Drought stressed corn grown on summit/shoulder vs. well hydrated corn grown on backslope
ABSTRACT: This study was designed to identify changes in gene expression that occur when corn was grown on different landscape features. Specifically on the backslope or summit/shoulder of a hill. In rolling landscapes, plant available water varies drastically by location and soil type. Almost simultaneously, plants may be flooded out in footslope locations whereas plants in summit locations may be suffering from severe drought. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of landscape position on corn (Zea mays) productivity and gene regulation. Corn was sampled at V12 for plant growth characteristics and transcriptome analysis at summit/shoulder and lower backslope positions. Plants at the summit had 16% less leaf area and biomass compared with plants at the toeslope. Gene expression analysis using microarray chips, transcriptome analysis, and qPCR indicated that plants at the summit had 708 genes down-regulated and 399 genes up-regulated compared to control plants at the lower back slope. GSEA (Gene Set Enrichment Analysis) indicated tolerance to cold, salt, and drying were increased in summit/should plants compared to control toeslope plants. However, nutrient uptake, recovery from wounding, pest and fungal disease resistance, along with photosynthetic capacity were all down-regulated in moderate water stresses plants. These responses suggest that corn preferentially responses to water stress as the expense of its ability to respond to other stresses. Three biological replicates for the control (backslope) and six biological replicate of summit/shoulder-grown plants were collected. The resulting labeled cDNA was hybridized to the 46,000-element maize microarray chip developed by the University of Arizona using their protocol (International Microarray Workshop Handbook, 2009Gardiner et al. 2005). The hybridization scheme was a dual hybridization using a rolling circle balanced dye swap design. Thus we had three to six biological replicates for each growth condition and two technical replicates for each biological sample.
Project description:This study was designed to identify changes in gene expression when corn was placed under various related stresses including being grown with a competing weed (canola) to the V4 or V8 stage, or when 40% shade cloth was present to the V4 or V8 stage, or under low nitrogen (no added nitrogen fertilizer), or under weed/shade free fertilized control conditions. In all 5 treatments and the control, samples were harvested at V8. Mechanisms underlying early season weed stress on crop growth are not well described. Corn vegetative growth and development, yield, and gene expression response to nitrogen (N), light (40% shade), and weed stresses were compared with the response of nonstressed plants. Vegetative parameters, including leaf area and biomass, were measured from V2 toV12 corn stages. Transcriptome (2008) or quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (q PCR) (2008/09) analyses examined differential gene expression in stressed versus nonstressed corn at V8. Vegetative parameters were impacted minimally by N stress although grain yield was 40% lower. Shade, present until V2, reduced biomass and leaf area > 50% at V2 and, at V12, recovering plants remained smaller than nonstressed plants. Grain yields of shade-stressed plants were similar to nonstressed controls, unless shade remained until V8. Growth and yield reductions due to weed stress in 2008 were observed when weeds remained until V6. In 2009, weed stress at V2 reduced vegetative growth, and weed stress until V4 or later reduced yield. Principle component analysis of differentially expressed genes indicated that shade and weed stress had more similar gene expression patterns to each other than to nonstressed or low N stressed tissues. Weed-stressed corn had 630 differentially expressed genes compared with the nonstressed control. Of these genes, 259 differed and 82 were shared with shade-stressed plants. Corn grown in N-stressed conditions shared 252 differentially expressed genes with weed-stressed plants. Ontologies associated with light/photosynthesis, energy conversion, and signaling were down-regulated in response to all three stresses. Although shade and weed stress clustered most tightly together, only three ontologies were shared by these stresses, O-methyltransferase activity (lignification processes), Poly U binding activity (post-transcriptional gene regulation), and stomatal movement. Based on both morphologic and genomic observations, results suggest that shade, N, and weed stresses to corn are regulated by both different and overlapping mechanisms. three biological replicates for each treatment and the control were collected and the resulting labeled cDNA was hybridized to the 46,000-element maize microarray chip developed by the University of Arizona using their protocol (International Microarray Workshop Handbook, 2009Gardiner et al. 2005). The hybridization scheme was a dual hybridization using a rolling circle balanced dye swap design. Thus we had thre biological replicates for each growth condition amd two technical replicates for each biological sample.
Project description:These experiments were to investigate changes in gene expression associated with maize competition for light when grown at double normal population density or under 60% shaded conditions as opposed to when maize is grown under normal field conditions. Three biological replicates (collected from separate field plots) comprised of pooled samples of 4 plants from each treatment were hybridized in a rolling circle dye swap hybridization screen.
