Transcription profiling by array of yeast treatment with rapamycin and compound CID 3528206
ABSTRACT: Compound CID 3538206 inhibits yeast TORC1 activity and functionally mimic rapamycin. We used microarrays to compare the global gene expression with the treatment of CID 3528206 and rapamycin. BY4741 yeast cells were treated with1% DMSO, 20 uM CID 3528206 and 200 nM rapamycin in duplicate for 3hrs. RNA extracted and labeled to probe yeast gene arrays
Project description:The centromere-specific Histone H3-variant CENH3 (also known as CENP-A) is considered to be an epigenetic mark for establishment and propagation of centromere identity. Pulse-induction of CENH3 (Drosophila CID) in Schneider S2 cells incorporates into noncentromeric regions and generates CID islands that resist clearing from chromosome arms for multiple cell generations. We demonstrate that CID islands represent functional ectopic kinetochores, which are non-randomly distributed on the chromosome and display a preferential localization near telomeres and pericentric heterochromatin in transcriptionally silent, intergenic chromatin domains. Although overexpression of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) or increasing Histone acetylation interferes with CID islands formation on a global scale, induction of a locally defined region of synthetic heterochromatin by targeting HP1-LacI fusions to stably integrated Lac Operator arrays produces a proximal hotspot for CID islands formation. These data suggest that the characteristics of regions bordering heterochromatin promote de novo kinetochore assembly and thereby contribute to centromere identity.
Project description:CID 70698683 is a novel broad-spectrum antiviral compound. To understand the broad-spectrum antiviral mechanism, the cellular gene expression changes by the treatment of CID70698683 was measured. HEp-2 cells grown in 6-well plates were treated with 5 microM of CID 70698683 for overnight and the cellular RNA was extracted (Treatment group). For control, DMSO was used instead of CID 70698683 (final concentration of 0.25%). Three replicates per group used.
Project description:The Target Of Rapamycin (TOR) protein is a Ser/Thr kinase that functions in two distinct multiprotein complexes: TORC1 and TORC2. These conserved complexes regulate many different aspects of cell growth in response to intra- and extracellular cues. Here we report the first bona fide substrate of yeast TORC1: the AGC-kinase Sch9. Six amino acids in the c-terminus of Sch9 are directly phosphorylated by TORC1. Phosphorylation of these residues is lost upon rapamycin-treatment as well as carbon- or nitrogen-starvation and transiently reduced following application of osmotic, oxidative or thermal stress. TORC1-dependent phosphorylation is required for Sch9 activity and replacement of residues phosphorylated by TORC1 with Asp/Glu renders Sch9 activity TORC1-independent. Sch9 is required for TORC1 to properly regulate ribosome biogenesis, translation initiation and entry into G0 phase, but not expression of Gln3-dependent genes. Our results suggest that Sch9 functions analogously to the mammalian TORC1 substrate S6K1 rather than the mTORC2 substrate PKB/Akt. Keywords: time course, cell type. Global transcriptional analysis of rapamycin response was conducted on cells expressing either a wild-type, Sch9(WT), or TOR-independent allele of Sch9, Sch9(2D3E). Reference samples used were cells collected immediately prior to rapamycin treatment for the respective cell genotypes. Test samples were collected 20, 30, 60, 90, 120, and 180min post rapamycin treatment.
Project description:Target of rapamycin complex 1 (TORC1) is implicated in growth control and aging from yeast to humans. Fission yeast is emerging as a popular model organism to study TOR signaling, although rapamycin has been thought to not affect cell growth in this organism. Here we analyzed the effects of rapamycin and caffeine, singly and combined, on multiple cellular processes in fission yeast. The two drugs led to diverse and specific phenotypes that depended on TORC1 signaling pathway inhibition, including prolonged chronological lifespan, inhibition of global translation, inhibition of cell growth and division, and reprogramming of global gene expression mimicking nitrogen starvation. Rapamycin and caffeine differentially affected these various TORC1-dependent processes. Combined drug treatment augmented most phenotypes and effectively blocked cell growth. Although rapamycin showed a much more subtle effect on global translation than did caffeine, rapamycin was more effective in prolonging chronological lifespan. Rapamycin prolonged the lifespan of non-growing cells only when applied during the growth phase but not when applied after cells had stopped proliferation. The doses of rapamycin and caffeine strongly correlated with growth inhibition and with lifespan extension. This comprehensive analysis will inform future studies into TORC1 function and cellular aging in fission yeast and beyond.
