MicroRNA signatures of iPSCs and endoderm-derived tissues
ABSTRACT: MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that fine-tune gene expression, play multiple roles in the cell, including cell fate specification. We have analyzed the differential expression of miRNAs during fibroblast reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and endoderm induction in iPSCs upon treatment with high concentrations of Activin-A in reduced serum. During reprogramming, adult mouse fibroblasts are converted into cells that resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs) according to standard molecular and functional assays for pluripotency. The reprogrammed iPSCs assume an ESC-like miRNA signature, marked by the strong induction of pluripotency clusters miR-290-295 and miR-302/367 and conversely the downregulation of the let-7 family. On the other hand, endoderm induction in iPSCs results in the upregulation of 13 miRNAs. Given that the liver and the pancreas are common derivatives of the endoderm, the comparison of the expression levels of these 13 upregulated miRNAs with those in hepatocytes and pancreatic islets suggests a trend of miRNA upregulation in the endoderm tending towards an islet phenotype rather than that of a hepatocyte. These observations provide insights into how differentiation may be guided more efficiently towards the endoderm and further into the liver or pancreas. Moreover, we also report novel miRNAs enriched for each of the cell types analyzed. Stemloop RT-qPCR gene expression profiling. REPROGRAMMING: Differentially expressed miRNAs were determined between iPSCs (n=5 clones) and parent tail-tip fibroblasts (n=5) using mESCs R1 (n=3) and D3 (n=3). DIFFERENTIATION: Differentially expressed miRNAs were also analyzed in two iPSC clones upon treatment with Activin-A (n=2 each), and between primary mouse hepatocytes (n=3) and pancreatic islets (n=3).
Project description:Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has recently been recognized as a key element of cell invasion, migration, metastasis, and drug resistance in several types of cancer, including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Our aim was to clarify microRNA (miRNA) -related mechanisms underlying EMT followed by acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine-kinase inhibitor (EGFR-TKI) in NSCLC. MiRNA expression profiles were examined before and after transforming growth factor-beta1 (TGF-β1) exposure in four human adenocarcinoma cell lines with or without EMT. Correlation between expressions of EMT-related miRNAs and resistance to EGFR-TKI gefitinib was evaluated. MiRNA array and quantitative RT-PCR revealed that TGF-β1 significantly induced overexpression of miR-134, miR-487b, and miR-655, which belong to the same cluster located on chromosome 14q32, in lung adenocarcinoma cells with EMT. MAGI2 (membrane-associated guanylate kinase, WW and PDZ domain-containing protein 2), a predicted target of these miRNAs and a scaffold protein required for PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog), was diminished in A549 cells with EMT after the TGF-β1 stimulation. Overexpression of miR-134 and miR-487b promoted the EMT phenomenon and affected the drug resistance to gefitinib, whereas knockdown of these miRNAs inhibited the EMT process and reversed TGF-β1-induced resistance to gefitinib. Our study demonstrated that the miR-134/487b/655 cluster contributed to the TGF-β1-induced EMT phenomenon and affected the resistance to gefitinib by directly targeting MAGI2, whose suppression subsequently caused loss of PTEN stability in lung cancer cells. The miR-134/miR-487b/miR-655 cluster may be new therapeutic targets in advanced lung adenocarcinoma patients, depending on the EMT phenomenon. miRNA expression profiles before and after TGF-β1 exposure were assessed in the four lung adenocarcinoma cell lines, A549, LC2/ad, PC3, and, PC9 by TaqMan miRNA arrays. Relative ratios of miRNAs in cells after TGF-β1 exposure were calculated when compared with the cells before TGF-β1 exposure.
Project description:Adult human ependymal and ventral horn regions were obtained from postmortem frozen samples by Laser Capture Microdissection. Briefly, Cryostat 25 micron sections from were stained with toluidin blue and both regions microdissected and collected on eppendorf (n=4 for each region). Samples mRNA concentration and purity was assessed by electrophoresis (BioRad Experion HighSensitivity kit, USA). RQI values were lower than 6,5 in every case, so that purification was followed by 2 cycle amplification with a kit designed for highly degraded samples (ExpressArt® TRinucleotide mRNA Amplification Kit; #6299-A15, AmpTec, AMSBIO, UK). After amplification, mRNA concentration and purity was assessed both by electrophoresis (BioRad Experion StSens kit, USA) and by spectrophotometry (Nanodrop, Thermo Scientific, USA). We amplified 3.7-37 ng of total RNA, obtaining between 6 and 21 µg of mRNA after 2 rounds. After collecting samples and studying the RNA integrity and quantity, cDNA of samples was selected for gene expression assays using 384 wells Custom Taqman Low Density Arrays. We built arrays with genes belonging to a profile of stemness or ependymoma (see Garcia-Ovejero et al., 2015, BRAIN). Taqman based qPCR gene expression profiling. Ependymal and ventral horn regions obtained by LCMD from four different individuals each were used to establish genes involved in stem cell niches or in ependymoma phenotype that are enriched in control human ependyma using ventral horn as a non-ependymary, non-neurogenic region. Samples were treated as stated in the summary. Equal amount of amplified RNA (aRNA; 25ng, corresponding approximately to 500ng total RNA) from each donor was used in Custom Designed Taqman Low Density Arrays. Every value is the resultant of duplicates at least, but most of them have been assayed 4 times.