Project description:Microarray analysis was performed on a well-defined set of potato tuber samples grown under different, well-recorded environmental conditions. The data were analysed to assess the potential of transcriptomics to detect differences in gene expression as a result of these environmental conditions. Differences were found for both factors, both in PCA and in ANOVA analysis. Factorial design; 1 potato cultivar (Sante); 2 fertilizers (organic, conventional); 2 crop protection treatments (organic, conventional), 4 biological replicates, 16 samples. Raw data files: columns 1 - 11 is Cy3, 12 - 21 is Cy5
Project description:Plant viruses are mostly transmitted by sucking insects via their piercing behaviors, which may differ due to host plant species and their developmental stages. We characterized the transmission of a fijivirus, southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus (SRBSDV), by the planthopper vector Sogatella furcifera Horváth (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), between rice and corn plants of varying developmental stages. SRBSDV was transmitted from infected rice to uninfected corn plants as efficiently as its transmission between rice plants, while was acquired by S. furcifera nymphs at a much lower rate from infected corn plants than from infected rice plants. We also recorded a high mortality of S. furcifera nymphs on corn plants. It is evident that young stages of both the virus donor and recipient plants added to the transmission efficiency of SRBSDV from rice to corn plants. Feeding behaviors of the vector recorded by electrical penetration graph showed that phloem sap ingestion, the behavioral event that is linked with plant virus acquisition, was impaired on corn plants, which accounts for the high mortality of and low virus acquisition by S. furcifera nymphs on corn plants. Our results reveal an asymmetric spread of SRBSDV between its two host plants and the underlying behavioral mechanism, which is of significance for assessing SRBSDV transmission risks and field epidemiology, and for developing integrated management approaches for SRBSDV disease.
Project description:To delay evolution of insect resistance to transgenic crops producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) toxins, nearby "refuges" of host plants not producing Bt toxins are required in many regions. Such refuges are expected to be most effective in slowing resistance when the toxin concentration in Bt crops is high enough to kill all or nearly all insects heterozygous for resistance. However, Bt corn, Zea mays, introduced recently does not meet this "high-dose" criterion for control of western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. A greenhouse method of rearing WCR on transgenic corn expressing the Cry3Bb1 protein was used in which approximately 25% of previously unexposed larvae survived relative to isoline survival (compared to 1-4% in the field). After three generations of full larval rearing on Bt corn (Constant-exposure colony), WCR larval survival was equivalent on Bt corn and isoline corn in greenhouse trials, and the LC(50) was 22-fold greater for the Constant-exposure colony than for the Control colony in diet bioassays with Cry3Bb1 protein on artificial diet. After six generations of greenhouse selection, the ratio of larval recovery on Bt corn to isoline corn in the field was 11.7-fold greater for the Constant-exposure colony than the Control colony. Removal from selection for six generations did not decrease survival on Bt corn in the greenhouse. The results suggest that rapid response to selection is possible in the absence of mating with unexposed beetles, emphasizing the importance of effective refuges for resistance management.
Project description:The coleopteran insect western corn rootworm (WCR, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera) is an economically important pest in North America and Europe. Transgenic corn plants producing Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) insecticidal proteins have been useful against this devastating pest, but evolution of resistance has reduced their efficacy. Here, we report the discovery of a novel insecticidal protein, PIP-47Aa, from an isolate of Pseudomonas mosselii. PIP-47Aa sequence shows no shared motifs, domains or signatures with other known proteins. Recombinant PIP-47Aa kills WCR, two other corn rootworm pests (Diabrotica barberi and Diabrotica undecimpunctata howardi) and two other beetle species (Diabrotica speciosa and Phyllotreta cruciferae), but it was not toxic to the spotted lady beetle (Coleomegilla maculata) or seven species of Lepidoptera and Hemiptera. Transgenic corn plants expressing PIP-47Aa show significant protection from root damage by WCR. PIP-47Aa kills a WCR strain resistant to mCry3A and does not share rootworm midgut binding sites with mCry3A or AfIP-1A/1B from Alcaligenes that acts like Cry34Ab1/Cry35Ab1. Our results indicate that PIP-47Aa is a novel insecticidal protein for controlling the corn rootworm pests.
Project description:Transgene spreading is a major concern in cultivating genetically modified (GM) corn. Cross-pollination may cause the spread of transgenes from GM cornfields to conventional fields. Occasionally, seed lot contamination, volunteers, mixing during sowing, harvest, and trade can also lead to transgene escape. Obviously, new biological confinement technologies are highly desired to mitigate transgene spreading in addition to physical separation and isolation methods. In this study, we report the development of a built-in containment method to mitigate transgene spreading in corn. In this method, an RNAi cassette for suppressing the expression of the nicosulfuron detoxifying enzyme CYP81A9 and an expression cassette for the glyphosate tolerant 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) gene G10 were constructed and transformed into corn via Agrobacterium-mediated transformation. The GM corn plants that were generated were found to be sensitive to nicosulfuron but resistant to glyphosate, which is exactly the opposite of conventional corn. Field tests demonstrated that GM corn plants with silenced CYP81A9 could be killed by applying nicosulfuron at 40 g/ha, which is the recommended dose for weed control in cornfields. This study suggests that this built-in containment method for controlling the spread of corn transgenes is effective and easy to implement.
