combined with 3 ug of Cy3-labelled reference cDNA derived from a pool of RNA derived from a panel of 11 human cell lines (Stratagene Universal Human Reference RNA). The samples were washed and concentrated using MinElute columns (Qiagen) and competitively hybridised to custom printed cDNA microarrays containing 37,632 elements for approximately 18,000 unique human genes. The hybridised slides were scanned using a GenePix 4000A microarray scanner (Axon Instruments). Comparative spot intensities were calculated from the images, and areas of poor quality excluded from further analysis using GenePix Pro 6.0 (Axon Instruments). Data were deposited in the Stanford Microarray Database. Analysis was restricted to cDNA elements with a regression correlation of > 0.6, fluorescence intensities of > 2.5 fold signal/background in Cy3 or Cy5 channels and a minimum signal intensity of > 100 in both channels for at least 80% of the arrays. The expression ratios were normalised for array variation, and the data zero-transformed using a custom-designed Microsoft Excel macro (C. Liu, Stanford). The statistical package SAM (Significance Analysis of Microarrays, version 1.15) was used to identify genes significantly differentially expressed in the normalised data sets by pairwise comparison with a minimum 2 fold cutoff at a false discovery rate of < 1% of the median. The transformed datasets were then hierarchically clustered using Cluster 2.11 and the results displayed using Treeview 1.60. A compound treatment design type is where the response to administration of a compound or chemical (including biological compounds such as hormones) is assayed.