Time-series of gene expression in female murine ES cells during EpiSC differentiation
ABSTRACT: Embryonic stem cells (ESC) are derived from the inner cell mass of the blastocyst in the presence of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF). In vivo these cells then differentiate into epi stem cells (EpiSC) that can be derived from the Epiblast in presence of Fgf2 and ActivinA. In this study, female ESCs cultured in 2i medium have been differentiated into EpiSC for 3.5 days in vitro by addition of Fgf2 and Activin A. The gene expression profile was analyzed every 4-12 h using mouse exon arrays. Mouse Pgk12.1 ES cells were differentiated into EpiSC, samples were taken every 4-12 hours for 84 hours in total
Project description:The requirements for self-renewal differ between EpiSCs and ES cells and the underlying mechanism is largely unknown. Here we show that mouse EpiSCs can be efficiently derived and robustly propagated even from single cells, using two small-molecule inhibitors: CHIR99021 and XAV939. The whole-genome microarray analyses is performed to confirm the identity of EpiSC maintained in CHIR/XAV by comparing the expression profile in EpiSC-CHIR/XAV to those in ESC maintained in 2i and EpiSC maintained in FGF2/activin. Total RNA from ESC-2i, EpiSC-CHIR/XAV, and EpiSC-FGF2/activin were extracted for microarray analisys
Project description:Carrying out both RNA-seq and Smad1/5 genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses of mESCs in the naïve or primed states, we revisit the roles of BMP signaling in mESCs. RNA-seq analysis in 2 cell types; mESCs and ES-derived EpiSC (ESD-EpiSCs).
Project description:The function of metabolic state in stemness is poorly understood. Mouse embryonic stem cells (ESC) and epiblast stem cells (EpiSC) are at distinct pluripotent states representing the inner cell mass (ICM) and epiblast embryos. Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) are similar to EpiSC stage. We now show a dramatic metabolic difference between these two stages. EpiSC/hESC are highly glycolytic, while ESC are bivalent in their energy production, dynamically switching from glycolysis to mitochondrial respiration on demand. Despite having a more developed and expanding mitochondrial content, EpiSC/hESC have low mitochondrial respiratory capacity due to low cytochrome c oxidase (COX) expression. Similarly, in vivo epiblasts suppress COX levels. These data reveal EpiSC/hESC functional similarity to the glycolytic phenotype in cancer (Warburg effect). We further show that hypoxia-inducible factor 1? (HIF1?) is sufficient to drive ESC to a glycolytic Activin/Nodal-dependent EpiSC-like stage. This metabolic switch during early stem-cell development may be deterministic.
Project description:Presomitic mesoderm (PSM) cells are the precursors of the somites, which flank both sides of the neural tube and give rise to the musculo-skeletal system shaping the vertebrate body. WNT and FGF signalling control the formation of both the PSM and the somites, and show a graded distribution with highest levels in the posterior PSM. We have employed reporter for the PSM control gene Tbx6 to investigate the differentiation of mouse ESCs from the naĂŻve state to PSM state. Feeder-free ESCs were seeded and grown on fibronectin (3-5 ng/ml)-coated plates in ESC medium containing LIF, PD0325901 and CHIR99021 (2i medium) to bring them to a naive state of pluripotency. Following this, the cells were brought to an EpiSC state by treating them with Activin A and FGF2. The EpiSC-like cells were then differentiated to PSM using CHIR99021 either alone or along with FGF ligands, FGF2 or FGF8 (Low concentration: 10 ng/ml or High concentration: 250ng/ml).
Project description:Carrying out both RNA-seq and Smad1/5 genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation and sequencing (ChIP-seq) analyses of mESCs in the naïve or primed states, we revisit the roles of BMP signaling in mESCs. Smad1/5 binding sites in 2 cell types; mESCs and ES-derived EpiSC (ESD-EpiSCs).
