Influence of Interferon-beta on expression profile of memory T-cells
ABSTRACT: Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that control the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1beta. Inflammasomes play an important role in the control of immunity to tumors and infections, and also in autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms controlling the activation of human inflammasomes are largely unknown. We found that human activated CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells specifically suppress P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, without affecting P2X7R-independent NLRP3 or NLRP1 inflammasome activation. The concomitant increase in pro-IL-1β production induced by activated memory T-cells concealed this effect. Priming with IFNβ decreased pro-IL-1β production in addition to NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition and thus unmasked the inhibitory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. IFNβ did not suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation by acting directly on monocytes. The inhibition of pro-IL-1β production and suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by IFNβ-primed human CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells is partly mediated by soluble FasL and is associated with down-regulated P2X7R mRNA expression and reduced response to ATP in monocytes. CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients showed a reduced ability to suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation, however their suppressive ability was recovered following in vivo treatment with IFNβ. Thus, our data demonstrate that human P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation is regulated by activated CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells, and provide new information on the mechanisms mediating the therapeutic effects of IFNβ in MS. Memory T-cells were cultured in the presence of monocytes with and without Interferon-beta, resorted and expression profile was determined
Project description:Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that control the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1?. Inflammasomes play an important role in the control of immunity to tumors and infections, and also in autoimmune diseases, but the mechanisms controlling the activation of human inflammasomes are largely unknown. We found that human activated CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells specifically suppress P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation, without affecting P2X7R-independent NLRP3 or NLRP1 inflammasome activation. The concomitant increase in pro-IL-1? production induced by activated memory T-cells concealed this effect. Priming with IFN? decreased pro-IL-1? production in addition to NLRP3 inflammasome inhibition and thus unmasked the inhibitory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. IFN? suppresses NLRP3 inflammasome activation through an indirect mechanism involving decreased P2X7R signaling. The inhibition of pro-IL-1? production and suppression of NLRP3 inflammasome activation by IFN?-primed human CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells is partly mediated by soluble FasL and is associated with down-regulated P2X7R mRNA expression and reduced response to ATP in monocytes. CD4+CD45RO+ memory T-cells from multiple sclerosis (MS) patients showed a reduced ability to suppress NLRP3 inflammasome activation, however their suppressive ability was recovered following in vivo treatment with IFN?. Thus, our data demonstrate that human P2X7R-mediated NLRP3 inflammasome activation is regulated by activated CD4+CD45RO+ memory T cells, and provide new information on the mechanisms mediating the therapeutic effects of IFN? in MS.
Project description:Kainic acid (KA) treatment causes neuronal degeneration, which is a feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD) symptoms such as amyloid β-protein production and memory deficits. Inflammasomes are known to be critical for the progression of AD. However, the underlying mechanism by which inflammasomes influence AD progression remains unknown. The present study investigated the damaging effect of KA on neurons by focusing on the inflammasome-mediated signaling pathways. Assessments using cultured microglia and mouse brains demonstrated that KA treatment specifically induced inflammasome activation. Mechanistic evaluations showed that KA activated two major components of inflammasomes, nucleotide binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor (NLR) protein 3 (NLRP3) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB, which resulted in the production of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). Inhibition of NLRP3 or NF-κB by Bay11-7082 caused a reduction in the KA-induced expression of interleukin (IL)-1β and BDNF. Moreover, knockdown of the expression of KA receptors (KARs) such as Grik1 and Grik3 induced suppression of NLRP3 and NF-κB, suggesting that KARs function upstream of NLRP3 and NF-κB to mediate the effects of KA on regulation of IL-1β and BDNF expression. Notably, IL-1β was shown to exert positive effects on the expression of BACE1, which is blocked by Bay11-7082. Overall, our results revealed that Bay11-7082 acts against KA-induced neuronal degeneration, amyloid β-protein (Aβ) deposition, and memory defects via inflammasomes and further highlighted the protective role of Bay11-7082 in KA-induced neuronal defects.