Project description:Purification of mouse mRNAs encoding signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (Stat3) identified many miRNAs using multiplex miRNA array in RAW264.7 cells. To investigate the miRNAs targeting to mouse Stat3 gene in macrophage cells, we performed a protocol miRIP to affinity purify the miRNAs from an endogenous segment of Stat3 mRNA using nucleic acid hybridization and use multiplex miRNA array to identify the associated miRNAs.
Project description:Candidate genes were successfully screened by Cancer PathwayFinder PCR Array Cancer PathwayFinder PCR Array was applied to compare gene changes in xenograft tumor samples of HCC model. A total of 12 samples were examined with 6 from Sorafenib treated group and 6 from control.
Project description:Global miRNA expression profiling of human malignancies is gaining popularity in both basic and clinically driven research. But to date, the majority of such analyses have used microarrays and quantitative real-time PCR. With the introduction of digital count technologies, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS) and the NanoString nCounter System, we have at our disposal, many more options. To make effective use of these different platforms, the strengths and pitfalls of several miRNA profiling technologies were assessed, including a microarray platform, NGS technologies and the NanoString nCounter System. These results were compared to gold-standard quantitative real-time PCR. Comparison of non-small cell lung cancer cell lines grown in vitro (n = 5) and in vivo (n = 5) as xenograft models.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are important in the regulation of many biological processes such as growth and development. To evaluate the role of miRNAs in skeletal muscle regeneration, global miRNA expression was measured during muscle cell growth and differentiation. Primary cultures of murine myogenic progenitor cells (MPC) were studied for miRNA expression using quantitative PCR-array. During MPC differentiation or proliferation, 139 or 16 miRNAs, respectively, exhibited significant >2-fold changes. Cluster analysis revealed 5 distinct miRNA expression patterns at different stages of differentiation. Fourteen miRNAs exhibiting >10-fold change during differentiation included miR-1, 10b, 96, 98, 133a, 139-5p, 330, 335-3p, 339-5p, 344, 486, 499, 504, and 598. Ten of these miRNAs were located in introns of protein coding genes, such as miR-499 located in the myosin heavy chain isoform Myh7b. In silico analysis of possible miRNA-mRNA interactions indicated that many of these miRNAs targeted mRNA critically involved in muscle differentiation. Interestingly, several miRNAs targeted different sites in a given mRNA, suggesting coordinated expression of multiple miRNAs to ensure the regulation of essential genes. These results identify differentially expressed miRNAs that could represent new regulatory elements in MPC proliferation and differentiation. Myogenic progenitor cell (MPC) growth and differentiation are key elements duing muscle regeneration. Using defined culture conditions to promote proliferation or differentiation, we profiled miRNA expression in primary cultures of murine MPC.
Project description:Simple steatosis (SS) and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) are subtypes of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease. The difference in pathogenesis between SS and NASH is still not clear. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, non-coding short RNAs that regulate gene expression. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship of miRNA expression profiles with SS and NASH in animal models and humans. Animal models DD Shionogi (DS), Fatty Liver Shionogi (FLS Wild; W), and FLS ob/ob mice were subjected as the normal control, SS model and NASH model, respectively. Male DS mice (Riken BRC No. 03706) were provided by Riken bio-resource center through the national bio-resource project of Japan. Male FLS W and male FLS-ob/ob mice were obtained from Shionogi research laboratories (Shiga, Japan). Animals were housed in a room maintained at a controlled temperature of 24 ± 2 ˚C under a 12-h light-dark cycle. Animals were provided ad libitum access to water and standard pellet feed. Five male mice of every strain (24 weeks old; mean body weight of DS, FLS W and FLS-ob/ob were 31.1 ± 1.1g, 38.4 ± 3.4g and 56.0 ± 5.0g, respectively) were sacrificed under pentobarbital anesthesia by whole blood collection from the right ventricle. The livers were cut into about 200 mg pieces and fixed in 10% formalin for histological analysis or fresh-frozen in liquid nitrogen and stored at -80 °C in a freezer until use. miRNA expression analysis Total RNAs in mouse liver were isolated using TrizolReagent (Life Technologies, California, USA) as described the manufacturer’s protocol. The quality of total RNA samples was checked by applying the RNA Integrity Number (RIN) which is calculated by a proprietary algorithm of the Agilent 2100 Bioanalyzer expert software (Agilent technologies, CA, USA). Only high quality RNA, with RNA integrity number (RIN) greater than 8 and A260/280 and A260/230 greater than 1.8, will be considered for microarray analysis. TaqMan® Array Rodent MicroRNA A Card v2.0 (Thermo Fisher Scientific, MA, USA) was used to assess 375 miRNA expression profiles in mouse liver tissue.
