Analysis of 22G siRNA triggered siRNA amplification and 3' 2'-O-methylated small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans
ABSTRACT: Small RNAs, including piRNAs, miRNAs and endogenous siRNAs, bind Argonaute proteins to form RNA-silencing complexes that target coding genes, transposons and aberrant RNAs. To assess the requirements for endogenous siRNA formation and activity in C. elegans, we developed a GFP-based sensor for the endogenous siRNA 22G siR-1, one of a set of abundant siRNAs processed from a precursor RNA mapping to the X chromosome, the X-cluster. Silencing of the sensor is also dependent on the partially complementary, unlinked 26G siR-O7 siRNA. We show that 26G siR-O7 acts in trans to initiate 22G siRNA formation from the X-cluster. The presence of several mispairs between 26G siR-O7 and the X-cluster mRNA, as well as mutagenesis of the siRNA sensor, indicates that siRNA target recognition is permissive to a degree of mispairing. From a candidate reverse genetic screen, we identified several factors required for 22G siR-1 activity, including the Argonaute ergo-1 and the 3' methyltransferase henn-1. Quantitative RT-PCR of small RNAs in a henn-1 mutant and deep sequencing of methylated small RNAs indicate that siRNAs and piRNAs that associate with PIWI clade Argonautes are methylated by HENN-1, while siRNAs and miRNAs that associate with non-PIWI clade Argonautes are not. Thus, PIWI-class Argonaute proteins are specifically adapted to associate with methylated small RNAs in C. elegans. This SuperSeries is composed of the following subset Series: GSE34320: Analysis of 22G siRNA triggered siRNA amplification in Caenorhabditis elegans GSE34321: Analysis of 3' 2'-O-methylated small RNAs in Caenorhabditis elegans Refer to individual Series
Project description:To determine if an endogenous 22G siRNA sensor transgene is subject to siRNA amplification, small RNAs were deep sequenced from the sensor and from a control transgene that is identical to the sensor but lacks an siRNA target site. Small RNAs were isolated from synchronized young adult C. elegans and subjected to deep sequencing.
Project description:Small endogenous C. elegans RNAs from L4 and young adult worms were prepared for sequencing using a protocol derived from Batista et al., (2008) and Lau et al. (2001). The small-RNA libraries were constructed using a method that does not require a 5’ monophosphate (called 5’ monophosphate-independent method, Ambros et al., 2003) to profile secondary siRNAs that have 5’ triphosphorylated G. All preprocessed small-RNA reads were mapped to genome (ce6), allowing no mismatches. After excluding miRNAs, 21U RNAs, rRNAs, and other structural ncRNAs, the remaining reads were classified as 22G RNAs, 26G RNAs, and other siRNAs, based on their length and 5′ terminal nucleotide. Small-RNA libraries were sequenced in L4 and young adult stages in C.elegans.
Project description:To determine if an endogenous 22G siRNA sensor transgene is subject to siRNA amplification, small RNAs were deep sequenced from the sensor and from a control transgene that is identical to the sensor but lacks an siRNA target site. Overall design: Small RNAs were isolated from synchronized young adult C. elegans and subjected to deep sequencing.
Project description:Here we examine the role of mRNA splicing in Caenorhabditis elegans RNAi. We find that viable null mutations in U1 and U2-snRNP-specific splicing factor genes cause defects in RNAi. The U1A orthologue rnp-2 is required for normal ERGO-1 Argonaute-class 26G siRNA biogenesis, trans-splicing of the eri-6/7 transcript and targeting of poorly conserved gene transcripts by WAGO Argonaute-class 22G siRNAs. We find that poorly spliced gene transcripts engaged by the siRNA generating machinery are poorly conserved, possess few introns, and often have introns that are divergent from introns found in highly conserved genes. Overall design: Analysis of small RNA populations in wildtype and splicing mutant embryos using next-generation sequencing
Project description:The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans contains each of the broad classes of eukaryotic small RNAs, including microRNAs (miRNAs), endogenous small-interfering RNAs (endo-siRNAs) and piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs). To better understand the evolution of these regulatory RNAs, we deep sequenced small RNAs from C. elegans and three closely related nematodes: C. briggsae, C. remanei and C. brenneri. The results reveal a fluid landscape of small RNA pathways with essentially no conservation of individual sequences aside from a subset of miRNAs. We identified 52 miRNA families that are conserved in each of the four species as well as numerous miRNAs that are species specific or shared between only two or three species. Despite a lack of conservation of individual piRNAs and siRNAs many of the features of each pathway, including genomic distribution, are conserved. We show that in each species, 26G siRNAs trigger stage-specific secondary siRNA formation. We also observe that piRNAs trigger siRNA formation from targets containing up to three mismatches in each species. Finally, we show that nematodes produce two distinct sex-specific classes of piRNAs, suggesting different roles for piRNAs in male and female germlines. Sequencing small RNAs from four Caenorhabditis species: C. elegans, C. briggsae, C. remanei and C. brenneri
Project description:Diverse naturally-occurring small RNA species interact with Argonaute proteins to mediate sequence-specific regulation in animals. In addition to micro-RNAs (miRNAs), which collectively regulate thousands of target mRNAs, other endogenous small RNA species include the Piwi-associated piRNAs that are important for fertility and a less well-characterized class of small RNAs often referred to simply as endo-siRNAs. Here we have utilized deep-sequencing technology and C. elegans genetics to explore the biogenesis and function of endo-siRNAs. We describe conditional alleles of the dicer-related helicase, drh-3, that implicate DRH-3 in both the response to foreign dsRNA as well as the RNA-dependent RNA Polymerase (RdRP)-dependent biogenesis of a diverse class of endogenous small RNAs, termed 22G-RNAs. We show that 22G-RNAs are abundantly expressed in the germline and maternally inherited and are the products of at least two distinct 22G-RNA systems. One system is dependent on worm-specific AGOs, including WAGO-1, which localizes to germline nuage-related structures termed P-granules. The WAGO 22G-RNA system silences transposons, pseudogenes and cryptic loci as well as a number of genes. Finally, we demonstrate that components of the nonsense-mediated decay pathway function in at least one of the multiple, distinct WAGO surveillance pathways. These findings broaden our understanding of the biogenesis and diversity of 22G-RNA species and suggest potential novel regulatory functions for these small RNAs. 18 samples examined. Small RNA libraries generated from: C. elegans animals with mutations in the WAGO pathway and a WAGO-1 immunopercipitate.
