ABSTRACT: Inner ear auditory and vestibular tissues differ in their responses to mechanical stimuli. Chick cochlea and utricle sensory epithelia were microdissected at E20-E21. RNA was extracted and cRNA hybridized to Affymetrix microarrays.
Project description:Our work describes the application of mass spectrometry-based label-free quantitative proteomics for the identification of differentially expressed proteins between different-aged cochlea. We report proteins exclusively present as well as up- and downregulated in the cochlear sensory epithelium at significant developmental stages. Additionally, we report proteins exclusively present on P3 that were recently identified in the cochlea for the first time. We use bioinformatics to provide insight on biological functions and potential primary and secondary partners of the differentially expressed proteins. This study provides the first differentially expressed proteome in the mammalian cochlea at significant developmental stages; before hearing, during the onset of hearing, and when hearing is fully developed. We believe that these results will provide insights into the function of proteins that change during development and identify potential protein biomarkers related to hearing impairments.
Project description:Adenocarcinoma is the most common type of non-small cell lung cancer. Some causative genomic alterations in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), including deletions in exon 19 (E19 dels) and a point mutation in E21, are known to have favourable prognoses due to sensitivity to tyrosine kinase inhibitors; however, the prognoses of other uncommon mutations are unclear. This study analysed the clinical significance of EGFR mutation types in lung adenocarcinoma. We retrospectively reviewed 1,020 subjects (mean age: 66.8 years, female: 41.7%) who were diagnosed with advanced lung adenocarcinoma, had EGFR mutation data, and did not undergo surgery from five medical institutes between 2010 and 2016. Subjects were classified according to EGFR mutation status, particularly for exon-specific mutations. EGFR positivity was defined as the presence of mutation and EGFR negativity was defined as wild-type EGFR. EGFR positivity was 38.0%, with the incidence of mutations in E18, E19, E20, and E21 was 3.6%, 51.0%, 3.4%, and 42.0%, respectively. The EGFR positive group survived significantly longer than the negative group (p<0.001), and there was a significant difference in survival among the four EGFR mutation sites (p = 0.003); E19 dels were the only significant factor that lowered mortality (HR: 0.678, p = 0.002), while an E21 mutation was the prognostic factor associated with the most increased mortality (HR: 1.365, p = 0.015). Amongst EGFR positive subjects, the proportion of E19 dels in TKI-responders was significantly higher and that of E21 mutations significantly lower, compared with non-responders. In TKI treatment, mutations in E18 and E20 were not worse factors than the E21 L858R mutation. In conclusion, the presence of EGFR mutations in advanced lung adenocarcinoma can predict a good prognosis; E19 dels prospect to have a better prognosis than other mutations, while an E21 mutation is expected to increase mortality.
Project description:Purified hair bundles and utricular epithelium from E19-E20 chick inner ears were analyzed by LC-MS/MS to determine the abundant and enriched proteins of the hair bundle. This dataset used a Thermo LTQ mass spectrometer for protein detection.
Project description:Purified hair bundles and utricular epithelium from E19-E20 chick inner ears were analyzed by LC-MS/MS to determine the abundant and enriched proteins of the hair bundle. This dataset used a Thermo LTQ Velos mass spectrometer for protein detection.
Project description:This is a reanalysis of PXD000104. Purified hair bundles and utricular epithelium from E19-E20 chick inner ears were analyzed by LC-MS/MS to determine the abundant and enriched proteins of the hair bundle. This dataset used a Thermo Orbitrap Elite mass spectrometer for protein detection.
Project description:Damage-activated stem/progenitor cells play important roles in regenerating lost cells and in tissue repair. Previous studies reported that the mouse utricle has limited hair cell regeneration ability after hair cell ablation. However, the potential progenitor cell population regenerating new hair cells remains undiscovered. In this study, we first found that Lgr5, a Wnt target gene that is not usually expressed in the neonatal mouse utricle, can be activated by 24 h neomycin treatment in a sub-population of supporting cells in the striolar region of the neonatal mouse utricle. Lineage tracing demonstrated that these Lgr5-positive supporting cells could regenerate new hair cells in explant culture. We isolated the damage-activated Lgr5-positive cells with flow cytometry and found that these Lgr5-positive supporting cells could regenerate hair cells in vitro, and self-renew to form spheres, which maintained the capacity to differentiate into hair cells over seven generations of passages. Our results suggest that damage-activated Lgr5-positive supporting cells act as hair cell progenitors in the neonatal mouse utricle, which may help to uncover a potential route to regenerate hair cell in mammals.
Project description:The mammalian cochlea loses its ability to regenerate new hair cells prior to the onset of hearing. In contrast, the adult vestibular system can produce new hair cells in response to damage, or by reprogramming of supporting cells with the hair cell transcription factor Atoh1. We used RNA-seq and ATAC-seq to probe the transcriptional and epigenetic responses of utricle supporting cells to damage and Atoh1 transduction. We show that the regenerative response of the utricle correlates with a more accessible chromatin structure in utricle supporting cells compared to their cochlear counterparts. We also provide evidence that Atoh1 transduction of supporting cells is able to promote increased transcriptional accessibility of some hair cell genes. Our study offers a possible explanation for regenerative differences between sensory organs of the inner ear, but shows that additional factors to Atoh1 may be required for optimal reprogramming of hair cell fate.
Project description:Notch signaling is active during the development of mosaic epithelial sheets and during their turnover and regeneration. After the loss of hair cells in the mosaic sheet of the vestibular sensory epithelium, new hair cells can be spontaneously generated by transdifferentiation of supporting cells. This regenerative process involves downregulation of the Hes5 gene and is known to be limited and incomplete, especially when the lesion is severe. Here, we test whether further downregulation of Hes5 gene accomplished by the use of siRNA after a severe lesion induced by an aminoglycoside in the mouse utricle can enhance the transdifferentiation of supporting cells and lead to the increased production of new hair cells. We demonstrate that Hes5 levels in the utricle decreased after the application of siRNA and that the number of hair cells in these utricles was significantly larger than following control treatment. The data suggest that siRNA technology may be useful for inducing repair and regeneration in the inner ear and that the Notch signaling pathway is a potentially useful target for specific gene expression inhibition.
Project description:Reelin and Disabled 1 (Dab1) are essential for positioning migrating neurons in the developing neocortex. Cell-autonomous RNA interference-mediated suppression of Dab1 in migrating neurons destined for layer 2/3 shifted the median position of these cells to deeper positions within the cortex. At the time of migration arrest [embryonic day 20 (E20) to E21], Dab1-suppressed cells were underrepresented in the upper approximately 40 microm of the cortex compared with controls, suggesting that Dab1 is essential for somal translocation through the cell-dense cortical plate. Closer examination of the morphology of Dab1-suppressed neurons at E20 revealed simplified leading processes that are less likely to contact the marginal zone (MZ), in which high levels of Reelin are expressed. Examination of Dab1-suppressed cells 3 d later (postnatal day 2) revealed simplified dendrites that are also less likely to contact the MZ. These data reveal a cell-autonomous role of Dab1 in dendritogenesis in the neocortex and suggest that remodeling of the leading process of a migrating neuron into a nascent dendrite by Reelin/Dab1 signaling plays an important role in cell positioning.