Project description:Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) has been shown to promote vascular inflammation and atherosclerosis, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. The NLRP3 inflammasome has been identified as the cellular machinery responsible for activation of inflammatory processes. In this study, we hypothesized that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes contributes to HHcy-induced inflammation and atherosclerosis. ApoE-/- mice were fed regular chow, high-fat (HF) diet, or HF plus high methionine diet to induce HHcy. To assess the role of NLRP3 inflammasomes in HHcy-aggravated atherosclerosis, NLRP3 shRNA viral suspension was injected via tail vein to knock down the NLRP3 gene. Increased plasma levels of IL-1β and IL-18, aggravated macrophage infiltration into atherosclerotic lesions, and accelerated development of atherosclerosis were detected in HHcy mice as compared with control mice, and were associated with the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes. Silencing the NLRP3 gene significantly suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation, reduced plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, attenuated macrophage infiltration and improved HHcy-induced atherosclerosis. We also examined the effect of homocysteine (Hcy) on NLRP3 inflammasome activation in THP-1-differentiated macrophages in the presence or absence of NLRP3 siRNA or the caspase-1 inhibitor Z-WEHD-FMK. We found that Hcy activated NLRP3 inflammasomes and promoted subsequent production of IL-1β and IL-18 in macrophages, which were blocked by NLRP3 gene silencing or Z-WEHD-FMK. As reactive oxygen species (ROS) may have a central role in NLRP3 inflammasome activation, we next investigated whether antioxidant N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC) prevented Hcy-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation in macrophages. We found Hcy-induced NLRP3 inflammasome activation was abolished by NAC. Treatment with NAC in HHcy mice also suppressed NLRP3 inflammasome activation and improved HHcy-induced atherosclerosis. These data suggest that the activation of NLRP3 inflammasomes contributes to HHcy-aggravated inflammation and atherosclerosis in apoE-/- mice. Hcy activates NLRP3 inflammasomes in ROS-dependent pathway in macrophages. These results may have implication for the treatment of HHcy-associated cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Inflammasomes are multi-protein complexes that regulate maturation of the interleukin 1β-related cytokines IL-1β and IL-18 through activation of the cysteine proteinase caspase-1. NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) protein is a key component of inflammasomes that assemble in response to a wide variety of endogenous and pathogen-derived danger signals. Activation of the NLRP3-inflammasome and subsequent secretion of IL-1β is highly regulated by at least three processes: transcriptional activation of both NLRP3 and pro-IL-1β genes, non-transcriptional priming of NLRP3, and final activation of NLRP3. NLRP3 is predominantly expressed in cells of the hematopoietic lineage. Using a yeast two-hybrid screen, we identified the hematopoietic-restricted protein, G protein signaling modulator-3 (GPSM3), as a NLRP3-interacting protein and a negative regulator of IL-1β production triggered by NLRP3-dependent inflammasome activators. In monocytes, GPSM3 associates with the C-terminal leucine-rich repeat domain of NLRP3. Bone marrow-derived macrophages lacking GPSM3 expression exhibit an increase in NLRP3-dependent IL-1β, but not TNF-α, secretion. Furthermore, GPSM3-null mice have enhanced serum and peritoneal IL-1β production following Alum-induced peritonitis. Our findings suggest that GPSM3 acts as a direct negative regulator of NLRP3 function.
Project description:Inflammasomes form as the result of the intracellular presence of danger-associated molecular patterns and mediate the release of active IL-1β, which influences a variety of inflammatory responses. Excessive inflammasome activation results in severe inflammatory conditions, but physiological IL-1β secretion is necessary for intestinal homeostasis. Here, we have described a mechanism of NLRP3 inflammasome regulation by tyrosine phosphorylation of NLRP3 at Tyr861. We demonstrated that protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 22 (PTPN22), variants in which are associated with chronic inflammatory disorders, dephosphorylates NLRP3 upon inflammasome induction, allowing efficient NLRP3 activation and subsequent IL-1β release. In murine models, PTPN22 deficiency resulted in pronounced colitis, increased NLRP3 phosphorylation, but reduced levels of mature IL-1β. Conversely, patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that carried an autoimmunity-associated PTPN22 variant had increased IL-1β levels. Together, our results identify tyrosine phosphorylation as an important regulatory mechanism for NLRP3 that prevents aberrant inflammasome activation.
Project description:BACKGROUND:HIV-1 induces an uncontrolled inflammatory response of several immune components, such as inflammasomes. These molecular complexes, associated with Toll-like receptor (TLR) activity, induce the maturation and release of IL-1β and IL-18 and eventually induce pyroptosis. It has been previously demonstrated that HIV induces inflammasome activation, which is significantly lower in the gastrointestinal tissue and blood from people living with HIV-1 with spontaneous control of viral replication. Therefore, immunomodulatory agents could be useful in improving HIV prognosis. OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the potential inhibitory effect of sulfasalazine (SSZ) on inflammasomes and TLRs in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from people living with HIV and healthy donors. METHODS:PBMCs were obtained from 15 people living with HIV and 15 healthy donors. Cells were stimulated with agonists of TLRs and inflammasomes and subsequently treated with SSZ. The concentration of IL-1β and the relative expression of NLRP3, NLRC4, NLRP1, AIM2, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 were quantified. RESULTS:Cells treated with SSZ exhibited a decreased IL-1β production after inflammasome and TLR stimulation, as well as regulation of inflammasome-related genes, in both people with HIV and healthy individuals. The concentration of IL-1β was positively correlated with the CD4+ T-cell count and negatively with the viral load. CONCLUSION:Our results suggest that SSZ has an immunomodulatory effect on inflammasome and TLR activation that depends on the clinical HIV status.
