Genome-wide analysis of gene expression of Th1 and Tfh LCMV-specific Smarta CD4 T cell populations
ABSTRACT: In this study, we sought to distinguish phenotypically and functionally distinct virus-specific effector CD4 T cell subsets that form during acute lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus (LCMV) infection and to examine their ability to develop into memory T cells. To further characterize the effector subsets and identify genetic pathways and transcription factors involved in their differentiation, we performed genome-wide gene expression profiling of the three day 8 effector cell populations: (1) PSGL1hi Ly6Chi, (2) PSGL1hi Ly6Clo and (3) PSGL1lo Ly6Clo Smarta CD4 T cells along with (4) day 60 memory PSGL1hi and (5) naïve Smarta CD4 T cells using Illumina BeadChips. Results of this microarray confirmed the validity of our phenotyping by flow cytometry in many ways and showed distinct gene signatures for the three effector subsets. DNA microarray analysis was performed on two or three independent samples of five different Smarta CD4 T cell populations: (1) naïSGL1lo, (3) day 8 PSGL1hi Ly6Clo, (4) day 8 PSGL1hi Ly6Clo and (5) day 60 PSGL1hi memory cells.
Project description:Following infection with LCMV, CD4+ SMARTA TCR transgenic cells (specific for the gp61-80 epitope of the LCMV glycoprotein) rapidly expand, become effector cells, and go on to form a long-lived memory population. Following infection with a recombinant Listeria monocytogenes expressing the LCMV epitope gp61-80, SMARTA cells also expand but display defective effector differentiation and fail to form memory. In an attempt to understand the signals required for CD4 T cell memory differentiation, we compared gene expression by SMARTA cells at the peak of the primary response following either Lm-gp61 or LCMV infection. Experiment Overall Design: SMARTA cells were purified at day 7 post-infection with either LCMV or Lm-gp61. SMARTA cells were sorted on the basis of Thy1.1 expression using a FACSAria. Cells were sorted through the machine twice to enhance purity. Two biological replicates of each group are provided. Each replicate represents the results of SMARTA pooled from three animals.
Project description:Following infection with LCMV, CD4+ SMARTA TCR transgenic cells (specific for the gp61-80 epitope of the LCMV glycoprotein) rapidly expand, become effector cells, and go on to form a long-lived memory population. Following infection with a recombinant Listeria monocytogenes expressing the LCMV epitope gp61-80, SMARTA cells also expand but display defective effector differentiation and fail to form memory. In an attempt to understand the signals required for CD4 T cell memory differentiation, we compared gene expression by SMARTA cells at the peak of the primary response following either Lm-gp61 or LCMV infection. Keywords: response to LCMV or Lm-gp61 infection Overall design: SMARTA cells were purified at day 7 post-infection with either LCMV or Lm-gp61. SMARTA cells were sorted on the basis of Thy1.1 expression using a FACSAria. Cells were sorted through the machine twice to enhance purity. Two biological replicates of each group are provided. Each replicate represents the results of SMARTA pooled from three animals.
Project description:CD4 T follicular helper (Tfh) cells provide the required signals to B cells for germinal center reactions that are necessary for longlived antibody responses. However, it remains unclear whether there are CD4+ memory T cells committed to the Tfh lineage after antigen clearance. Using adoptive transfer of antigen-specific memory CD4+ subpopulations (based on CXCR5 and Ly6c expression)in the LCMV infection model, we found that there are distinct memory CD4+ T cell populations with commitment to the Tfh and Th1 lineages. Our conclusions are based on gene expression profiles, epigenetic studies and phenotypic and functional analysis. The gene expression profiles of virus-specific CD4 T cell subets at effector and memory stages is presented here. The SMARTA TCR transgenic / adptive transfer system was used to identify and sort subsets of antigen-specific CD4 T cells (based on their expression of Ly6c and CXCR5) elicited after acute infection with LCMV (Arm).
