The genome of Tetranychus urticae reveals herbivorous pest adaptations
ABSTRACT: This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE31525: Spider mite preliminary feeding experiment with mites reared on bean and two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions GSE31527: Developmental stage-specific gene expression in the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) GSE32005: Developmental stage-specific small RNA composition in the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) GSE32009: Transcriptional responses of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) after transfer to different plant hosts Refer to individual Series
Project description:We sequenced messenger RNA from mixed stages of the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae) reared on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris cv California Red Kidney; the laboratory host plant for mites) and two Arabidopsis thaliana accessions which were considered to either be susceptible (Kondara) or resistant (Bla-2) to mite feeding. This pilot experiment was conducted to assess gene expression differences of mites grown on sensitive versus resistant Arabidopsis accessions, as well as differences in mites feeding on different host species. The expression data was used for gene model validation of genes predicted by EuGene in the spider mite genome and to assess gene expression levels. Examination of gene expression of spider mites reared on beans and two Arabidopsis accessions (Kondara and Bla-2).
Project description:We generated 77-bp Illumina reads from single messenger RNA libraries from four diverse developmental stages of the two-spotted spider mite to maximally capture the complement of transcribed sequences across development. Adult, nymphal, larvae and embryonic stages were separated using sieves of various pore sizes, and mites of various developmental stages were carefully selected for transcriptome library preparation. Samples were a mix of males and females to capture male and female patterns of transcription, and were reared on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv California Red Kidney). The RNA-Seq data was used for validation of gene models predicted by EuGene, and to study patterns of gene expression across development. Gene expression for spider mites from adult, nymph, larvae and embryonic developmental stages was examined (technical replicates were generated).
Project description:We generated 38-bp Illumina reads from single messenger RNA libraries from three diverse developmental stages of the two-spotted spider mite to capture small RNA diversity across development. Adult, nymphal+larvae and embryonic stages were separated using sieves of various pore sizes, and mites of various developmental stages were carefully selected for small RNA library preparation. Samples were a mix of males and females to capture male and female patterns of small RNA composition and were reared on beans (Phaseolus vulgaris cv California Red Kidney). Small RNA reads were used for miRNA prediction, piRNA discovery, and for quantitation of small RNA-generating loci (i.e. expression across development). Examination of small RNA from spider mites of adult, embryonic and pooled larval/nymphal developmental stages.
Project description:Spider mites, including the two-spotted spider mite (Tetranychus urticae, TSSM) and the Banks grass mite (Oligonychus pratensis, BGM), are becoming increasingly important agricultural pests. The TSSM is an extreme generalist documented to feed on more than 1100 plant hosts. In contrast, the BGM is a grass specialist, with hosts including important cereal crops like maize, wheat, sorghum and barley. Historically, studies of plant-herbivore interactions have focused largely on insects. However, far less is known about plant responses to spider mite herbivores, especially in grasses, and whether responses differ between generalists and specialists. To identify plant defense pathways responding to spider mites, we collected time course RNA-seq data from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) infested with TSSMs and BGMs. Additionally, and as a comparison to the physical damage caused by spider mite feeding, a wounding treatment was also included. The experiment was performed with four biological replicates across each of the following (28 samples in total): no infestation (C, control), 2hr after wounding (W2), 24hr after wounding (W24), 2hr after TSSM infestation (T2), 24hr after TSSM infestation (T24), 2hr after BGM infestation (B2), and 24hr after BGM infestation (B24).
Project description:The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is one of the most significant mite pests in agriculture that can feed on more than 1,100 plant hosts, including model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. Here, we described tomato transcriptional responses to spider mite feeding and compared them to Arabidopsis in order to determine conserved and divergent responses to this pest. 2,133 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) were detected at 1, 3, 6, 12 or 24 hours post spider mite infestation (hpi) relative to non-infested control plants. Based on Biological Process Gene Ontology annotations, improved in the course of our analysis, DEGs were grouped in 60 significantly enriched gene sets that highlighted perception of the spider mite attack (1 hpi), metabolic reprogramming (3-6 hpi), and establishment and maintenance of the defense responses (6-24 hpi). We used microarray to assess global gene expression in Solanum lycopersicum cv. Heinz 1706 upon Tetranychus urticae attack. 1 month old tomato plants were subjected to Tetranychus urticae attack through application of 100 adult mites on a terminal leaflet of leaf 3 for various periods of time (timecourse scenario) or hundreds of mites for 1 hour (feeding site scenario).