Project description:Adenosine deaminases that act on RNA (ADARs) are RNA editing enzymes that convert adenosine to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). To evaluate effects of ADARs on small RNAs that derive from dsRNA precursors, we performed deep-sequencing, comparing small RNAs from wildtype and ADAR mutant C. elegans. While editing in small RNAs was rare, at least 40% of microRNAs had altered levels in at least one ADAR mutant strain, and miRNAs with significantly altered levels had mRNA targets with correspondingly affected levels. About 40% of siRNAs derived from endogenous genes (endo-siRNAs) also had altered levels in at least one mutant strain, including 63% of Dicer-dependent endo-siRNAs. The 26G class of endo-siRNAs was significantly affected by ADARs, and many altered 26G loci had intronic reads, and histone modifications associated with transcriptional silencing. Our data indicate ADARs, through both direct and indirect mechanisms, are important for maintaining wildtype levels of many small RNAs in C. elegans. Deep sequencing of small RNAs in wild-type (N2), adr-1 null, adr-2 null and adr-1;adr-2 null mixed stage C. elegans
Project description:Eukaryotic cells express several classes of small RNAs that regulate gene expression and ensure genome maintenance. Endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) mainly control gene and transposon expression in the germline, while microRNAs (miRNAs) generally function in post-transcriptional gene silencing in both somatic and germline cells. To provide an evolutionary and developmental perspective on small RNA pathways in nematodes, we identified and characterized known and novel small RNA classes through gametogenesis and embryo development in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and compared them with known small RNAs of Caenorhabditis elegans. piRNAs, Piwi-clade Argonautes, and other proteins associated with the piRNA pathway have been lost in Ascaris. miRNAs are synthesized immediately following fertilization in utero, prior to pronuclear fusion, and before the first cleavage of the zygote. This is the earliest expression of small RNAs ever described at a developmental stage long thought to be transcriptionally quiescent. A comparison of the two classes of Ascaris endo-siRNAs, 22G-RNAs and 26G-RNAs, to those in C. elegans, suggests great diversification and plasticity in the use of small RNA pathways during spermatogenesis in different nematodes. Our data reveal conserved characteristics of nematode small RNAs as well as features unique to Ascaris that illustrate significant flexibility in the use of small RNAs pathways, some of which are likely an adaptation to Ascaris’ life cycle and parasitism. We generated transcriptomes from Ascaris germline and embryos for de-novo assembly as well as cDNA expression profiles. Two types of libraries were prepared: 1) sheared, full-length cDNA synthesized using a combination of oligo-dT and random hexamer priming and 2) cDNA prepared from RNA first chemically sheared and then double-stranded cDNA prepared using ramom hexamer priming.
Project description:Argonaute (AGO) proteins interact with distinct classes of small RNAs to direct multiple regulatory outcomes. In many organisms, including plants, fungi and nematodes, cellular RNAdependent RNA polymerases (RdRPs) utilize AGO targets as templates for amplification of silencing signals. Here, we show that distinct RdRPs function sequentially to produce small RNAs that target endogenous loci in C. elegans. We show that DCR-1, the RdRP RRF-3, and the dsRNA-binding protein RDE-4, are required for the biogenesis of 26nt RNAs, termed 26GRNAs, and that 26G-RNAs engage the Piwi-clade AGO, ERGO-1. Our findings support a model in which targeting by ERGO-1 recruits a second RdRP (RRF-1 or EGO-1), which in turn transcribes 22G-RNAs that interact with worm-specific AGOs (WAGOs) to direct gene silencing. ERGO-1 targets exhibit a non-random distribution in the genome and appear to include many gene duplications, suggesting that this pathway may control over-expression resulting from gene expansion. 8 samples examined. Small RNA libraries generated from: C. elegans animals.
Project description:Endogenous small RNAs (endo-siRNAs) interact with Argonaute (AGO) proteins to mediate sequence-specific regulation of diverse biological processes. Here, we combine deep-sequencing and genetic approaches to explore the biogenesis and function of endo-siRNAs in C. elegans. We describe conditional alleles of the dicer-related helicase, drh-3, that abrogate both RNA interference and the biogenesis of endo-siRNAs, called 22G-RNAs. DRH-3 is a core component of RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP) complexes essential for several distinct 22G-RNA systems. We show that in the germ-line, one system is dependent on worm-specific AGOs, including WAGO-1, which localizes to germ-line nuage structures called P-granules. WAGO-1 silences certain genes, transposons, pseudogenes and cryptic loci. Finally, we demonstrate that components of the nonsense-mediated decay pathway function in at least one WAGO-mediated surveillance pathway. These findings broaden our understanding of the biogenesis and diversity of 22G-RNAs and suggest novel regulatory functions for small RNAs. Overall design: Total RNA was extracted from C. elegans drh-3(ne4253) and wild type animals