Project description:Trascriptional analysis of CD2 hi and CD25 lo CD4+ effector T cells during acute viral infection. SMARTA cells were transferred into B6 mice, followed by infection with LCMV. At day 5 post-infection, CD25 hi and CD25 lo SMARTA cells were isolated from the spleen by FACS. Consistent with our prior studies showing that CD25 lo early effector cells give rise to both Tfh effector cells and memory T cells, we observed gene expression in the CD25 lo population consistent with Tfh differentiation. Conversely, CD25 hi effector cells expressed markers consistent with Th1 differentiation and short-term survival. Overall design: mRNA profiles of monoclonal transgenic CD4+ T cells with divergent CD25 surface expression 5 days post LCMV infection in mice
Project description:Differentiation of CD4+T-cells into effector subsets is a critical component of the adaptive immune system and an incorrect response can lead to autoimmunity or immune deficiency. Cellular differentiation including T-cell differentiation is accompanied by large-scale epigenetic remodeling, including changes in DNA methylation at key regulators of T-cell differentiation. The TET family of enzymes were recently shown to be able to catalyse methylated cytosine (5mC) into 5-hydroxymethylcytosine (5hmC) enabling a pathway of active removal of DNA methylation. Here, we characterize 5hmC, 5mC and transcriptional dynamics during human CD4+T-cell polarisation in a time series approach and relate these changes to profiles in ex-vivo CD4+memory subsets. We observed large-scale remodelling during early CD4+T-cell differentiation which was predictive of subsequent changes during late time points, these changes were also related to disease associated regions which we show can act as functional regulatory elements. This dataset was designed to assess how DNA methylation differs between in-vivo derived CD4+memory T-cell subsets. DNA methylation was assessed in relationship to gene expression levels and changes (see data series), we observed anticorrelation between promoter DNA methylation levels and gene expression. This submission contains data from DNA methylation profiling of primary human CD4+T-cell memory subsets. This is part of a series, containing transcription and DNA methylation profiling of the same samples. See related experiments E-MTAB-4685, E-MTAB-4686, E-MTAB-4687, E-MTAB-4688
Project description:Elite Long-Term Nonprogressors are asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals who display long-term virtually undetectable viremia, stable CD4 T cell counts and extremeley low levels of HIV reservoir, in the absence of antiretroviral therapy. We conducted a whole-genome transcriptional profiling study of sorted resting CD4 T cell subsets (naive, central memory, transitional memory and effector memory) in 7 Elite Long-Term Nonprogressors, 7 HIV-infected viremic and 7 uninfected individuals. HIV-1 cellular DNA levels were quantified in each sorted CD4 T cell subset
Project description:CD4 T cells play critical roles in promoting inflammation and helping immune responses, but knowledge of how memory CD4 T cells are regulated and how they help adaptive immune responses is limited. Using adoptive transfer of virus-specific CD4 T cells, we show that naïve CD4 T cells undergo substantial expansion following viral infection, but can induce lethal TH1-driven inflammation. In contrast, memory CD4 T cells exhibit a biased proliferation of T follicular helper (Tfh) cell subsets that correlate with improved adaptive responses and minimal tissue damage following viral infection. Importantly, our analyses revealed that type I interferon regulates the expansion of naïve CD4 T cells, but does not seem to play a critical role in regulating the expansion of memory CD4 T cells. Moreover, blockade of type I interferon signaling abrogated lethal CD4 T cell inflammation following viral infection. Taken together, these data demonstrate a previously undescribed function for memory CD4 T cells: to help adaptive immunity with minimal harm to the host. These findings are important for rational vaccine design and for improving the safety and efficacy of adoptive T cell therapies against persistent antigens. Primary and memory SMARTA cells were MACS-purified by negative selection (STEMCELL) and then FACS-sorted to 98% purity on a FACS Aria (BD Biosciences) according to congenic marker expression (CD45.1+ for secondary, and CD45.1+ CD45.2+ for primary, CD4 T cell responses). Overall design: We explored the differences between secondary CD4 compared to Primary CD4.