Project description:Globally, gains in sweet corn [Zea mays L.var. rugosa (or saccharata)] are a fraction of the yield advances made in field corn (Zea mays L.) in the last half-century. Grain yield improvement of field corn is associated with increased tolerance to higher plant densities (i.e., crowding stress). Processing sweet corn hybrids that tolerate crowding stress have been identified; however, such hybrids appear to be under-planted in the processing sweet corn. Using crowding stress tolerant (CST) hybrids, the objectives of this study were to: (1) identify optimum plant densities for a range of growing conditions; (2) quantify gaps in production between current and optimum plant densities; and (3) enumerate changes in yield and ear traits when shifting from current to optimum plant densities. Using a CST shrunken-2 (sh2) processing sweet corn hybrid, on-farm plant density trials were conducted in thirty fields across the states of Illinois, Minnesota and Wisconsin, from 2013 to 2017 in order to capture a wide variety of growing conditions. Linear mixed-effects models were used to identify the optimum plant density corresponding to maximum ear mass (Mt ha-1), case production (cases ha-1), and profitability to the processor ($ ha-1). Kernel moisture, indicative of plant development, was unaffected by plant density. Ear traits, such as ear number and ear mass per plant, average ear length, and filled ear length declined linearly with increasing plant density. Nonetheless, there was a large economic benefit to the grower and processor by shifting to higher plant densities in most environments. This research shows that increasing plant densities of CST hybrids from current (58,475 plants ha-1) to optimum (73,075 plants ha-1) could improve processing sweet corn green ear yield and processor profitability on average of 1.13 Mt ha-1 and $525 ha-1, respectively.
Project description:The corn borer is a world-wide agricultural pest. In this study, a full-length neuropeptide F (npf) gene in Ostrinia furnacalis was sequenced and cloned from a cDNA library, in which the npf gene produces two splicing mRNA variants - npf1 and npf2 (with a 120?bp segment inserted into the npf1 sequence to generate npf2). A spatio-temporal expression analysis showed that the highest expression level of npf was in the midgut of 5th instar larvae (the gluttony period), and their npf expression and food consumption were significantly promoted after food deprivation for 6?h. When npf was knocked down by double-stranded RNA for NPF, larval food intake, weight and body size were effectively inhibited through changes of a biosynthesis and metabolism pathway; i.e. gene silencing of NPF causes decreases of total lipid and glycogen and increases of trehalose production. Moreover, we produced transgenic corn plants with stably expressed dsNPF. Results showed that O. furnacalis larvae fed on these transgenic leaves had lower food consumption and smaller body size compared to controls. These results indicate that NPF is important in the feeding control of O. furnacalis and valuable for production of potential transgenic corn.
Project description:BACKGROUND:Using the cross of wheat and maize is a very useful way to produce wheat haploid plants by chromosome elimination. Dwarf male sterile wheat (DMSW) and corn inducer are potential important germplasm for wheat breeding by recurrent selection and doubled haploid strategies. There is no report yet to achieve the haploid plants from DMSW induced by maize inbred line and especially the corn inducer. RESULTS:Haploid plants of DMSW were successfully obtained in this study induced by both maize pollens of inducer line and normal inbred line. The efficiencies for wheat embryos formation and plantlets production induced by the two corn lines had no significant difference. All the eleven haploid wheat plants derived from the male sterile material were identified by botanic appearance, cytology, cytogenetics, and molecular markers. They were all haploid based on their guard cell length of 42.78-42.90 ?m compared with the diploid control of 71.52 ?m, and their chromosome number of 21 compared with the diploid control of 42. In addition, according to anthers, plant height, and molecular markers, the haploid plants were divided into two types. Eight of them showed dwarf, having no anthers, and the special band of Rht10, and the other three plants displayed normal plant height, having anthers, and not containing the special band of Rht10, indicating that they were originated from the MS2/Rht10 and ms2/rht10 female gametes, respectively. CONCLUSIONS:MS2/Rht10 haploid plants were successfully obtained in this study by using corn inducer and inbred line, and will be employed as candidate materials for the potential cloning of MS2 dominant male gene.