Project description:The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is one of the most significant mite pests in agriculture that can feed on more than 1,100 plant hosts, including model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and tomato, Solanum lycopersicum. In order to refine the involvement of jasmonic acid (JA) in mite-induced responses, we analyzed transcriptional changes in tomato JA signaling mutant defenseless1 (def-1) upon JA treatment and spider mite herbivory. We used microarray to assess global gene expression in Solanum lycopersicum def-1 cv. Castlemart upon jasmonic acid treatment and Tetranychus urticae attack. 1 month old def-1 tomato plants were subjected to Tetranychus urticae attack through application of 100 adult mites on a terminal leaflet of leaf 3 for 24 h or plants were sprayed with 1 mM jasmonic acid solution.
Project description:While pathogen-induced immunity is comparatively well characterized, far less is known about plant defense responses to arthropod herbivores. To date, most molecular-genetic studies of plant-arthropod interactions have focused on insects. However, plant-feeding (phytophagous) mites are also pests of diverse plants, and mites induce different patterns of damage to plant tissues than do well-studied insects (e.g., Lepidopteran larvae or aphids). The two-spotted spider mite, Tetranychus urticae, is among the most significant mite pests in agriculture. T. urticae is an extreme generalist that has been documented on a staggering number of plant hosts (more than 1,100), and is renowned for the rapid evolution of pesticide resistance. To understand reciprocal interactions between T. urticae and a plant host at the molecular level, we examined mite herbivory using Arabidopsis thaliana. Despite differences in feeding guilds, we found that transcriptional responses of A. thaliana to mite herbivory generally resembled those observed for insect herbivores. In particular, defense to mites was mediated by jasmonic acid (JA) biosynthesis and signaling. Further, indole glucosinolates dramatically increased mite mortality and development times. Variation in both basal and activated levels of these defense pathways might also explain differences in mite damage and feeding success between A. thaliana accessions. On the herbivore side, a diverse set of genes associated with detoxification of xenobiotics was induced upon exposure to increasing levels of in planta indole glucosinolates. Our findings provide molecular insights into the nature of, and response to, herbivory for a representative of a major class of arthropod herbivores. We used microarray to assess global gene expresion in Arabidopsis thaliana upon Tetranychus urticae attack in two A. thaliana accessions: Bla-2, resistant to spider mite herbivory and Kon, susceptible to spider mite herbivory. 3 week old Arabidopsis thaliana plants were subjected to Tetranychus urticae attack through application of 10 mites for various periods of time (timecourse scenario) or hundreds of mites for 1 hour (feeding site scenario).
Project description:The two-spotted spider mite Tetranychus urticae is an extreme polyphaguous crop pest. Next to an increased detoxification potential of plant secondary metabolites, it has recently been shown that spider mites manipulate plant defences. Salivary constituents are proposed to play an important role during the interaction with its many hosts. The proteomic composition of saliva delivered into artificial diet by spider mites adapted to various hosts - bean, soy, maize, tomato -was determined using Orbitrap mass spectrometry. Over 200 different proteins were identified, many of unknown function and in numerous cases belonging to multi-membered gene families. A selection of these putative salivary proteins was validated using whole-mount in situ hybridizations and expression was shown to be localized in the anterior and dorsal podocephalic glands of the spider mite. Host-plant dependent expression was evident from the proteomics dataset and was further studied in detail by micro-array based genome wide gene expression profiling of mites maintained on the host plants under study. Previously obtained gene-expression datasets were further used to get more insight in the expression profile over different life stages and physiological states. To conclude, for the first time the T. urticae salivary proteome repertoire was characterized using a custom feeding hemisphere-based enrichment technique. This knowledge will assist in unraveling the molecular interactions between phytophagous mites and their host plants. This may ultimately facilitate the development of mite-resistant crops.
Project description:The goal of our microarray experiments was to compare the gene expression profile of two spirodiclofen resistant spider mite strains (SR-VP and SR-TK) with that of a susceptible spider mite strain (LS-VL) 5 samples were analyzed: 3 biological replicates for SR-VP, 2 biological replicates for SR-TK
Project description:Generalist arthropod herbivores rapidly adapt to a broad range of host plants. However, the extent of transcriptional reprogramming in the herbivore and its hosts associated with adaptation remains poorly understood. Using the spider mite Tetranychus urticae and tomato as models with available genomic resources, we investigated the reciprocal genome-wide transcriptional changes in both spider mite and tomato as a consequence of mite’s adaptation to tomato We used microarray to assess global gene expression in Solanum lycopersicum cv. Moneymaker upon Tetranychus urticae attack by tomato-adapted and non-adapted spider mite lines. Overall design: 1 month old tomato plants were subjected to Tetranychus urticae attack through application of 100 adult mites on a terminal leaflet of leaves 3 and 4 for 24 hours (200 mites per plant).