Project description:Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) can contribute to the tissues of chimeric animals, including the germline. By contrast, epiblast stem cells (EpiSCs) barely contribute to chimeras. These two types of cells are established and maintained under different culture conditions. Here, we show that a modified EpiSC culture condition containing the GSK3 inhibitor CHIR99021 can support a germline-competent pluripotent state that is intermediate between ESCs and EpiSCs. When ESCs were cultured under a modified condition containing bFGF, Activin A, and CHIR99021, they converted to intermediate pluripotent stem cells (INTPSCs). These INTPSCs were able to form teratomas in vivo and contribute to chimeras by blastocyst injection. We also induced formation of INTPSCs (iINTPSCs) from mouse embryonic fibroblasts by exogenous expression of four reprogramming factors, Oct3/4, Sox2, Klf4, and c-Myc, under the INTPSC culture condition. These iINTPSCs contributed efficiently to chimeras, including the germline, by blastocyst injection. The INTPSCs exhibited several characteristic properties of both ESCs and EpiSCs. Our results suggest that the modified EpiSC culture condition can support growth of cells that meet the most stringent criteria for pluripotency, and that germline-competent pluripotency may depend on the activation state of Wnt signaling.
Project description:Pluripotent Embryonic Stem cell (ESC) lines can be derived from a variety of sources. Mouse lines derived from the early blastocyst and from primordial germ cells (PGCs) can contribute to all somatic lineages and to the germ line, whereas cells from slightly later embryos (EpiSC) no longer contribute to the germ line. In chick, pluripotent ESCs can be obtained from PGCs and from early blastoderms. Established PGC lines and freshly isolated blastodermal cells (cBC) can contribute to both germinal and somatic lineages but established lines from the former (cESC) can only produce somatic cell types. For this reason, cESCs are often considered to be equivalent to mouse EpiSC. To define these cell types more rigorously, we have performed comparative microarray analysis to describe a transcriptomic profile specific for each cell type. This is validated by real time RT-PCR and in situ hybridisation. We find that both cES and cBC cells express classic pluripotency-related genes (including cPOUV/OCT4, NANOG, SOX2/3, KLF2 and SALL4), whereas expression of DAZL, DND1, DDX4 and PIWIL1 defines a molecular signature for germ cells. Surprisingly, contrary to the prevailing view, our results also suggest that cES cells resemble mouse ES cells more closely than mouse EpiSC.
Project description:Transcriptional profiling of mouse embryonic, epiblast-derived, stem cells (epiSC). epiSC differentiated towards the dopaminergic phenotype were compared to control untreated epiSC. EpiSc were derived from a Pitx3-GFP mouse allowing visualization of dopaminergic (GFP+) differentiation efficiency. Overall design: EpiSC derived from Pitx3-GFP mice were differentiated for fourteen days. Dopaminergic diffferentiation starts at day 5 with the addition of morphogens SHH and FGF8. Control cells were growth in absence of morphogens. Samples were collected in triplicate at day 5 (before the addition of SHH/FGF) and at day 9 and day 14 for both control and treated cells.
Project description:Small-RNA profiling of mouse embryonic, epiblast-derived, stem cells (epiSC). epiSC differentiated towards the dopaminergic phenotype were compared to control untreated epiSC. EpiSc were derived from a Pitx3-GFP mouse allowing visualization of dopaminergic (GFP+) differentiation efficiency. Overall design: EpiSC derived from Pitx3-GFP mice were differentiated for fourteen days. Dopaminergic diffferentiation starts at day 5 with the addition of morphogens SHH and FGF8. Control cells were growth in absence of morphogens. Samples were collected in triplicate at day 5 (before the addition of SHH/FGF) and at day 9 and day 14 for both control and treated cells.
Project description:To characterize molecular features of new EpiSC lines established by the Wnt inhibition method, global gene expression profiles of the EpiSC lines were determined by microarray, and compared to those of EpiSC lines established by other group using the conventional method. Epiblasts, the source of the EpiSCs, and mESCs were also analyzed. EpiSCs and mESC were maintained as undifferentiated state on feeder layers. The stem cells were then separated from feeders, and RNAs were extracted from the stem cell lines. Embryonic tissues were manually dissected out from mouse embryos of E5.5, E6.5 or E7.5, from which RNAs were extracted.