Project description:Here we implemented a simple dendritic cell (DC)-mediated immunization approach to study the effects of commonly used adjuvants, Toll like receptor (TLR) ligands, on effector CD8 T cell differentiation and memory T cell development. To our surprise, we found that the TLR4 ligand LPS was far more superior to other TLR ligands in generating memory CD8 T cells upon immunization. LPS boosted clonal expansion similar to the other adjuvants, but fewer of the activated CD8 T cells died during contraction, generating a larger pool of memory cells. Intriguingly, monophosphoryl lipid A (MPLA), another TLR4 ligand, enhanced clonal expansion of effector CD8 T cells, but also promoted their terminal differentiation and contraction; thus, fewer memory CD8 T cells formed and MPLA-primed animals were less protected against secondary infection compared to those primed with LPS. Furthermore, gene expression profiling revealed that LPS-primed effector cells displayed a stronger pro-memory gene expression signature, whereas the gene expression profile of MPLA-primed effector cells had aligned closer with terminal effector CD8 T cells. Mice that contain small number of P14 CD8 T cells were immunized with DC-33 either alone or in combination with LPS or MPLA. KLRG1loIL-7Rhi MPECs were purified by FACS sort, and mRNA isolated from MPECs was subjected to whole-genome expression profiling using Illumina MouseWG-6 v2.0 Expression BeadChip.
Project description:The generation of CD8+ T-cell memory is an important aim of immunization. While several distinct subsets of CD8+ T-cell memory have been described, the lineage relationships between effector (EFF), effector memory (EM) and central memory (CM) T cells remain contentious. Specifically, there is contradictory experimental evidence to support both the linear (Naive>EFF>EM>CM) and progressive differentiation (Naive>CM>EM>EFF) models. In this study, we applied a systems biology approach to examine global transcriptional relationships between the three major CD8+ T cell subsets arising endogenously as a result of vaccination with three different prime-boost vaccine regimens. Differential gene expression analysis and principle component analysis revealed that central memory cells were more closely related to naive T cells than both effector memory and effector cells. When the transcriptional relationships between subsets were enriched in an unbiased fashion with known global transcriptional changes that result when T-cells repeatedly encounter antigen, our analysis favored a model whereby cumulative antigenic stimulation drives differentiation specifically from Naive > CM > EM > EFF. These findings provide an insight into the lineage relationship between mature CD8+ T-cell subsets and will help in the rational design of vaccines aimed at generating effective immune responses against infections and cancer. Effector (EFF), effector memory (EM), central memory (CM) and naive CD8+ T cells from mice spleen. Memory subset arise endogenously as a result of vaccination with three different prime-boost vaccine regimens: DNA-rAd5, rAd5-rAd5 and rAd5-rLCMV.
Project description:Targeted HIV cure strategies require definition of the mechanisms that maintain the virus. Here, we tracked HIV replication and the persistence of infected CD4 T cells in individuals with natural virologic control by sequencing viruses, T cell receptor genes, HIV integration sites and cellular transcriptomes. Our results revealed three mechanisms of HIV persistence operating within distinct anatomic and functional compartments. In lymph node, we detected viruses with genetic and transcriptional attributes of active replication in both T follicular helper (TFH) cells and non-TFH memory cells. In blood, we detected inducible proviruses of archival origin among highly differentiated, clonally expanded cells. Linking the lymph node and blood was a small population of circulating cells harboring inducible proviruses of recent origin. Thus, HIV replication in lymphoid tissue, clonal expansion of infected cells, and recirculation of recently infected cells act together to maintain the virus in HIV controllers despite effective antiviral immunity. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) was used to sort subsets of CD4 T cells from blood (peripheral blood mononuclear cells; PBMC) and lymph node from a cohort of HIV-infected people with natural control of the virus (termed HIV controllers). Subsets of CD4 T cells that were sorted are as follows: from blood, (1) naïve (N), (2) central memory (CM), (3) transitional memory (TM), and (4) effector memory (EM); from lymph node, (1) naïve (N), (2) non-germinal center T-follicular helpers (nGC), (3) germinal center T-follicular helpers (Tfh), (4) effector memory (EM), and (5) other central memory-like subsets (CMPD1lo57lo, CMPD1lo57hi, and/or CMPD1lo). Total RNA and total DNA were extracted from these sorted subsets in separate fractions using RNAzol RT and DNAzol. Total cellular DNA was used for HIV quantification and sequence analysis as describe in the publication. Total RNA used for mRNA library construction by oligo-dT purification (Dynabeads), random fragmentation by heating in the presence of Magnesium (in form of 5x first-strand buffer, LifeTech), reverse transcription (SuperScript III), and then second-strand synthesis, end repair, a-tailing, and adaptor ligation using NEBNext enzyme master mixes and oligonucleotides. Libraries were sequenced on an Illumina HiSeq2000. Please note that each 'source name' value represent individual who havs HIV infection with natural control of the virus.