Project description:The centromere-specific Histone H3-variant CENH3 (also known as CENP-A) is considered to be an epigenetic mark for establishment and propagation of centromere identity. Pulse-induction of CENH3 (Drosophila CID) in Schneider S2 cells incorporates into noncentromeric regions and generates CID islands that resist clearing from chromosome arms for multiple cell generations. We demonstrate that CID islands represent functional ectopic kinetochores, which are non-randomly distributed on the chromosome and display a preferential localization near telomeres and pericentric heterochromatin in transcriptionally silent, intergenic chromatin domains. Although overexpression of heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) or increasing Histone acetylation interferes with CID islands formation on a global scale, induction of a locally defined region of synthetic heterochromatin by targeting HP1-LacI fusions to stably integrated Lac Operator arrays produces a proximal hotspot for CID islands formation. These data suggest that the characteristics of regions bordering heterochromatin promote de novo kinetochore assembly and thereby contribute to centromere identity. ArrayExpress Release Date: 2011-07-15 Person Roles: submitter Person Last Name: Diehl Person First Name: Sarah Person Mid Initials: Person Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Person Phone: (+49) 761 5108 795 Person Address: Stuebeweg 51, 79108 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany Person Affiliation: Max-Planck-Institute for Immunobiology and Epigenetics Person Roles: investigator Person Last Name: Heun Person First Name: Patrick Person Mid Initials: Person Email: email@example.com Person Phone: (+49) 761 5108 717 Person Address: Stuebeweg 51, 79108 Freiburg im Breisgau, Germany Person Affiliation: Max-Planck-Institute for Immunobiology and Epigenetics Publication Title: Heterochromatin boundaries are hotspots for de novo kinetochore formation. Publication Author List: Agata Olszak, Dominic van Essen, Antonio J. Pereira, Sarah Diehl, Thomas Manke, Helder Maiato, Simona Saccani and Patrick Heun Overall design: Experimental Design: translational_design Experimental Design: in_vitro_design Experimental Design: ChiP-seq Experimental Factor Name: Immunoprecipitate Experimental Factor Type: Immunoprecipitate
Project description:Homodimerization of Mpl can also be accomplished in the absence of Tpo, by binding of a synthetic ligand (Chemical inducer of dimerization, CID) to a constitutively expressed fusion protein F36VMpl consisting of a ligand binding domain (F36V) and the intracellular signaling domain of Mpl. In contrast to Tpo stimulation, F36VMpl dimerization in human CD34+ progenitor cells generates robust erythropoiesis. Microarray gene expression profiling of progenitors demonstrated that F36VMpl dimerization, but not Tpo, results in upregulation of critical erythroid genes. CD34+ cord blood cells were transduced with F36VMpl-GFP (GFP reporter gene) and cultured on MS-5 stroma for 7 days in the presence of CID, Tpo, Epo or no factors (no CID, negative control). CD34+GFP+ cells were sorted on day 7 and subjected to microarray (n=3 independent experiments).
Project description:A variety of high-throughput techniques are now available for constructing comprehensive gene regulatory networks in systems biology. In this study, we report a new statistical approach for facilitating in silico inference of regulatory network structure. The new measure of association, coefficient of intrinsic dependence (CID), is model-free and can be applied to both continuous and categorical distributions. When given two variables X and Y, CID answers whether Y is dependent on X by examining the conditional distribution of Y given X. In this paper, we apply CID to analyze the regulatory relationships between transcription factors (TFs) (X) and their downstream genes (Y) based on clinical data. More specifically, we use estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) as the variable X, and the analyses are based on 48 clinical breast cancer gene expression arrays (48A). RESULTS: The analytical utility of CID was evaluated in comparison with four commonly used statistical methods, Galton-Pearson's correlation coefficient (GPCC), Student's t-test (STT), coefficient of determination (CoD), and mutual information (MI). When being compared to GPCC, CoD, and MI, CID reveals its preferential ability to discover the regulatory association where distribution of the mRNA expression levels on X and Y does not fit linear models. On the other hand, when CID is used to measure the association of a continuous variable (Y) against a discrete variable (X), it shows similar performance as compared to STT, and appears to outperform CoD and MI. In addition, this study established a two-layer transcriptional regulatory network to exemplify the usage of CID, in combination with GPCC, in deciphering gene networks based on gene expression profiles from patient arrays. CONCLUSION: CID is shown to provide useful information for identifying associations between genes and transcription factors of interest in patient arrays. When coupled with the relationships detected by GPCC, the association predicted by CID are applicable to the construction of transcriptional regulatory networks. This study shows how information from different data sources and learning algorithms can be integrated to investigate whether relevant regulatory mechanisms identified in cell models can also be partially re-identified in clinical samples of breast cancers. AVAILABILITY: the implementation of CID in R codes can be freely downloaded from (http://homepage.ntu.edu.tw/~lyliu/BC/). Overall design: Total 48 clinical arrays (48A) used in this study can be found in GSE9309. We designed the experiments using a given breast cancer population with clear status of estrogen receptor alpha (ER), which were confirmed by immunochemical staining (If ³10% immunopositive stain is found at tumor section, we designate it as ER(+). Otherwise, it is ER(-). ) in this study. 48A consist of 36A with positive in ER status and of 12A with negative in ER status.
Project description:To study TORC1-Atg1 signaling comprehensively and to identify potential additional foci of crosstalk, we chose a mass spectrometry (MS)-based phosphoproteomics strategy combing global proteomics screens in vivo with targeted analyses using in vitro kinase reactions. We present the currently largest compendium of rapamycin-sensitive phosphorylation events in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, identify numerous unknown TORC1 and Atg1 downstream phosphorylation events, and characterize hitherto unknown, functionally relevant TORC1 target sites on defined Atg proteins.
Project description:Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (TORC1) signaling promotes growth and ageing. Inhibition of TORC1 leads to a down-regulation of factors that stimulate protein translation, which in turn contributes to longevity. TORC1-dependent post-transcriptional regulation of protein translation has been well studied, while analogous transcriptional regulation is less understood. Here we screened fission yeast deletion mutants for resistance to Torin1, which inhibits TORC1 and cell growth. Cells lacking the GATA transcription factor Gaf1 (gaf1Δ) grew normally even in high doses of Torin1. The gaf1Δ mutation shortened the chronological lifespan of non-dividing cells and diminished the longevity triggered by Torin1 treatment. Expression profiling and genome-wide binding experiments showed that, upon TORC1 inhibition, Gaf1 directly up-regulated genes for small-molecule metabolic pathways and indirectly repressed genes for protein translation. Surprisingly, Gaf1 bound to, and down-regulated the tRNA genes, so also functions as a transcription factor for genes transcribed by RNA polymerase III. Thus, Gaf1 controls the transcription of both coding and tRNA genes to inhibit translation and growth downstream of TORC1.