Project description:IL-1β production is critically regulated by cytosolic molecular complexes, termed inflammasomes. Different inflammasome complexes have been described to date. While all inflammasomes recognize certain pathogens, it is the distinctive feature of NLRP3 inflammasome to be activated by many and diverse stimuli making NLRP3 the most versatile, and importantly also the most clinically implicated inflammasome. However, NLRP3 activation has remained the most enigmatic. It is not plausible that the intracellular NLRP3 receptor is able to detect all of its many and diverse triggers through direct interactions; instead, it is discussed that NLRP3 is responding to certain generic cellular stress-signals induced by the multitude of molecules that trigger its activation. An ever increasing number of studies link the sensing of cellular stress signals to a direct pathophysiological role of NLRP3 activation in a wide range of autoinflammatory and autoimmune disorders, and thus provide a novel mechanistic rational, on how molecules trigger and support sterile inflammatory diseases. A vast interest has created to unravel how NLRP3 becomes activated, since mechanistic insight is the prerequisite for a knowledge-based development of therapeutic intervention strategies that specifically target the NLRP3 triggered IL-1β production. In this review, we have updated knowledge on NLRP3 inflammasome assembly and activation and on the pyrin domain in NLRP3 that could represent a drug target to treat sterile inflammatory diseases. We have reported mutations in NLRP3 that were found to be associated with certain diseases. In addition, we have reviewed the functional link between NLRP3 inflammasome, the regulator of cellular redox status Trx/TXNIP complex, endoplasmic reticulum stress and the pathogenesis of diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Finally, we have provided data on NLRP3 inflammasome, as a critical regulator involved in the pathogenesis of obesity and cardiovascular diseases.
Project description:Inflammasomes are multi-protein signaling complexes that trigger the activation of inflammatory caspases and the maturation of interleukin-1β. Among various inflammasome complexes, the NLRP3 inflammasome is best characterized and has been linked with various human autoinflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Thus, the NLRP3 inflammasome may be a promising target for anti-inflammatory therapies. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of the mechanisms by which the NLRP3 inflammasome is activated in the cytosol. We also describe the binding partners of NLRP3 inflammasome complexes activating or inhibiting the inflammasome assembly. Our knowledge of the mechanisms regulating NLRP3 inflammasome signaling and how these influence inflammatory responses offers further insight into potential therapeutic strategies to treat inflammatory diseases associated with dysregulation of the NLRP3 inflammasome.
Project description:The placenta is essential for pregnancy and produces both pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. Excessive production of inflammatory cytokines, involving interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and IL-8, from placental tissues is associated with pregnancy complications. Olive leaf extract has several health benefits, including anti-inflammatory functions. OleaVita is a new commercial olive leaf extract; it is hypothesized to suppress placental inflammation. In human placental tissue culture, OleaVita treatment inhibited the secretion of inflammatory cytokines and NF-κB p65 protein expression. OleaVita also suppressed toll-like receptor ligands-induced IL-1β secretion in human placental tissues. IL-1β is regulated by the NLRP3 inflammasomes, a pivotal regulator of various diseases. OleaVita significantly decreased NLRP3 and pro-IL-1β protein expression, suggesting that it has an inhibitory effect on NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Thus, OleaVita is beneficial as an inhibitor of inflammation and NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and may be used as a supplement for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases.
Project description:Chlamydophila pneumoniae causes acute respiratory tract infections and has been associated with development of asthma and atherosclerosis. The production of IL-1β, a key mediator of acute and chronic inflammation, is regulated on a transcriptional level and additionally on a posttranslational level by inflammasomes. In the present study we show that C. pneumoniae-infected human mononuclear cells produce IL-1β protein depending on an inflammasome consisting of NLRP3, the adapter protein ASC and caspase-1. We further found that the small GTPase Rac1 is activated in C. pneumoniae-infected cells. Importantly, studies with specific inhibitors as well as siRNA show that Rac1 regulates inflammasome activation in C. pneumoniae-infected cells. In conclusion, C. pneumoniae infection of mononuclear cells stimulates IL-1β production dependent on a NLRP3 inflammasome-mediated processing of proIL-1β which is controlled by Rac1.