ABSTRACT: As a first step towards identifying the target genes of EGFR activity in glioma cells, genome-wide expression analyses were performed using the Affymetrix GeneChip Human Genome U133A array. To accomplish this, mRNA expression levels of these genes were measured in the glioblastoma cell lines, U87 and U178, engineered with EGFR by retrovirus transduction (termed U87-EGFR and U178-EGFR respectively), with or without 20 ng/mL EGF treatment for 3 h. U87 and U178 cells engineered to express EGFR were stimulated with or without EGF. The experiment was replicated twice for each U87 and U178 cells.
Project description:The EGF-receptor (EGFR) is amplified and mutated in glioblastoma (GBM) where its common mutation, (∆EGFR, also called EGFRvIII) has a variety of activities that promote growth and inhibit death, thereby conferring a strong tumor-enhancing effect. This range of activities suggested to us that ∆EGFR might exert its influence through pleiotropic effectors and we hypothesized that microRNAs (miRs) might serve such a function. To test this, we determined the miR profiles of GBM cells with activated wild type EGFR (wtEGFR) and mutant EGFR (∆EGFR) to cells with non-activated EGFR or kinase dead ∆EGFR. To identify miRs regulated by EGFR, RNA from 2 different glioma cell lines (U87 and U373) were hybridized to miR expression arrays and analyzed. Each cell type was engineered to express wild type EGFR (wtEGFR), dead kinase ∆EGFR (DK) or ∆EGFR at elevated levels similar to those observed in primary glioblastomas displaying EGFR overexpression. Parental cells expressing endogenous EGFR and wtEGFR cells stimulated with EGF for 1hr were also included in the analyses.
Project description:Several types of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) gene alternations have been observed in human tumors. Here we present a novel EGFR variant with aberrant splicing of exon 4 (named as de4 EGFR). Variant-specific polymerase chain reaction showed that de4 EGFR was expressed in some glioma (4/40), prostate cancer (3/11), and ovarian cancer (3/9) tissues but not in tissues adjacent to tumors or normal tissues. de4 EGFR displayed an enhanced transformation and a higher metastasis-promoting capacity in comparison to wild-type EGFR. With minimal EGF-binding activity, de4 EGFR underwent ligand-independent autophosphorylation and self-dimerization. Moreover, in serum-starved condition, de4 EGFR expression in U87 MG cells significantly upregulated the extracellular signal-regulated kinase and AKT phosphorylation and expression of JUN and Src. Importantly, E-cadherin expression was barely detectable in the U87 MG cells expressing de4 EGFR and restored expression of E-cadherin in these cells inhibited their metastatic behaviors. Taken together, we identified a novel EGFR variant with increased metastasis-promoting activity that may become a promising new target for cancer therapy.
Project description:Receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) regulate critical cell signaling pathways, yet the properties of their cognate ligands that influence receptor activation are not fully understood. There is great interest in parsing these complex ligand-receptor relationships using engineered proteins with altered binding properties. Here we focus on the interaction between two engineered epidermal growth factor (EGF) mutants and the EGF receptor (EGFR), a model member of the RTK superfamily. We found that EGF mutants with faster kinetic on-rates stimulate increased EGFR activation compared to wild-type EGF. These findings support previous predictions that faster association rates correlate with enhanced receptor activity.
Project description:Extracellular heat shock protein HSP90? was reported to participate in tumor cell growth, invasion, and metastasis formation through poorly understood signaling pathways. Herein, we show that extracellular HSP90? favors cell migration of glioblastoma U87 cells. More specifically, externally applied HSP90? rapidly induced endocytosis of EGFR. This response was accompanied by a transient increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) appearing after 1-3 min of treatment. In the presence of EGF, U87 cells showed HSP90?-induced Ca(2+) oscillations, which were reduced by the ATP/ADPase, apyrase, and inhibited by the purinergic P(2) inhibitor, suramin, suggesting that ATP release is requested. Disruption of lipid rafts with methyl ?-cyclodextrin impaired the Ca(2+) rise induced by extracellular HSP90? combined with EGF. Specific inhibition of TLR4 expression by blocking antibodies suppressed extracellular HSP90?-induced Ca(2+) signaling and the associated cell migration. HSPs are known to bind lipopolysaccharides (LPSs). Preincubating cells with Polymyxin B, a potent LPS inhibitor, partially abrogated the effects of HSP90? without affecting Ca(2+) oscillations observed with EGF. Extracellular HSP90? induced EGFR phosphorylation at Tyr-1068, and this event was prevented by both the protein kinase C? inhibitor, rottlerin, and the c-Src inhibitor, PP2. Altogether, our results suggest that extracellular HSP90? transactivates EGFR/ErbB1 through TLR4 and a PKC?/c-Src pathway, which induces ATP release and cytosolic Ca(2+) increase and finally favors cell migration. This mechanism could account for the deleterious effects of HSPs on high grade glioma when released into the tumor cell microenvironment.