Project description:miRNA expression profiling was performed on MM.1S MM cells cultured 8 hours in control media or 50nM RGB-286638, with or without BMSCs. The emerging role of miRNAs in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) led us to hypothesize that the miRNA network might be among the inducible transcriptional alterations consequent to MM-bone marrow stromal cell (BMSC) interactions. Our data suggests that BMSC induced MM transcription led to aberrant miRNA expression. We therefore hypothesized that agents interfering with RNAPII transcription might inhibit aberrant miRNA expression in MM. To test this hypothesis we used RGB-286638, a novel protein kinase inhibitor, which works primarily via RNAPII inhibition followed by transcriptional arrest in MM cells. miRNA profiling of RGB-286638-exposed MM cells resulted in RNAPII arrest associated with reduced miRNA levels. RGB-286638 abrogated BMSCs-induced miRNAs, which correlated with growth arrest in MM cells. Analysis of RGB-286638-induced differentially-expressed miRNAs in MM cells, in the presence or absence of BMSCs, revealed RNAPII regulation of expression of BMSC-inducible miRNAs with established oncogenic functions in MM Our findings demonstrate the role of RNAPII in regulating miRNA network, suggesting a new rationale for using agents interfering with RNAPII transcription in the treatment of MM. TaqMan Low-Density Array (TLDA) using human miRNA version 2.0A and version 3.0B cards (Applied Biosystems) were applied to examine the global change of miRNA expression levels in MM.1S cells when co-cultured with BMSCs, with or without RGB-286638 treatment. A total of 756 mature miRNA updated in the Sanger miRBase v.15.0 were quantified according to the manufacturer's instructions as previously described. miRNAs with Ct values higher than 37 were excluded from the analysis. Normalization was carried out with the mean of RNU44 and RNU48. Relative quantification of miRNA expression was calculated with the 2−ΔΔCt Ct method using the ddCt program (Shannon McCormack Advanced Molecular Diagnostics Laboratory Research Services). The data was presented as log10 of the relative quantity of each miRNA.
Project description:MicroRNAs (miRNAs), small non-coding RNAs that fine-tune gene expression, play multiple roles in the cell, including cell fate specification. We have analyzed the differential expression of miRNAs during fibroblast reprogramming into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and endoderm induction in iPSCs upon treatment with high concentrations of Activin-A in reduced serum. During reprogramming, adult mouse fibroblasts are converted into cells that resemble embryonic stem cells (ESCs) according to standard molecular and functional assays for pluripotency. The reprogrammed iPSCs assume an ESC-like miRNA signature, marked by the strong induction of pluripotency clusters miR-290-295 and miR-302/367 and conversely the downregulation of the let-7 family. On the other hand, endoderm induction in iPSCs results in the upregulation of 13 miRNAs. Given that the liver and the pancreas are common derivatives of the endoderm, the comparison of the expression levels of these 13 upregulated miRNAs with those in hepatocytes and pancreatic islets suggests a trend of miRNA upregulation in the endoderm tending towards an islet phenotype rather than that of a hepatocyte. These observations provide insights into how differentiation may be guided more efficiently towards the endoderm and further into the liver or pancreas. Moreover, we also report novel miRNAs enriched for each of the cell types analyzed. Overall design: Stemloop RT-qPCR gene expression profiling. REPROGRAMMING: Differentially expressed miRNAs were determined between iPSCs (n=5 clones) and parent tail-tip fibroblasts (n=5) using mESCs R1 (n=3) and D3 (n=3). DIFFERENTIATION: Differentially expressed miRNAs were also analyzed in two iPSC clones upon treatment with Activin-A (n=2 each), and between primary mouse hepatocytes (n=3) and pancreatic islets (n=3).
Project description:We addressed the potential for global regulation of miRNA biogenesis by BDNF using miRNA arrays that selectively measure mature miRNA, as opposed to pre-miRNA. Hippocampal neurons were treated with BDNF for 30 min in the presence of Actinomycin-D to assess changes due to processing of existing pre-miRNAs rather than new pre-miRNA production. We used Applied Biosystems 7900HT Fast Real-Time PCR system using Taqman Rodent MicroRNA Array A. Data is from three paired BDNF and Mock experiments (1,2,3). Each array (TaqMan) contained 375 rodent miRNA targets of which 195 were detectable in hippocampus in three independent paired experiments.