Project description:The formation of U87 tumor spheres was associated with expression changes of many genes which was reverted by the treatment with ITE(2-(1'H-indole-3'-carbonyl)-thiazole-4-carboxylic acid methyl ester). We used DNA microarrays to profile gene expression in U87 tumor spheres treated with ITE and identified distinct classes of up-regulated and down-regulated genes during this process. U87 cells were selected for RNA extraction and hybridization on Affymetrix microarrays. We compared the expression profiles of parental U87 cells, U87 tumor sphere cells treated with vehicle (DMSO) and U87 tumor sphere cells treated with ITE.
Project description:Tissue transglutaminase (tTG) is a GTP-binding protein/acyltransferase whose expression is upregulated in glioblastoma and associated with decreased patient survival. Here, we delineate a unique mechanism by which tTG contributes to the development of gliomas by using two glioblastoma cell lines, U87 and LN229, whose growth and survival are dependent on tTG. We show that tTG significantly enhances the signaling activity and lifespan of EGF receptors (EGFRs) in these brain cancer cells. Moreover, overexpressing tTG in T98G glioblastoma cells that normally express low levels of tTG caused a marked upregulation of EGFR expression and transforming activity. Furthermore, we show that tTG accentuates EGFR signaling by blocking c-Cbl-catalyzed EGFR ubiquitylation through the ability of tTG to bind GTP and adopt a specific conformation that enables it to interact with c-Cbl. These findings demonstrate that tTG contributes to gliomagenesis by interfering with EGFR downregulation and, thereby, promoting transformation.
Project description:Transcriptome analysis was performed from human U87 glioblastoma cell clones: U87 IRE1.NCK DN (U87dn, IRE1 dominant negative) and U87 control (U87ctrl, empty plasmid). Cells were grown in DMEM supplemented with 10% FBS and glutamine for 16 hours in culture prior mRNA isolation and analyses U87dn cells expressing a dominant negative transgene of IRE1alpha were compared to U87ctrl cells transfected with the corresponding empty plamid to identify genes associated to tumor invasion and angiogenesis.
Project description:A growing number of studies are evaluating retinal progenitor cell (RPC) transplantation as an approach to repair retinal degeneration and restore visual function. To advance cell-replacement strategies for a practical retinal therapy, it is important to define the molecular and biochemical mechanisms guiding RPC motility. We have analyzed RPC expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and evaluated whether exposure to epidermal growth factor (EGF) can coordinate motogenic activity in vitro. Using Boyden chamber analysis as an initial high-throughput screen, we determined that RPC motility was optimally stimulated by EGF concentrations in the range of 20-400 ng/ml, with decreased stimulation at higher concentrations, suggesting concentration-dependence of EGF-induced motility. Using bioinformatics analysis of the EGF ligand in a retina-specific gene network pathway, we predicted a chemotactic function for EGF involving the MAPK and JAK-STAT intracellular signaling pathways. Based on targeted inhibition studies, we show that ligand binding, phosphorylation of EGFR and activation of the intracellular STAT3 and PI3kinase signaling pathways are necessary to drive RPC motility. Using engineered microfluidic devices to generate quantifiable steady-state gradients of EGF coupled with live-cell tracking, we analyzed the dynamics of individual RPC motility. Microfluidic analysis, including center of mass and maximum accumulated distance, revealed that EGF induced motility is chemokinetic with optimal activity observed in response to low concentration gradients. Our combined results show that EGFR expressing RPCs exhibit enhanced chemokinetic motility in the presence of low nanomole levels of EGF. These findings may serve to inform further studies evaluating the extent to which EGFR activity, in response to endogenous ligand, drives motility and migration of RPCs in retinal transplantation paradigms.